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J. MUIE, D.C.L., LL.D., PH.D. 












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Arthepsavah rishayo devaias chhandobhir abhyadhavan \ 


" Rishis, seeking to obtain the various objects of their desire, 
hastened to the deities with metrical compositions." 

(See p. 21 1 of this volume.) 


M % c i<r 

V. 3 ' 




THE object which I have had in view in the series of 
of treatises which this volume forms a part, has been to 
investigate critically the most important points in the 
civil and religious history of the Hindus. Having shown 
in the First Volume that the mythical and legendary ac- 
counts given in the Puranas, etc., regarding the origin of 
the caste system which has long prevailed in India, are 
mutually contradictory and insufficient to establish the 
early existence of the popular belief regarding the distinct 
creation of four separate tribes, as an original* and essen- 
tial article of the Brahmanical creed ; and having en- 
deavoured to prove, in the Second Volume, by a variety 
of arguments, drawn chiefly from comparative philology 
and from the; contents of the Eigveda, that the Hindus 
are descended from a branch of the Indo-European 
stock^ which dwelt originally along with the other cog- 
nate rac8^ in Central Asia, and subsequently migrated 
into Northern Hindustan, w&ere the Brahmanical reli- 
gion and institutions were developed and matured; I 
now aome, in this Third Volume, to consider more par- 
ticularly the history of the Vedas, regarded as the sacred 
Scriptures of the Hindus, and the inspired source from- 
which their religious and philosophical systems (though, 


to a great extent, founded also on reasoning and specu- 
lation) profess to be mainly derived; or with which, at 
least, they all claim to be in harmony. 

When I speak, however, of the history of the Veda, I 
am reminded that I am employing a term : which will 
suggest to the philosophical reader the ides of a minute 
and systematic account of the various opinions which 
the Indians have held in regard to their sacred books 
from the commencement, through all the successive 
stages of their theological development, down to the 
present time. To do anything like this, however, would 
be a task demanding an extent of research far exceeding 
any to which I can pretend. At some future time, in- 
deed, we may hope that a history of the theological and 
speculative ideas of the Indians, which shall treat this 
branch also of the subject, may be written by some com- 
petent scholar. My own design is much more modest. 
I only attempt to show what are the opinions, on the 
subject of the Yeda, which have been entertained by 
certain distinct sets of writers whom I may broadly 
divide into three classes {!) the mythological, (2) the 
scholastic, and (3) the Yedic. 

The first, or /mythological class, embraces the writers 
of the different Puranas and Itihasas, and partially those 
of the Brahmanas and Uppnishads, who, like the com- 
pilers of the Puranas, frequently combine the mytho- 
logical with the theosophic element. 

The second, or scholastic class, includes the authors of 
the different philosophical schools, or Darsanas, with 
thefc scholiasts and expositors, and the commentators 


on the Vedas. The whole of these writers belong to 
the class of systematic or philosophical theologians ; but 
as their speculative principles differ, it is the object of 
each particular school to explain and establish the origin 
aricUauthoiaty of the Vedas on grounds'* conformable to 
its own fundamental dogmas, as well as to expound the 

doctrines of the sacred books 'in such a way as to har- 

' > } 

monize with its own special tenets. * 9 

The third class of writers, whose opinions in regard to 
the Vedas I have attempted to exhibit, is composed (1) 
of the rishis themselves, the authors of the Vedic hymns, 
and (2) of the authors of the Upanishads, which, though 
works of a much more recent' date, and for the most part 
of a different character from the hymns, are yet regarded 
by later Indian writers as forming, equally with the 
latter, a part of the Veda. As the authors of the hymns, 
the earliest of them at least, lived in an age of simple 
conceptions and of spontaneous and childlike devotion, 
we shall find that, though some of them appear, in con- 
formity with the spirit* of their times, to have regarded 
their compositions as iA a certain degree the result of 
divine inspiration, their primitive an,d elementary ideas 
on this subject form a strong contrast to the artificial 
and systematic definitions of theMater scholastic writers, 
ji^jid even the authors of the Upanishads, though they, 
in a more distinct manner, claim a superhuman authority 
for tjieir owisr productions, are very far from recognizing 
the rig^d classification which, at a subsequent period, di- 
vided the Vedic writings from all other religious works, 
by a broad line of demarcation. , 

viii PREFACE. 


It may conduce to the convenience of the reader, if I 
furnish here a brief survey jof the opinions of the three 
classes of writers above described, in regard to the Yedas, 

1 *" C 

as these opinions are" shown in the passages which are 
collected in the present volume. ( c * 

The first chapter (pp. 1-217) contains texts exhibiting 
the opinions on the origin; division, inspiration, and au- 
thority of the Yedas; which have been held by Ifidian 
authors shortly before, or subsequent to, the collection of 
the Vedic hymns, and consequently embraces the views 
of the first two of the classes of writers above specified, 
viz. (1) the mythological and (2) the scholastic. In the 
first Section (pp. 3-10), I adduce texts from the Purusha 
Sukta, ghe Atharva-veda, the Satapatha Brahmana, the 
Chhandogya Upanishad, the Taittiriya Brahmana, and 
the Institutes of Manu, which variously represent the 
Vedas (a) as springing from the mystical sacrifice of 
Puwisha ; (5) as resting on (or inhering in) Skambha ; 
(c) as cut or scraped off from him, as being his hair, 
and his mouth ; (d) as springing from Indra ; (e) as pro- 
duced from time ; (/) as produced fronf Agni, Yayu, 
and Surya; (g) as springing from Prajapati, and the 
waters ; (h) as being the breathing of the Great Being ; 
(t) as being dug by tMe gods out of the mincf-ocean ; 
(/) as being the hair of Prajapati' s beard, and (k) ,as 
being the offspring of Yach. 

In page 287 of' the c Appendix a further "verse of ^he 
Atharva-veda is cited, in which the Yedas are declared 
to have sprung from the leavings of the sacrifice (uch- 

PREFACE. ' ix 

In the second Section (pp. 10-14) are quoted pas- 
sages from the Yishnu, Bhagavata, and Markandeya Pu- 
ranas, wtyich rejre^ent th four Yedas as having issued 
from the mouth of Brahma at the creation ; several from 
ttte Harivamsa, 'which speak of the Yedas as created by 
Brahma, or as produced from the Gayatri ; another from 
the MahabharataJ which describes them as created by 
Yishrfu, or as having S'arasvatI for their mother ; witk 
one from Manu, which declares the Yedas, along with 
certain other objects, to be the second manifestation 
of the Sattva-guna, 'or pure principle, while Brahma is 
- one of its first manifestations. 

The third Section (pp. 14-18) contains passages from 
the Brahmanas, the Yishnu Purana, and the Mahabha" 
rata, in which the Yedas are celebrated as comprehend- 
ing all beings, as being the soul of metres, hymns, 
breaths, and gods, as imperishable, as the source of form, 
motion, and heat, of the names, forms, and functions' of 
all creatures, as infinite in extent, as infinite in their 
essence (brahma\ though limited in their forms as Eich, 
Yajush, and Saman verses, as eternal, and as forming 
'the essence of Yishnu. . 

The fourth Section (pp. 18-36) contains passages from 
the S'atapatha Brahmana and Mailu, in which the great 
benefits resulting from the study of the Yedas, and the 
dignity, power, authority, and efficacy of these works 
^are ^c^lebrateti*, together with two, oth'er texts from the 
latter author and the Yishnu Purana, in which a certain 
impurity is predicated of the Sama-veda (compare the. 
Markandeya Purana, as quoted in p. 12, where the four 


Yedas are described as respectively partaking differently 
of the character of the three Gunas, or Qualities) ; and 
some others from the Vayu, Padma, M&tsya, and Brah- 
ma- vaivartta Puranas, and the Mahabharata, and Kama- 
yana, which derogate greatly frcm the 'consideration, of 
the Vedas, by claiming for the Puranas r and Itihasas an 
equality with, if not a,, superiority toj the older scrip- 
tures. A passage' is next quoted from the Mundaka 
Upanishad, in which the Vedas and their appendages are 
designated as the " inferior science," in contrast to the 
u superior science," the knowledge of Soul ; and is fol- 
lowed by others from the Bhagavad Gita, the Chhan- 
dogya Upanishad and the Bhagavata Purana, in which 
the ceremonial and polytheistic portions of the Veda are 
depreciated in comparison with the knowledge of the su- 
preme Spirit. -5 

The fifth Section (pp. 36-49) describes the division of 
the" Vedas in the third or Dvapara age, by Vedavyasa 
and his four pupils, according to texts of the Vishnu, 
Vayu, and Bhagavata Puranas ; <and then adduces a dif- 
ferent account, asserting their division in 6he second or 
Treta"age, by the 'King Pururavas, according to another 
passage of the same Bhagavata Purana, and a text pf the 
Mahabharata (though r the latter is silent regarding Pu- 
ruravas). * 

Section vi. (pp. 49-57) contains passages from the 

Vishnu and Vayu Puranas and the S'atapafha Brabmana, 

regarding the schism between the adherents of tfce Yajur- 

'veda, as represented by the different schools of Vaisam- 

payana and Yajnavalkya, and quotes certain remarks of 


Prof. Weber on the^same subject, and on the relation of 
the Eig and Sama Ve,das td each other, together with 
some otjuer texts, adduced' and illustrated by that scholar, 
on the hostility of the Atharvanas towards the other 
Vedas, and of t"he Chandogas towards the Eig-veda. 

Section yji.* (pp., 57-70) contains extracts from the 
works of Sayana 'and^Madhava, Jfche commentators on the 
Eig and Taittiriya Yajur Vedas, in which they both de- 
fine the characteristics of the Yeda, and state certain 
arguments in support of its authority. Sayana (pp. 
58-66), 'after noticing the objections urged against his 
views by persons of a different school, and defining the 
Veda as a work consisting of Mantra and Brahmana, 
asserts that it is not derived from any personal, or at 
least not from any human, author (compare the further 
extract from him in p. 105) ; and rests its authority on 
its own declarations, on its self-proving power, on the 
Smriti (i.e. non-vedic writings of eminent saints), and on 
common notoriety. He then encounters some other ob- 
jections raised against the Yeda on the score of its con- 
taining passages which are unintelligible, dubious, ab- 
surd, contradictory, or superfluous. "Madhava (j?p. 66- 
70) .-defines the Yeda as the work whi-ch alone reveals 
the supernatural means of attaining future felicity ; ex- 
plains that males only, belonging to the three superior 
castes, are competent to study its^ contents ; and asserts 
th^t, ^inasmuch as it is eternal, it is a primary and infal- 
lible authority. This eternity of the Yeda, however, he 
appears to interpret as not being absolute, but^s dating 
from the first creation, when it was produced from Brairna, 



though, as he is free from defects, the Veda, as his work, 
is self-proved. 

Section viii. (pp. 70-108) contains the views of .Jaimini 
and Badarayana, the (alleged) authors of the Mimansa 
and Brahma (or Vedanta) Sutras on the eternity of 'the 
Yeda. Jaimini asserts that sound, or. wofds, 1 , are eternal, 
that the connection between words and' the objects -they 
represent also, is 'not arbitrary or conventional, but 
eternal, and that consequently the Yedas convey un- 
erring information in regard to unseen objects. This 
view he defends against the Naiyayikas, answering their 
other objections, and insisting that the names, derived 
from those of certain sages, by which particular parts of 
the Yedas are designated, do not prove those sages to 
have been their authors, but merely the teachers who 
studied and handed them down ; while none of the 
names occurring in the Yeda are those of temporal 
beings, but all denote some objects which have existed 
eternally. Two quotations in support of the superna- 
tural origin of the Yeda are 'next introduced from 
the Nyaya-mala-vistara (a condensed account of the 
Mimatlsa system) f and from the Vedartha-prakasa (the 
commentary on the Taittiriya Yajur-veda). The a^gu- 
ments in both passages (pp. 86-89) are to, the same 
effect, and contain nothing that has not been already in 
substance anticipated in preceding summaries of the Mi- 
mansa doctrine. In reference to their argument that no 
author of the Yeda is remembered, I have noticed here 
that the supposition which an objector might urge, that 
the vishis, the acknowledged utterers of the hymns, 


might also have been their authors, is guarded against 
by the tenet, elsewhere maintained by Indian writers, 
. that tbe^ risbis w^re merely seer,s of the pre-existing 
sacred texts. Some of the opinions quoted from the 
SUtras of Jaimin; are further enforced in a passage from 
the summary of the Mimansa doctrine, which I have 
quoted from the Sasva-darsana*-sangraha. The writer 
first notices the Naiyayika objections to the Mimansata 
tenet that the Veda had no personal author, viz. (1) that 
any tradition to this, effect must have been interrupted at 
the past dissolution of the universe ; (2) that it would 
be impossible to prove that no one had ever recollected 
any such author ; (3) that the sentences of the Veda 
have the same character as all other sentences ; (4) that 
the inference, drawn from the present mode of trans- 
mitting the Vedas from teacher to pupil, that the same 
mode of transmission must have gone on from eternity, 
breaks down by being equally applicable to any other 
book ; (5) that the Veda is in fact ascribed to a personal 
author in a passage of Ihe book itself; (6) that sound is 
, not eternal, and that when we recognize letters as the 
same we have heard before, this dofcs not prove their 
identity or eternity, but is merely a recognition of them 
as belonging to the same species as other letters we have 
he&rd before ; (7) that though Paramesvara (God) is na- 
turally incorporeal, ke may have assumed a body in order 
to 'jfeveal the Veda, etc. The writer then states the Mi- 
mansaka answers to these arguments thus : What does 
this alleged ' production by a personal author^ (pauru- 
sheyatva) mean ? The Veda, if supposed to be so *pro- 


duced, cannot derive its authority (a) from inference (or 
reasoning), as fallible books employ the same process. 
Nor will it suffice to s,ay ( b) that' it derives its authority 
from its truth : , for the Veda is denned to be a book 
which proves that which can be proved, in no "other way. 
And even if Paramesvara (God) we3 to assiime a body, 
he would not, in that state of limitation, have any a'ecess 
to supernatural knowledge. Further, the fact that dif- 
ferent sakhas or recensions of the Yedas are called after 
the names of particular sages, proves nb more than that 
these recensions were studied by those sages, and affords 
no ground for questioning the eternity of the Vedas, 
an eternity which is proved by the fact of our recogniz- 
ing letters when we meet with them. These letters are 
the very identical letters we had heard before, for there 
is no evidence to show either that letters of the same 
sort (Gr's, for instance,) are numerically different from 
each other, or that they are generic terms, denoting a 
species. The apparent differences which are observable 
in the same letter, result merely f from the particular cha- 
racteristics of the persons who utter it, and*do not affect 
its identity. This is followed by further reasoning in 
support of the same general view ; and the writer > then 
arrives at the conclusion, which he seems to hiinself to 
have triumphantly established, that the Veda is unde- 

rived and authoritative. f ~ 


The question of the effect produced on the Vedas ^by 
the dissolutions of the world is noticed in stfme ex- 
tracts frm Patanjali's Mahabhashya and its commen- 
tatofs, which have been adduced by Prof. Goldstiicker 


in the Preface to his Manava-kalpa Sutra, and which 
I have partly reprinted in pp. 95 ff. It is admitted 
by PatAJali,tnat?, though the SQnse of the Vedas is 
permanent, the order of their letters Jias not always 
remained tne same,, and!" that this difference is exhibited 
in the different* recensions of. the Kathakas and other 
schools. Patanjali himself does n.ot say what is the cause 
of this alteration in the order of the letters ; but his com- 
mentator, Kaiyyata, states that the order was disturbed 
during the great 'mundane dissolutions, etc., and had to 
be restored (though with variations) by the eminent 
science of the rishis. Kulluka, the commentator on 
Manu (see p. 6), maintains that the Veda was pre- 
served in the memory of Brahma during the period of 
dissolution; and promulgated again at the beginning of 
the Kalpa, but whether in an altered form, or not, he 
does not tell us. The latter point is also left unsolved 
in S'ankara's commentary on Brahma Sutra i. 3, 30, 
which I quote in the Appendix, pp. 300 ff. Pages 
93 ff. contain some remarks (by way of parenthesis) on 
the question whether or not the Purva Mimamsa admits 
the existence of a Deity. 

In>the extract given in pp. 98^-105 from his commen- 
tary on 'the Brahma Sutras, 1 S'ankara, who follows the 
au'thor of those Sutras, and* Jaimini, in basing the au- 
thority of the Vedao on the eternjty of sound, finds it 
neftesSary to meet an objection that, as the gods men- 
tioned ia the Veda had confessedly an origin in time, the 

1 My attention was originally drawn to this passage by a treatise, then unpublished, 
by the Rev. Prof. Banerjea, formerly of Bishop's College, Calcutta. 


words which designate those gods cannot be eternal, but 
must have originated co-evally with the created objects 
which they denote, since eternal words ceuld toot have 
an eternal connection with non-eternal objects. This 
difficulty he tries to overcome ' (ignoring the ground 
taken by Jaimini, that the Veda contains no references 
to non-eternal objects) by asserting" that the eterna}"on- 
nection of words is not with individual objects, but with 
the species to which these objects belong, and that Indra 
and the other gods are proved by thp Yeda to belong to 
species. S'ankara then goes on to assert, on the autho- 
rity of Brahma Sutra, i. 3, 28, fortified by various texts 
from the Yedas and the Smritis, that the gods and the 
world generally are produced (though not in the sense of 
evolution out of a material cause) from the word of the 
Yedas (see pp. 6 and 16) in the form of spJiota. This 
last term will be explained below. This subject above 
referred to, of the eternal connection of the words of the 
Yeda with the objects they represent, is further pursued 
in a passage which I have quotec} in the Appendix, p. 300, 
where an answer is given to the objection* that the ob- 
jects denoted by tlie words of the Yeda cannot be eternal, 
as a total destruction of- everything takes place (not, in- 
deed, at the intermediate, but) at the great munclane dis- 
solutions. The solution given is that, by the favour' of 
the supreme Lord f the- inferior lords r Brahma, etc., retain 
a recollection of the previous mundane conditions f ; 'svnd 
that in each successive creation everything is produced 
exactly t&e same as it had previously been. I then pro- 
ceed' in p. 105 to adduce a passage from Say ana, the 

PREFACE. xvii 

commentator on thQ Rig-veda, who refers to another of 
the Brahma Sutras, i. \ 3 (quoted in p. 106), declaring 
that Brahma was the source of the, Veda, which S'ankara 
interprets as containing a proof of the omniscience of 
Brah'ma. ^ayana, understands this text as establishing 
the superhuman origin of tjie Veda, though not its 
eternity in the proper sense, it* being only meant, ac- 
cording to him (as well as to Madhava ; see p. xi.), that 
the Veda is eternal in the same sense as the sether is 
eternal, i.e. during tjie period between each creation and 
dissolution of the universe. 

In opposition to the tenets of the Miinansakas, who 
hold the eternity (or the eternal self-existence) of the 
- Veda, and to the dogmas of the Vedanta, as just ex- 
pounded, Gotama, the author of the Nyaya aphorisms, 
denies (Section ix. pp. 108-118) the eternity of sound; 
and after vindicating the Veda from the charges of 
falsehood, self-contradiction, and tautology, deduces its 
authority from the authority of the wise, or competent, 
person or persons who\were its authors, as proved 
by the efficacy of such of the Vedic prescriptions as 
relate to mundane matters, and can *be tested by ex- 
perier*ce. It does not distinctly; result 'from Gotama's 
aphorism Mhat God is the competent person whom he 
regards as the maker of the *Veda. If he did not refer 
to God, he must havo regarded the* rishis as its authors. 
The^iauthors of the Vaiseshika Sutras, and of the Tarka 
Sangraha^ as well as the writer of the Kusumanjali, 
however, clearly refer the Veda to Isvara (Go'S) as its 
framer (pp. 118-133). Udayana, the author of the latW 

xviii PREFACE. 


work (pp. 128-133), controverts theaopinion that the ex- 
istence of the Veda 'from eternity can be proved by a 
continuous tradition, rt as such V tradition .must,- Jie says, 
have been interrupted at the dissolution of the world, 
which preceded the existing creation. He, therefore 
(as explained by his commentator-), infers an eternal 
(and omniscient author -x)f the Veda ; asserting that the 
Veda is paurusheya, or derived from a personal author ; 
that many of its own texts establish this ; and that the 
appellations given to its particular Jakhas or recensions, 
are derived from the names of those sages whose persons 
were assumed by Isvara, when he uttered them at the 
creation. In pp. 125 if. I have quoted one of the Vai- 
seshika Sutras, with some passages from the commen- 
tator, to show the conceptions the writers entertained 
of the nature of the supernatural knowledge, or intui- 
tion, of the rishis. 

Kapila, the author of the Sankhya Aphorisms (pp. 1 33 
.-138), agrees with theNyaya and Vaiseshika aphorists in 
denying the eternity of the Vecfa, but, in Conformity with 
his own principles, differs from Gotama and Kanada in 
denying its derivation from a personal (i.e. here, a divine) 
author, because there was no person (i.e. as his commen- 
tator explains, no God) to make it. Vishnu, ' the chief 
of the liberated beings, tho'ugh omniscient, could not, he 
argues, have ma$e tho Veda, owing' to his impassiveness, 
and no other person 6ould have done so from want' oioom- 
niscience. And even if the Veda have been u'itered by 
the prirfteval Purusha, it cannot be called his work, as it 
was breathed forth by him unconsciously. Kapila agrees 



with Jaimini in ascribing a self- demonstrating power to 
the Veda, and differs 'from the Vaiseshikas in not de- 
riving kg authority from correct knowledge possessed by 
a , conscious utjfcerer. He proceeds to controvert the 
existence of such 'a thing as sphota (a modification of 
sound which is a,ssamed by -the Mimansakas, and de- 
scribed as single, indivisible, flistinpt from individual 
letters, existing in the form of words, and constituting 
a whole), and to deny the eternity of sound. 

In the tenth Section (pp. 138-179) I shew (a) by quo- 
tations from the aphorisms of the Vedanta and their com- 
mentator (pp. 140-145), that the author and expounder 
of the Uttara Mimamsa (the Vedanta) frequently differ 
from Jaimini the author of the Purva Mimamsa in the 
interpretation of the same texts of the Upanishads. A 
similar diversity is next (#) proved at greater length 
(pp. 145-173), by quotations from the apKorisms and 
commentaries of the Vedanta and the Sankhya, to cha- 
racterize the expositions proposed by the adherents of 
those two systems respectively. One quotation is given 
.in pp. 175 ff. to shew, (c) that the same is true in regard 
to the followers of the Vaiseshika philosophy, who dis- 
tinctly reject the Vedantic explanations ; and last of all 
(d) I haV>e made some extracts (pp. 177 ff.) from the 
Bhakti Sutras of Sandilya to* exhibit the wide divergence 
of that writer^ from 'the orthodox*views of the Vedanta 
regarding the sense of the Veda's. In pp. 173-175 
I quote "some remarks of Dr. E. Eoer, and Prof. Max 
Miiller, regarding 'the doctrines of ^ tne Upanisliads, and 
their relations to the different philosophical schools. 



In the facts brought forward in this section we find 
another illustration (1) of the tendency common to all 
dogmatic theologians to interpret' in strict 'conformity with 
their own opinions the unsystematic and not always con- 
sistent texts of an earlier age which have been handed 
down by tradition as sacrefl and infallible, and to repre- 
sent them as containing, r or as necessarily implying, fixed 
and consistent systems of doctrine ; as well as (2) of the 
diversity of view which so generally prevails in regard 
to the sense of such texts among ^writers of different 
schools, who adduce them with equal positiveness of 
assertion as establishing tenets and principles which are 
mutually contradictory or inconsistent. 

In the eleventh Section (pp. 179-207) some passages are 
adduced from the Nyaya-mala-vistara, and from Kulluka's 
commentary on Manu, to show that a distinct line of de- 
marcation is drawn by the scholastic writers between the 
Yedas on the one hand, and all other classes of Indian 
scriptures, embraced under the designation of Smriti (in- 
cluding the Darsanas, the Institutes of Manu, the Pu- 
ranas, and Itihasas, etc.), on the other, tlie first being . 
regarded as independent and infallible guides, while the 
others are (in theory) held to be authoritative only in so 
far as they are founded on, and coincide with,< the Yeda. 
The practical effect of this distinction is, however, much 
lessened by the fact tkat the ancient sages, the authors 
of the Smritis, such of them, I mean, as, like Manu/,are 
recognized as orthodox, are looked upon by Madhava and 
fe'ankara <as having' had access to Yedic texts now no 
longer extant, as having held communion with the gods, 



and as having enjoyed a clearness of intuition into divine 
mysteries which is denied to later mortals (pp. 181-185). 
S'ankara,. however (as shewn in pj). 184-192), does not 
regard all the ancients as having possessed this infallible 
in<sij*ht intb trutl^, Jbut Exerts all his ingenuity to explain 
away the claim's (thpugh clearly sanctioned by an Upani- 
sha&) of Kapila, who, was not orthodox according to his 
Yedantic standard, to rank as an authority. In his de- 
preciation of Kapila, however, S'ankara is opposed to the 
Bhagavata Puraxa (p. 192). I then proceed to observe 
(pp. 194-196) that although in ancient times the authors 
of the different philosophical systems (Dar'sanas) no doubt 
put forward their respective opinions as true, in oppo- 
sition to all the antagonistic systems, yet in modern times 
the superior orthodoxy of the Vedanta appears to be 
generally recognized; while the authors of the other 
systems are regarded, e.g. by Madhusudana Sarasvati, 
as, amid all their diversities, having in view, as tneir 
ultimate scope, the support of the Vedantic theory. The 
same view, in, substane'fy is taken by Yijnana Bhikshu, 
the commentator on the Sankhya Sutras, who (pp. 196- 
203) maintains that Kapila's system, though atheistic, is 
not irreconcilable with the Vedanta and other theistic 
schools, ^ its denial of an Isvara (God) is only practical, 
or regulative, and merely enforced in order to withdraw 
men from the too earnest contemplation of an eternal 
an<J- perfect l3eity, which would impede their study of 
the distinction between matter and spirit. To teach 
men this discrimination, as the great means of<.>attaining 
final liberation, is one of the two main objects, and strong 

xxii PREFACE. 

points, of the Sankhya philosophy, and here it is authori- 
tative ; while its atheism ' is admitted to be its weak 
side, and on this subject it has- no authority, o ^"ijnana 
Bhikshu goes on to say that it is even supposable that 
theistic systems, in order to prevent gipners from attain- 
ing knowledge, may lay down doctrines p'artjally opposed 
to the Vedas ; and that though in ijiese' portions they are 
erroneous, they will still possess authority in^the portions 
conformable to the S'ruti and Smriti. He then quotes a 
passage from the Padma Purana, in wbich the god Siva 
tells his consort Parvati that the Yaiseshika, the Nyaya, 
the Sankhya, the Purva-mimansa Darsanas, and the Ye- 
dantic theory of illusion, are all systems infected by the 
dark (or tdmasd) principle, and consequently more or less 
unauthoritative. All orthodox (dstika) theories, however, 
are, as Yijnana Bhikshu considers, authoritative, and free 
from error on their own special subject. And as respects 
the discrepancy between the Sankhya and the Yedanta, 
regarding the unity of Soul, he concludes that the former 
is not devoid of authority, as j]he apparent diversity of 
souls is acknowledged by the Yedanta, aiid the discri- 
minative knowledge which the Sankhya teaches is an 
instrument of liberation to the embodied soul ; andi thus 
the two varying doctrines, if regarded as, the, 6ne prac- 
tical (or regulative), and the other real (or transcend- 
ental), will not be contradictory. At the close of Section 
eleventh (pp. 204-2O7) it is shewn that the distinction 
drawn by the Indian commentators between the super- 
human ^eda and its human appendages, the Kalpa 
Sufras, etc., as well as the Smritis, is not borne out by 


certain texts which ,1 had previously cited. The Brihad 
Aranyaka and Mundal^a Upanishads (pp. 8, 31) seem to 
place all, the ^iffenent sorts of S'astras or scriptures (in- 
cluding the tour Vedas) in one and the same class, the 
fo'r.m'er speaking of. them all promiscuously as being the 
breathing of' Brahma, while the latter describes them all 
(except the Upanishads) as being parts of the "inferior 
science," in opposition to the " superior science," or 
knowledge of Brahma. In the same spirit as the Mun- 
daka, the Chhandogya Upanishad also (quoted in p. 32 f.) 
includes the four Vedas in the same list with a variety 
of miscellaneous S'astras (which Narada has studied with- 
out getting beyond the confines of exoteric knowledge), 
and never intimates (unless it be by placing them at the 
head of the list) that the former can claim any superior- 
ity over the other works with which they are associated. 
As, however, S'ankara could not, in consistency with the 
current scholastic theory regarding the wide difference 
between the Vedas and all other Sastras, admit that the 
latter could have had a common origin with the former, 
he endeavours in his comment on the passage of the 
Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad to which I have adverted, 
to s^ew that the other works, which a^e there said to 
have be sn, breathed out by the great Being along with 
tho> Vedas, were in reality -portions of the Brahmanas. 
This explanation can scarcely applj to all the works enu- 
merated, and *its force is weakened by the tenor of the 
other passages from the Mundaka and Chhandogya 
Upanishads, while any such distinction is repudiated in 
the statements of the Itihasas aiid Puranas quoted in 
pp. 27-30 and 105. 

xxiv PREFACE. 


In the twelfth Section (pp. 207-217) the arguments 
in support of the Yeda, adduced in the philosophical 
systems, and by the various commentator's, <as above sum- 
marised, are recapitulated, and some remarks are made 
on these reasonings. My observations are intended . to 
shew that the arguments in question, are Incpnclusive, or 
assume the points to be,,establishe$ ; that the rishfs are 
proved by the contents of the hymns to have been their 
real authors ; and that numerous events which have 
occurred in time, are undoubtedly mentioned in the 
Vedas. This as we have seen (above, p. xvi.) is ad- 
mitted by S'ankara. 

The Second Chapter (pp. 217-286) exhibits the 
opinions of the rishis in regard to the origin of the 
Yedic hymns. Its object is to shew in detail that, 
though some at least of the rishis appear to have 
imagined themselves to be inspired by the gods in the 
expression of their religious emotions and ideas, they 
at the same time regarded the hymns as their own com- 
positions, or as (presumably) the c>inpositiops of their fore- 
fathers, distinguishing between them as new and old, and 
describing their own authorship in terms which could 
only have been dictated,, by a consciousness of its reality. 
The first, second, and 'third Sections (pp. 218-244) con- 
tain a collection of passages 'from the Eig-veda in which 
a distinction is drawn Q,) between therrishis as ancient and 
modern, and (2) between the hymns as older and ( "more 
recent; "and in which (3) the rishis describe themselves as 
the makers, fabricators, or generators of the hymns ; with 
somG additional texts 'in which such authorship appears 


to be implied, though it is not expressed. Section fourth 
(pp. 245-283) contains ,,a variety of passages from the 
same Yeda, in,wAich (1) a superhuman character or super- 
natural faculties are ascribed to the earlier rishis; and 
(2), the idea is exp^essetl that the praises and ceremonies 
of the rishis ,wef e suggested and directed by the gods in 
general, or, in particular, by the goddess of speech, or 
by some other or others of the different deities of the 
Vedic pantheon. To illustrate, and render more intel- 
ligible and probable, the opinions which I have ascribed 
to the old Indian rishis regarding their own inspiration, 
I have quoted in the same Section (pp. 267-273) a 
number of passages from Hesiod and Homer to shew 
that the early Greek bards entertained a similar belief. 
I then advert (pp. 273 -274) to the remarkable diverg- 
ence between the later religious histories of Greece and 
of India. I next enquire briefly (in pp. 274-275) in 
what way we can reconcile the apparently conflicting 
ideas of the rishis on the subject of the hymns, con- 
sidered, on the ,one hand^ as their own productions, and, 
on the other, a*s inspired by the gods. Then follow (pp. 
275 - 279) some further texts from *the Eig-veda, in 
which a mystical, magical, or supernatural efficacy is 
ascribed tothe hymns. These are succeeded (pp. 279- 
283) by a few quotations from the same Veda, in which 
the authors complain of their own ignorance ; and by a re- 
ference* to the contrast between these^ humble confessions 
and the proud pretensions set up by later theologians in 
behalf of the Yeda, and its capability of imparting uni- 
versal knowledge. The ideas of the rishis regarding 
their own inspiration differ widely fr % om the conceptions 

xxvi PREFACE. 

of later theorists ; for while the former looked upon the 
gods, who were confessedly mere created beings, as the 
sources of supernal illumination,, the latter, eitlj-er regard 
the Veda as eternal, or refer it to the eternal Brahma, or 
Isvara, as its author. The fiftk and ( last Section* (,pp. 
283-286) adduces some texts from the S'vetasvatara, 
Mundaka and Chhandogya Upanisjiads, which show the 
Opinions of the writers regarding the inspiration, of their 
predecessors ; and refers to the similar claims set up on 
their own behalf by the writers of the Itihasas and Pu- 
ranas, as shewn in the passages quoted in pp. 27-30. 

With all its imperfections this volume may perhaps 
possess a certain interest, not only for the student of 
Indian history, but also for the divine and the philo- 
sopher, as furnishing a few documents to illustrate the 
course of theological opinion in a sphere far removed 
from the ordinary observation of the European student, 
a course which, quite independently of the merits of 
the different tenets involved in the enquiry, will, I 
think, be found to present a f remarkable parallel in 
various respects to that which is traceable in the his- 
tory of those religious systems with which we are most 
familiar. In both cass we find that a primitive p,ge of 
ardent emotion, of simple faith, and of up articulated 
beliefs, was succeeded by a period of criticism and spe- 
culation, when the Boating materials handed down by 
preceding generations were compared, classified/ recon- 
ciled, developed into their consequences, and elaborated 
into a variety of scholastic systems. 

^n the Preface to 'the first edition I stated as follows : 
11 In regard to the- texts quoted from the Rig-veda, I 

PREFACE. xxvii 

have derived the same sort of assistance from the French 
version of M. LangloiS) which has been acknowledged 
in the preface* to the Sefcond Volume, p. vi. I am also 
indebted for sqme of the Yedic texts to Boehtlingk 
and Jfoth's *Lexiccvn" 

A comparison of the former edition with the present 
will ^hew that considerable alterations and additions 

* * t 

have been m#de in the latter. The texts which formerly 
stood in the Appendix have now been transferred to their 
proper places in the body of the work ; and various other 
passages have been transposed. The principal additions 
will be found in the first four sections, in the ninth (pp. 
115-127), tenth (which is altogether new), eleventh (pp. 
185ff.), and in the Appendix. 

I am indebted to various learned friends for assistance 
in different parts of the work, which I have acknow- 
ledged in the notes. My thanks are especially due to 
Professors Goldstiicker and Cowell for various important 
corrections which they have suggested in my translations 
of passages of ,a scholas^c and philosophical character, 
quoted either In the body of the volume or in the Appen- 
dix, corrections which are incorporated in the text, as 
well as for some further remarks* and suggestions which 
will be fotind in the notes or Appendix. I am also under 
obligations to Professor Aufre^ht for some emendations of 
my renderings in tho early part of the f work, as well as 
for .Jiis 1 explanations of many of the texts of the Kig- 
veda cited in the Second Chapter. 


November, 1868. 


PAGE'S., ' , . 

v. xxviii. PREFACE. 




3 10. SECT. I. Origin of the Vedas according to the Purusha-sukta, 
the Atharva-veda, the Brahmanas, Upanishads, and Insti- 
tutes of Manu. 

10 14. SECT. II. Origin of the Yedas according to the Vishnu, Bha- 
gavata, and Markandeya Puranas, the Harivaras'a, the Ma- 
habharata ; eternity of the Veda ; miscellaneous statements 
regarding it. 

14 18. SECT. III. Passages f the Brahmanas and other works in 
which > the Vedas are spoken of as being the sources of all 
things, and as infinite and eternal. 

18 36. SECT. IV. Passages from the Satapatha Brahmana and Manu 
eulogistic of the Veda, with sofoe statements of a different 
from Manu and other writers. 

* * 

36 49. SECT. V. Division of the Vedas, according to the Vishnu, 

Vayu, and Bhagavata Puranas, nd the Mahabharata. 
j > 
49 &f. SECT. VI. Accounts in the Vishnu and Vayu Puranas of the 

Schisms between the adherents of the Yajur-veda, Vaisam- 
payana, and Yajnavalkya ; hostility of the Atharyanas to- 
wards the other Vedas ; and of the Chhandogas towards %e 



57 70. SECT. VII. Reasonings of the Commentators on the Vedas, in 
support of the authority of the Vedas. 

70 108. SECT. VIII. Arguments of ' the MTmansakas atd, Vedantins 
in support of the eternity and authority of the Vedas. 

108138. SECT. IX. Arguments of the* followers of the Nyaya, 'Vai- 
seshika, and Sankhya systems -:n support of the author- 
ity of the Ved^s, but against eternity of sound> and of 
the Vedas ; Vaiseshika conception of the intuitive know- 
ledge of the rishis. 

138 179. SECT. X. Extracts from the Vedanta^ Sankhya, Vaiseshika, 
and Bhakti aphorisms, and th'eir commentators, illustra- 
tive of the use which the authors of the diiferent Darsanas 
make of Vedic texts, and the different modes of interpre- 
tation which they adopt. 

179 207. SECT. XI. Distinction in point of authority between the 

Veda and the Smritis or non- Vedic S'astras, as stated in 

the Nyaya-mala-vistara, and by the commentators on 

, Manu, and the Vedanta; Vijnana Bhikshu's view of the 

1 Sankhya ; opinion of S'ankara regarding the authority of the 

orthodox rishis ; difference of view between him and Ma- 

dhusudana regarding the orthodoxy of Kapila and Kanada, 

etc. : the distinction between the Vedqs and other S'astras, 

drawn by later writers, not borne out l/y the TJpauishads. 

207 217. SECT. XII. Recapitulation of the arguments urged in the 
Darsanas, and, by commentators, in support of the autho- 
rity of the Vedas, with some remarks on thesr reasonings. 



218 224. SECT. I. Passages from the Hymns of the Vedja which dis- 
tinguish between the Rishis as Ancient and Modern. 

2# 232. SECT. II. Passages from the Veda in which a distinction is 
drawn between the older and the more recent hymns. 

CONTENTS. xxx i 


232 244. SECT. III. Passages of the Rig-veda in which the Rishis 
describe themselves as the composers of the Hymns, or 

intimate nothing to 4;he contrary. 

t * 

245 283. SECT. IV. Passages of the Rig-veda in which a supernatural 

' . character is ascribed to the Rishis or the Hymns ; similar 

conceptions of inspiration entertained by the Greeks of the 

Homeric age* ; limitations of this opinion in the case of 

the Vedic Riskis. 


283 286. SECT. V. Texts from the TJpanishads, showing the opinions 
of the authors regarding the inspiration of their pre- 
decessors 1 . 

287 312. APPENDIX. 

287. Quotation from the Atharva-veda xi. 7, 24. 

287 288. Amended translations by Professor Aufrecht. 

288 289. Quotations from Manu and the Mahabharata on Vedic and 
other study. 

289 290. Various illustrative quotations and references.. 
290. Amended translation by Professor Co well. 

290. Note by Professor Cowell on the phrase Kalatyayapadishta. 

291. Amended translation by Professor Cowell. 

292 300. Quotation of Brahma Sutras, i. 3, 34-38, with S'ankara's 
comments, shewing the incompetence of S'udras to acquire 
the highest divine knowledge, with a, short passage of a 
contrary tenor from the Bhagavat Gita. 

300308. Quotation from Brahma^ Sutras, i. 3, 30, with S'ankara's 

comment, in continuation of the reasoning in pp. 101-105 

in support of * the eternity of the wrds of the Veda, and 

,,' ' in refutation of the objections derived from the alleged 

non-eternity of creation ; ' with Brahma Sutra, ii. 1, 36, 

and part of S'ankara's comment. 

308 309. Quotation from Manu, ii. 14 f. ; 'and from Kulluka in^ex- 
planation of the term samayddhyushita. 

xxxii CONTENTS. 



309 10. Corrections by Professors Cowell and Goldstiicker. 

310. Quotation from Commentary on Vishnu Purana, i. 17, 54. 

< i 

310. Quotation fromYajasaneyi Samhita^xiii. 45, an& ^'atapatha 

Brahmana, vii. 5, 2, 21. 

311. Additional texts (i. 67, 4; 'i. 10-9,i 1, 2; and x. 665 5) 

from the Rig-veda, regarding-, the 'composition of the 
hymns. r < 

312. Supplementary note by Prof. Goldstiicker, on Kalatya- 



Page 24, line 11. For Brahma read Brahma. 

45, 15. For Yayush read Tajush. 

53, 8. For theologicans ,read theologians. 

62, 2 from foot : For iO author read <;heir authors. 

85, 4 Before Prajapatir inse'rt xi. 243. 

95, C For dhvanitvam read dhvanitam. 

96, ., 16. The same correction. 

101, 22. Fo^^'Vanap. read S'antip. 

,, 149, ,, 6. For sabdadikshiter read sabdad tksfyitef. 

159, 16. For chainfyi- read cha indri-. 

159, 31. For paratvou- read paratvo-. 

160, 18. F^r punar-utpattir ret,d punar-anutpattir. 

213, 16. For p. 120 read p. 118. ( 

221, 24. For vi. 21, 1 read vi. 21, 8. 

,, 224, ,, 7 from foot. Omit dhishan~i. 

f 261, 12. For vi. 62, 3 read vi. 26, 3. 






IN the preceding volumes of this work 1 I have furnished a general 
account of the ancient Indian writings, which are comprehended under 
the designation of Veda or S'ruti. These works, which, as we have 
seen, constitute the earliest literature of the Hindus, are broadly divi- 
sible into two classes^: (1) The Mantras or hymns, in which the praises 
of the gods are celebrated and their blessing is invpked; (2) the Brah- 
manas, which embrace (a) the liturgical institutes in which the cere- 
monial application of these hymns is declared, ^the various rites of sacri- 
fice are preserved, and the origin and hidden import of the different 
forms ar.e explained, and (#) the Aranyakas, 2 and Upanishads (called also 
Vedantas, i.e. concluding portions of the Vedas), which in part possess 
the same character as<*ome of the earlier portions of tfte Brahmanas, and 
are in p^rt theological treatises in which the spiritual aspirations which 

1 See Vol. I. pp. 2ff. and Vol. II. pp. 169 ff. See also Professor Max Miiller's 
History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature. 

2 For more precise information see Miiller's Anc. Sansk. Lit. pp. 313 ff. from which 1 * 
it will be perceived that only some of the Aranyakas form part of the Bruhmanas, and 
that two of the Upanishads are included in a Sanhita. 


were gradually developed in the minds of ""the more devout of the 
Indian sages are preserved. It is, therefore, clear that the hymns con- 
stitute the original and, in some respects, the mqst Essential portion of the 
Veda ; that the Brahmanas arose out of the hymns, and are Subservient 
to their employment for the purposes of worship ; -#hile the Upanishads 
give expression to ideas of a speculative and niystical character which, 
though to some extent discovejable in tht hymns and in the older 
portion of the Brahmanas, sre much further "matured, and assume a 
more exclusive importance, in these later treatises. 

I content myself here with referring the reader who desires to obtain 
a fuller idea of the nature of the hymns, and of the mythology which 
they embody, to the late Professor H. H. .Wilson's translation of the 
earlier portion of the Eig-veda, to his prefaces to the several volumes, 
to Professor Max Miiller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 
and to two papers of my own in the Journal of the Eoyal Asiatic 
Society, entitled Contributions to a knowledge of the Cosmogony and 
Mythology of the Eig-veda. In the fourth volume of this work I 
return to the latter branch of the subject, and compare the conceptions 
which the rishis entertained of the different objects of their worship, 
with those* representations of the deities who bore the same names, 
which occur in Indian writings of a later date, whether mythological 
or theological. 

The task to which I propose in the meantime to devote myself, is to 
supply some account of the opinions entertained by Hindu writers, 
ancient and modern, in regard to the origin and authority of the Vedas. 
With this view I haVe collected from some of the later hymns, from 
the Indian writings of the middle and later Vedic era (the Brahmanas 
and Upanishads) as well ' as from the books, whether popular or scien- 
tific, of the post-vedic period (the Puranas, the Itihafas, the Institutes 
of Manu, the aphorisms of the l)arsanas, or systems of philosophy, and 
their commentators, and^the commentaries on the Vedas) such passages 
as I have discovered which have reference to thes'e subjects, r r^d propose 
to compare the opinions there set forth with the ideas entertained on 
some of these points by the writers of the more ancient hymns, as 
deducuile from numerous passages in their own compositions. 

The mythical accoMnts which are given of the origin of the Vedas 


are mutually conflicting. In some passages they are said to have been 
created by Prajapati from fire, air, and the sun, or by some other 
process. In^ othy texts they> are said to^ have been produced by 
Brahma from hL\ different mouths, or by the intervention of the 
Gayatri, or to have sprung /rom the goddess Sarasvati, or to have 
otherwise arisen. I proceed to adduce these several passages. 

3 O " * 

J * 

SECT. 1^ Origin of the "Peda-s according td the Purusha-sukta, the 
Atharva-veda? the Srdhmanas, Upanishads, and Institutes of Manu. 

Purusha-siikta. In the ninth verse of this hymn (Big-veda, x. 90, 
already quoted in Yol. I. pp. 8 and 9) the three Vedas are said to have 
been produced from the mystical victim Purusha : Tasmdd yajndt 
sarva-hutah ricJiah sdmdni jajnire \ chhanddmsi jajnire tasmdd yajus 
tasmdd ajdyata \ "From that universal sacrifice sprang the rich and 
saman verses : the metres sprang from it : from it the yajush arose." 3 

This is the only passage in the hymns of the Big-veda in which the 
creation of the Vedas is described. 

In the Atharva-veda the following texts refer to that subject : 

x. 7, 14. Yattra rishayah prathamajdh richah sdma yajur mahl, \ 
ekarshir yasminn drpitah Skambham tarn truhi katamah svid eva sah \ 
.... 20. Yasmdd richo apdtakshan yajur yasmdd apdkashan \ sdmdni 
yasya lomdni atharvdngiraso mykham \ Skambham tarn Iruhi katamah 
svid eva sah \ "* 

/'Declare who that Skambha (supporting-principle) is in whom the 
primeval rishis, the rich, saman, and yajush, the earth, and the one 

rishi, aje sustained 20. Declare srho is that Skambha from 

whom they <}ut off the rich verses, from whom they scraped off the 
yajush, of whom the saman verses ^ire the hairs, and the verses of 
Atharvan and Angiras the mouth." 

3 The wofd veda, in ^h'atever sense we are to understand it, occurs in R.V. viii. 
19, 5 : ~VA samidha yah ahuti yo vedena dadasa inartyo agnaye \ yo namasa svadhva- 
rah | 6. Tasya id arvanto ramhayante asavas tasya dyumnitamam yaiah \ na tarn 
amho deva-kritam kutas chana na martya-kritam nasat \ " The horses of that mortal 
who, devoted to sacrifice, does homage to Agni with fuel^ with an oblation, with ritual 
knowledge (?), with reverence, (6) speed forward impetuously; and his renown is 
most glorious. No calamity, caused either by god or bv man, can assail him from 
any quarter." 


xiii. 4, 38. Sa vai riglhyo ajdyata tasmdd richo ajdyanta \ 
"He (apparently Indra, see verse 44)osprang from, the rich verses: 
the rich verses sprang from him." l . < L * 

xix. 54, 3. Kdldd richah samabJiavan yajuh kdldd/> ajdyata \ 
11 From Time the rich verses sprang : the yajush sprang from Time." 4 
The following texts from the same Veda may a*iso be introduced here : 
iv. 35, 6. Yasmdt paTcvdd amritam sambc&huva yo qdyatrydh adJii- 
patir babhuva \ yasmin veddte 1 nihitdh visvsrupds tenaudanendtv- tardmi 
mrityum \ 

"I overpass death by means of that oblation (odana), from which, 
when cooked, ambrosia (amrita) was produced, which became the lord 
of the Gayatri, and in which the omniform Vedas are comprehended." 
vii. 54, 1. Richam sdma yajdmahe ydlJiydm karmdni Icurvate \ ete sadasi 
rdjato yajnam deveshu yachhatah \ 2. RicTiam sdma yad aprdksham havir 
ojo yajur balam \ esha md tasmdd md himsid vedah prishtah saclilpate \ 

" We worship the Rich and the Saman, wherewith men celebrate 
religious rites, which shine in the assembly, and convey sacrifices to 
the gods. 2. Inasmuch as I have asked the Rich and the Saman for 
butter and for vigour, and the Yajush for strength, let not the Veda, 
so asked, destroy me, o lord of strength (Indra)." 

The next passage is from the S'atapatha Brahmana, xi. 5, 8, IS. : 
Prajdpatir vai idam agre dsld eJcah eva \ so 'kdmayata sydm prajdyeya 
iti | So'srdmyat sa tapo 'tapyata \ tasmdcJi cJirdntdt tepdnut trayo lokdh 
asrijyanta prithivy antariksham dyauh f' sa imams tfln lokdn abliitatdpa \ 
tebhyas taptelJiyas trini jyotimshy ajdyanta agnir yo 'fyam pavate suryah \ 
sa imdni trini jyotimshy alhitatdpa \ telhyas taptelhyas trayo vedtih 
ajdyanta agner figvedo vdyyr yajurvedah surydt sdmavedah \ sa imams 
trin veddn abliitatdpa \ tetfhyas taptelhyas trini sukrdny ajdyanta bhur 
ity rigveddd bhuvah iti yajurveddt svar iti sdmaveddt \ Tad rigvedenaiva 
hotram aTcurvata yajurvedena ddlwaryavam sdmavedena udgltham \ yad 
eva trayyai vidydya\ sulcrwn tena brahmatvxm uchcliakrdma. 

"Prajapati was formerly this universe [i.e. the sole existence], one 
only. He desired, 'may I become, may I be propagated.' He toiled 

4 See y.y translation of the entire hymn in the Journal of the Roy. As. Soc. for 
165, p. 381. The Vishnu Parana, i. 2, 13, says: TM eva sarvam evaitad vyakta- 
vyakta-svarupavat \ tatha purusha-rupena kala-rupena cha sthitam \ " This (Brahma) 
is all this universe, existing,,both as the perceptible and the imperceptible ; existing 
also in the forms of Purusha and of Kala (Time)." 




in devotion, he perforated austerity. From him, when he had so 
toiled, and performed austerity, three worlds were created, earth, air, 
and sky. He infused warmth ijito these three worlds. From them, 
thus headed, three lights were produced, 1 Agni (fire), this which 
purifies (i.e. Pava&a, or Vayu, the wind), 5 and Surya (the sun). He 
infused heat into the? -., three* lights. From them so heated the three 
Vedas were produced, the Rig-veda from Agni (fire), the Tajur-veda 


from Vayu (wind), aad the Sama-veda from Surya (the sun). He 
infuse'd? warmth into these three Yedas. From them so heated thres 
luminous essences were produced, bhuh from the Eig-veda, bhuvah 
from the Tajur-veda, and svar from the Sama-veda. Hence, with the 
Eig-veda they performed the function of the hotri ; with the Yajur- 
veda, the office of the adhvaryu ; with the Sama-veda, the duty of the 
udgatri ; while the function of the brahman arose through the luminous 
essence of the triple science [i.e. the three Vedas combined]." 

Chhdndogya Upanishad. A similar passage (already quoted in Volume 
Second, p. 200) occurs in the Chhandogya Upanishad (p. 288 of 
Dr. Eoer's ed.) : 

Prajdpatir loTcdn abhyatapat \ teshdm tapyamdndndm rasdn prdlrihad 
agnim prithivydh, vdyum antarikshdd ddityam dwah \ sa etas tisro devatdh 
abhyatapat \ tdsdm tapyamanandm rasdn prdbrihad agner richo vdyor 
yajumshi sdma dditydt \ sa etdm trayzm vidydm abhyatapat \ tasyds 
tapyamdndydh rasdn prdbrihad bhur iti riglhyo bhuvar iti yajurlhyah 
svar iti sdmalhyah |^ % 

" Prajapati infixed warmth into the worlds, and from them so heated 
Ke drew forth their essences, viz. Agni (fire) /rom the earth, Vayu 
(wind) from the air, and Surya (the sun) from the ^ sky. He infused 
warmtn into these three deities, and from tfyem so heated he drew forth 
their essendes, 3 from Agni the rich verses, from Vayu the yajush 
verses, and from Surya the saman verses. He then infused heat into 
this triple science, and from it so heated he drew forth its essences, 

* "ft 

from rich verses &e syllable bhuh, from yajush^ verses bhuvah, and 
from fcaman verses svar." 6 


6 See S'atapatha Brahmana, vi. 1, 2, 19 : . . . ayam eva sa Vayur yo 'j/am pavate 
. . . "This is that Vayu, he s who purifies." 5 

* Passages to the same effect occur also in the Aitareya (v. 32-34) and Kaushi- 
takl Brahmanas. That in the former will be found in Pr. Haug's translation of the 


Manu. The same origin is assigned to the Chree Yedas in the follow- 
ing verses from the account of the creation in Manu, i. 21-23, where 
the idea is no doubt borrowed from the Brahmanas : 

Sarveshdm tu sa ndmdni karmdni cha pritliak prithak \ V^d^-sabdelhya 
evddau prithak samsthds cha m'rmame \ KarmdtmaKdm cha devdndm so 
'srijat prdnindm prabhuh \ sddhydndm' cha ganam sukshmam yagnam 
chaiva sandtanam \ Agni-vdyu-ravibhyas tu frayani brahma sandtanam \ 
dudoha yajna-siddhyartham riq-yajuh-sdma-lahshunam \ , 

"He [Brahma] in the beginning fashioned from the words of the Yeda 
the several names, functions, and separate conditions 01 all [creatures]. 
That Lord also created the subtile host of active and living deities, and 
of Sadhyas, and eternal sacrifice. And in ordev to the performance of 
sacrifice, he drew forth from Agni, from, Vayu, and from Surya, the 
triple eternal Veda, distinguished as Rich, Yajush, and Saman." 

Kulluka Bhatta, the commentator, annotates thus on this passage : 

Sandtanam nityam \ veddpaurusheyatva - paksho Manor abhimatah \ 
purva-hal/pe ye vedds te eva Paramdtma-murtte'r Bralimanah sarvajnasya 
smrity-drudhdh \ tan eva kalpdddv agni-vdyu-ravibhyah dchakarsha \ 
srautas cha ay am artho na sanitarily ah \ tathdcha smtih \ " agner rigvedo 
vayor yajurvedah dditydt sdmavedah " Hi \ 

."The word sandtana means ' eternally pre-existing.' The doctrine 
of the superhuman origin of the Yedas is maintained by Manu. The 
same Yedas which [existed] in the previous mundane era (Kalpa) were 
preserved in the memory of the omnisfient Brahm^, who was one with 
the supreme' Spirit. It was those same Yedas that, t.n the beginning of 
the [present] Kalpa, t.e drew forth from Agni, Yayu, and Surya : and 
this dogma, which is founded upon the Yeda, is not to be questioned, 
for the Yeda says, ' the Rig,-v"eda comes from Agni, the Yajur-ve'da from 
Yayu, and the Sama-veda from Surya.' " < 

Another commentator on Manu, r Medhatithi, explains this passage in 
a more rationalistic fashion, " by remarking that the Rig-veda opens 
with a hymn to fire/ and the Yajur-veda with one ij. which a\r is men- 
tioned." Colebr. Misc. Ess. i. p. 11, note. 

Brahmana : and the one in the latter is rendered into German by Weber in his Ind. 
Stud. ii. 363 ff. t 

f Kulluka explains this to mean, " Having understood them from the words of 
the Yeda" ( Veda-s abdebhyafy eva avagamya). 



To the verses from Jk&rau (i. 21-23) just cited, the following from 
the second book may be added, partly for the purpose of completing 
the parallel with the passage's previously adduced from the S'atapatha 
Brahman* and tfte ChhSndogya Upanishad :* 

Manu, ii. 76 ff. \4.kdram cJtdpy ukdram cha makdraih cha Prajdpatih | 
Veda-lraydd ;iiraduhad .bhur'bhuvah svar itlti cha | 77. Tribhyah eva tu 
vedebhyah pddam, pddam aduduhat \ u ta& n ity richo 'sydh sdvitrydh 
parameshthl prajdpatih \ .... Sl.'Omkdra-purvikds tisro mahdvydh- 
ritayd '-vyaydh \ Tripadd ctiaiva gdyatrl vijneyarp Brahmano mukham. 

76. "Prajapati also milked out of the three Yedas the letters a, u, 
and m, together with the words bhuh, bhuvah, and svar. 77. The same 
supreme Prajapati also milked from each of the three Yedas one of the 
[three] portions of the text called sdvitrl [or gdyatrl~\, beginning with 
the word tat. 6 .... 81. The three great imperishable particles (bhuh, 
bhuvah, svar} preceded by om, and the gdyatrl of three lines, are to be 
regarded as the mouth of Brahma." 

The next passage, from the S'atapatha Brahmana, vi. 1, 1, 8, first 
speaks generally of Prajapati creating the three Yedas, and then after- 
wards, with some inconsistency, describes their production from the 
waters : 9 

So^yam purushah Prajdpatir aTcdmayata " bhuydn sydbi prajdyeya" 
iti | so 'srdmyat sa tapo 'tapyata \ sa srdntas tepdno brahma eva pratha- 
mam asrijata trayim eva vidydm { sd eva asmai pratisJithd 'bhavat \ tas- 
mdd dhur "brahma asya savyasya pratishthd" iti \ tasmdd anuchya, 
pratitisTithati \ pratishthd hy eshd yad brahma \ tasydm pratishthdydm 
pratishthito 'tapyata \ 9. So'po'sryata vdchah eva lokdt \ vdg eva asya 
sd 'srijyata \ sd idam sarvam dpnod yad idam kincha \ yad dpnot tasmdd 
dpah^ yad avrtnot tasmdd vdh \ 10. 89 'kdmayata " dbhyo'dbhyo'dhi 
prajdyeya ' ; iti \ so 'nayd trayyd mdyayd saha apah prdnsat \ tatah 
dnda/h samavarttata \ tad abhyamrisyt \ "astv" ity "astu bhuyo 'stv" ity 
eva tad abravit \ tato brahma eva prathamam asrijyata trayy eva vidyd \ 

tasmdd dhur tl brahma asya sarvasya pratfiumajasi" iti \ api hi tasmdt 

purifshdd brahma eva purvam asrijyata tad asya tad mukham eva 

asrijyata \* tasmdd anuchdnam dhur " agni-kalpah " iti \ mukham hy 
etad agner yad brahma \ 

8 This text, Eig-veda, in. 62, 10, will be quoted in the sequel. 

9 This passage with the preceding context is given in the Fourth Volume of this 
work, pp. 18 f. 



" This Male, Prajapati, desired, ' May I multiply, may I be propa- 
gated.' He toiled in devotion ; he practised austere-fervour. Having 
done so he first of all created sacred knowledge, the triple Vedic science. 
This became a basis for hjm. "Wherefore men 1 say, '<dacre knowledge 
is the basis of this universe.' Hence after studyj^g the Veda a man 
has a standing ground ; for sacred knowledge is his foundation. Resting 
on this basis he (Prajapati) practised austere-fervour, 9. He created 
the waters from Vach (speech), at, their world. Vach "vtas his : she was 
created. She pervaded all, this 'whatever exists. As she pervaded (&pnot\ 
waters were called ' apah.' As she covered (avrinof] all, .water was called 
' var.' 10. He desired, ' May I be propagated from these waters.' Along 
with this triple Vedic science he entered the waters. Thence sprang 
an egg. He gave it an impulse ; and said, ' Let there be, let there be, 
let there be again.' Thence was first created sacred knowledge, the 
triple Vedic science. Wherefore men say, ' Sacred knowledge is the 
first-born thing in this universe. Moreover, it was sacred knowledge 
which was created from that Male in front, wherefore it was created as 
his mouth. Hence they say of a man learned in the Veda, ' He is like 
Agni; for sacred knowledge is Agni's mouth.' " 

The next passage from the Taittirlya Brahmana, ii. 3, 10, 1, briefly 
states that tha Vedas were created after Soma : 

Prajdpatih Somam rdjdnam asrijata \ tarn trayo veddh anv asrijyanta \ 

"Prajapati created king Soma. After him the three Vedas were 
created." , 

The sam^ Brahmana in other places, as iii. 3, *2, 1, speaks of the 
Veda as derived from Prajapati (Prdjdpalyo vedali). 

S'atapatha Brahmana. According to the following passage of the 
S'atapatha Brahm'una, xiv. , 4, 10 (=Brihad Aranyaka Uparaishad, 
p. 455 of Roer's ed. and p. 179 of trans.) the Vedas, as woll as other 
S'astras, are the breath of Brahma : 

Sa yatJid drdredhdgner abhydkitdt prithag dhumdk vinischaranti evam 
vai are 'sya mahato Jhutatya ntsvasitam e'tad yad ( rigvedo yajurvedah 
sdrnavedo 'tharvdngirasah itihdsah purdnaih vidyd upanishadali ' slokdh 
sutrdny anuvydkhydndni vydkhydndni asyaiva etdni savvdni nisva- 
sitdni \ 

" As from a fire made of moist wood various' modifications of smoke 
proceed, so is the breathing of this great Being the Eig-veda, the 



Yajur-veda, the Sama-ve,da, the Atharvangirases, the Itihasas, Puranas, 
science, the Upanishads, verses (sloTtas}, aphorisms, comments of dif- 
ferent kinds all these are his'breathings." 


It is curious tiat in 'this passage the Vedas appear to be classed in 
the same category 'with various other works, such as the Sutras, from 
sorrfe Jt least ,of which (as we shall see further on), they are broadly 

> ^ * 

distinguished bjj later writers, who regard the former (including the 
Brahmanas and* Upanjshads) as of snperhuman origin, and infallible 
correctness, while this charter is exprelsly Denied to the latter, which 
are represented ,s paurusheya, or merely human compositions, possessed 
of no independent authority. 

In the Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad (pp. 50-53 of Dr. Roer's ed.) 
Prajapati [identified with Death, or the Devourer] is said to have pro- 
duced Vuch (speech), and through her, together with soul, to have 
created all things, including the Vedas : 

Sa tayd vdchd tena dtmand idam sarvam asrijata yad idam Jcincha 
richo yajumshi sdmdni chhanddmsi yajndn prajtih pasun \ 

" By that speech and that soul he created all things whatsoever, 
rich, yajush, and saman texts, metres, sacrifices, creatures, and animals." 

And in S'atapatha Brahmana, xiv. 4, 3, 12 (p. 290 of the same Bri- 
had Aranyaka Upanishad) it is said : 

Trayo veddh ete eva \ vag eva rig-vedo mand yajur-vedah pranah sdma- 
vedah \ 

"The three Vedas are [identifiable with] these three things [speech, 
mind, and breath].* Speech is the Eig-veda, mind the Ya^ur-veda, and 
breath the Sama-veda." 

The following text, from the S'atapatha Brahmana, vii. 5, 2, 52, gives 
a singular account of the production of tke Vedas : * 

"Samudte tvd sadane sadayami" iti \ Mano vai samudrah \ manaso vai 
sami(drud vdchd 'bhryd devds traylm^mdyum nirakhanan \ tad esha sloko 
'Ihyuhtah ll ye(yatt} samudrud nirahhanan devas tlkshndbhir abhribhih \ 
sudevo adya tad vifyad yatra nirvapanam chidhur" iti \ manah samudro 
vdk iihshna 'bhris trayl vidya nirvapanam \ etad esha sloko 'bhyuktah \ 
manasi taf!.*sddayati \ 

" ' I settle thee in the ocean as thy seat.' 10 Mind is the ocean. 


10 I am indebted to Professor Aufrecht for the following explanation of this formula, 
which is taken from the Vujasaneyi Sanhitu, xiii. 53. The words are addressed to a 


From the mind-ocean with speech, for a shorel the gods dug out the 
triple Vedic science. Hence this verse has been uttered : ' May the 
brilliant deity to-day know where they placed^ that offering which 
the gods dug out with sharp shovels.' Mind is the odean ; 'speech is the 
sharp shovel; the triple Vedic science is the offering. In reference 
to this the verse has been uttered. He settles it in Mind." 

The next passage from the Taittiriya Brahmana ; iii; 39, 1, speaks of 
the Yeda as being "the hair &f Prajapati's beard "" (Prajdpater vai 
etdni smasruni yad vedah}. The process of its germination is left to the 
imagination of the reader. 

In another text of the same Brahmana, Vach (speech) is called the 
mother of the Yedas : 

ii % 8, 8, 5. Vdg aTcsharam prathamajd ritat>ya veddndm maid amritasya 
ndbhih \ sd no jushdnd upa yajnam dgdd avantl devl suhavd me astu \ 
yam rishayo mantra-krito manlshinah anvaichhan deuds tapasd sramena \ 

" Yach (speech) is an imperishable thing, and the first-born of the 
ceremonial, the mother of the Yedas, and the centre-point of immor- 
tality. Delighting in us, she came to the sacrifice. May the pro- 
tecting goddess be ready to listen to my invocation, she whom the 
wise rishis, the composers of hymns, the gods, sought by austere- 
fervour, and~by laborious devotion." 

SECT. II. Origin of the Vedas according to the Vishnu, Bhdgavata, and 
MdrJcandeya Purdnas, the Harivamsa, the Mahabhdrata ; eternity of 
the Veda ; miscellaneous statements regarding it. 

In the Vishnu and Bhagavata Puranas we find a quite different 
tradition regarding the origili of the Vedas, which in these works are 
said to have been created by the four-faced Brahma froni his several 
mouths. Thus the Vishnu Puran'". says, i. 5, 48 ff. : 

Gdyatraiii cha richas chaiva trivrit-sdma-rathantaram \ dgnishtomam 
cha yajndndih nirm&me prathamdd mukhdt \ yajfmshi traiyhtubham 
chhandah stomam panchadasam tathd \ Vrihat sdma tathokthya'iii cha 
dakshindd asrijad mukhdt \ sdmdni jagatl-chhandah stomam saptadasam 

brick at th^time when the hearth (chitya) for the reception of the sacred fires is being 
constructed. As the bricks are severally called apasya (properly ' efficacious,' but 
erroneously derived from p) they are addressed as if placed in various parts of water 


tathd | vairupam atiratr&m cha paschimdd asrijad mulchdt \ elcavimsam 
atharvdnam dptorydmdnam eva cha \ Anushtulham sa vairdjam uttardd 
asrijad mukhdt \ , , 

" From*hi J s eastern mouth. Brahma formed the gayatra, the rich verses, 
the trivrit, the sa'ma-rathantara, and of sacrifices, the agnishtoma. 
From his southern mouth he 'created the yajush verses, the trishtubh. 
metre, the panclfadaSa-stoma, the vrihat-saman, and the ukthya. Prom 
his western mouth he 'formed the sam'an verses, the jagati metre, the 

J ^ 

saptadasa-stoma, the vairupa, and the atmJtr#. From his northern 
mouth he framed the ekavinsa, the atharvan, the aptoryaman, with the 
anushtubh, and viraj metres." " 

In like manner it is aid but with variations, in the Bhagavata Purana, 
iii. 12, 34, and 37 if. : 

Kadtichid dhydyatah srashtur veddh dsam chaturmulchdt \ katham 
sraksliyamy aham loJcdn samavetdn yathd purd | . . . . Rig-yajuh-sdmd- 
tharvtikhytin veddn purvddibhir mukhaiTi \ sastram y'ydm stuti-stomam 
prdyaschittam vyadhdt kramdt \ 

"Once the Yedas sprang from the four-faced creator, as he was me- 
ditating ' how shall I create the aggregate worlds as before ?'.... 
He formed from his eastern and other mouths the Yedas called rich, 
yajush, saman, and atharvan, together with praise, sacrifice, hymns, 
and expiation." 

And in verse 45 it is stated that the ushnih metre issued from his 
hairs, the gayatrl from his ^kin, the trishtubh from his flesh, the 
anushtubh from h,is tendons, the jagati from his bones (Tasyoshnig dsll 
\omebliyo gdydtrl cha tvacho vilhoh \ trishtup ^mdmsdt snuto 'nushtup 
jagaty asthnah Prajdpateh). 

Th Markandeya Purana says on the same subject, 102, 1 : 

Tasmdd lind^dd vibhinntit tu Brahmano \yakta-janmanah \ richo lalhu- 
vah fraihamam prathamdd vadandd mune \ 2. Javd-pushpa-nibhtih sadyas 
tejo-rupdnta-samhatdh \ pritliak prithag vilhinnds cha rajo-rupa-vahds 
tatah | $. Yajumshi dakshindd vaktrdd aniruddhdni Mnchanam \ yddrig- 
i-arnhm tathd-varndny asamhali-dhardni cha \ 4. Paschimam yad vilhor 
vaktram BPahmanah parameshthinah \ dvirlhutdni sdmdni tatas chhan- 
ddmsi tdny atha \ 5. Atharvanam asesham cha bhringdnjana-chaya-pral- 
ham | ghordghora-svarupam tad dlhichdrika-idntikam \ 6. uttardt pra~ 
11 See Wilson's Transl. vol. i. p. 84. 


katlbhutam vadandttasyavedhasah \ sukha-sati;a-tamah-prdyam saumyd- 
saumya-svarupavat \ 7. Richo rajo-gundh sattvam yajushdm cha guno 
mune \ tamo-gundni sdmdni tamah-saftvam atharvq-<su \ 

1. "From the eastern mouth of Brahma, who sprang *bj- an imper- 
ceptible birth from that divided egg (Manu, i. 9, 18), there suddenly 
issued first of all the rich verses, (2) resembling China" roses, brilliant 
in appearance, internally united, though separated irom each other, 
and characterized by the quality of passion '(rajas'). 3. From his 
southern mouth came,, tmrestrained, the yajush verses of the colour 
of gold, and disunited. 4. From the western mouth of the supreme 
Brahma appeared the saman verses and the metres. 5 and 6. From 
the northern mouth of Vedhas (Brahma) was manifested the entire 
Atharvana of the colour of black bees and collyrium, having a cha- 
racter at once terrible and not terrible, 12 capable of neutralizing the 
arts of enchanters, pleasant, characterized by the qualities both of 
purity and darkness, and both beautiful and the contrary. 7. The 
verses of the rich are distinguished by the quality of passion (rajas], 
those of the yajush by purity (sattva), those of the saman by darkness 
(tamas), and those of the atharvan by both darkness and purity." 

Harivamsa. In the first section of the Harivamsa, verse 47, the 
creation of th'e Vedas by Brahma is thus briefly alluded to : 

Richo yajumsM sdmdni nirmame yajna-siddhaye \ sddhyds tair ayajan 
devdn ity evam anususruma \ 

"In order to the accomplishment o sacrifice, he formed the rich, 
yajush, and saman verses: with these the S'adhy^s worshipped the 
gods, as we have heard,." 

The following is the account of the same event given in another part 
of the same work; Harivam&a, verse 11,516: 

Tato 'srijad vai tripaddm gdyatrlm veda-mdtaram \ Akwoch chaiva cha- 
turo veddn gdyatri-samlhavdn \ <. 

After framing the world, Brahma " next created the gayatrl of three 
lines, mother of the Vedas, 'and also the four Yedas f vhich sprang from 

the gayatrl." 13 


12 Ghoraghora is the correct MS. reading, as I learn from Dr. Hall, and not 
yavaddhora, as given in Professor Banerjea's printed text. 

13 The same words gayatrlm< veda-mataram also occur in the M.Bh. Vanaparvan, 
verse 13,432 ; and the same title is applied to Yach in the Taitt. Br. as quoted above, 
p 10. 


A little further on we -find this expanded into the following piece of 
mysticism, verse ll,665ff. : 

Samdhita-mand Brfihmd moksha-'prdptena hetund \ chandra-mandala- 
samsthdndj jyotis-tejo mahat tadd \ Pravisya hridayamkshipramgdyatrydh 
nayandntare \ Garbhasya sambhavo yas cha chaturdhd purmhdtmakah \ 
Brafyna-iejomcfyo \yaktok stisbato 'tha dhruvo 'vyayah \ na chendriya- 
gunair yukto yuldas tejo-gnpena cha \ chandrdmsu-vimala-prakhyo bhrd- 
jishnur varna-samsthitah \ Netrdbhydm janayad devah rig-vedam yajushd 
saJia \ s&mavedam cha jihvdgrdd atharvdnam cha*mjirddhatah \Jdta-mdtrds 
tu te veddh kshelram vindanti tattvatah \ Tena vedatvam dpannd yasmdd 
vindanti tat padam \ Te srijanti tadd veddh Irahma purvam sandtanam \ 
Purusham dtiya-riipabham svaih svair Ihdvair mano-lhavaih \ 

" For the emancipation of the world, Brahma, sunk in contem- 
plation, issuing in a luminous form from the region of the moon, 
penetrated into the heart of Gayatri, entering between her eyes. 
From her there was then produced a quadruple heing in the form 
of a Male, lustrous as Brahma, undefined, eternal, undecaying, de- 
void of bodily senses or qualities, distinguished by the attribute of 
brilliancy, pure as the rays of the moon, radiant, and embodied in 
letters. The god fashioned the Eig-veda, with the Tajush from his 
eyes, the Sama-veda from the tip of his tongue, and the Atharvan 
from his head. These Yedas, as soon as they are born, find a body 
(kshetra). Hence they obtain their character of Yedas, because they 
find (vindanti} that abode. "Bhese Vedas then create the pre-existent 
eternal brahma (<%acred science), a Male of celestial form, with their 
own mind-born qualities." 

I extract another passage on the same subject from a later section of 
the same work, verses 12,425 ff. "WhenHhe Supreme Being was intent 
on creating the universe, Hiranyagarbha, or Prajapati, issued from his 
mouth, and was desired to divide famself, a process which he was in 
great doubt how he should effect. The text then proceeds : 

Itif'Nintayatast'Hsya "o>" ity evotthitah *svarah> \ salhumdv antarllshe 
cha nuke cha kritavdn svanam \ Tarn chaivdlhyasatas tasya manah-sdra- 
mayam vunah \ hridaydd deva-devasya vashatkdrah samutthitah \ llmmy- 
antarlksha - ndkdndm bhuyah svardtmakah paruh \ mahdsmritimaydh 
puny uh mahavydhritayo'bhavan \ chhandasdih pravard devl chaturvimsd- 
kshard 'bhavat \ Tat-padam samsmaran divyam stivitrlm akarot prabhuh \ 



rik-samatharva-yajushas chaturo lhagavan pralhuh \ chakdra nikhildn 
veddn brahma-yulctena Jcarmana \ 

"While he was thus reflecting, the oound " om" issued from him, 
and resounded through the earth, dir,, and igkyV ^Vhilg the god of 
gods was again and again repeating this, the essence of mind, the 
vashatkara proceeded from his heart. Next, the sacred and trr.nsten- 
dent vyahritis, (bhuh, bhuvah, svar), formed of the great smriti, iii the 
form of sound, were produced frqm earth, ai/, and sky.. Then appeared 
the goddess, the most excellent of metres^ with twenty-four syllables 
[the gayatri]. Reflecting on the divine text [beginning with] " tat," 
the Lord formed the savitri. He then produced all the Vedas, the Rich, 
Saman, Atharvan, and Yajush, with their prayers and rites." (See also 
the passage from the Bhag. Pur. xii. 6, 37 if, , which will be quoted in 
a following section.) 

Mahdlhurata. The Mahabharata in one passage speaks of Sarasvati 
and the Vedas as being both created by Achyuta (Vishnu) from his 
mind (Bhishma-parvan, verse 3019 : Sarasvatlm cha veddms cha manasah 
sasrije ' chyutaK}. In another place, S'anti-parvan, verse 12,920, Saras- 
vati is said, in conformity with the texts quoted above, pp. 10 and 12, 
from the Taittiriya Brahmana, the Vana-parvan, and the Harivamsa, 
to be the mother of the Vedas : 

Feddndm mataram past/a mat-sthdm devlm Sarasvatlm \ 
"Behold Sarasvati, mother of the Vedas, abiding in me." 
Manu. According to the verses in Manu, xii. 49, 50, quoted in the 
First Volume of this work, p. 41, the Vtdas, with foe other beings and 
objects named along with them, constitute the second manifestation of 
the sattva guna, or purb principle ; while Brahma is placed in a higher 
rank, as one of the .first manifestations of the same principle. Thf word 
Veda in this passage is explained by Kulluka of those ," embodied 
deities, celebrated in the Itihasas, who preside over the Vedas " ( Veda- 
bhimtininyas cha devatdh vigrahavatyah itihasa-prasiddah}. 

SECT. III. Passages 'of the Bruhmanas and other ifforJcs in wt-ich the 
Vedas are spoken of as being the sources of all things, and as infinite 
and eternal. 

The first text of this sort which I shall cite Is from the S'atapatha 
Brahmana, x. 4, 2, 21 : 


Atha sarvani Ihutdni 'yaryaikshat \ sa trayydm eva vidydydm sarvani 
Ihutdny apasyat \ attra hi sarveshdm chhandasdm dtmd sarveshdm stomd- 
ndm sarveshdm prdndndm sarveshdm devdndm \ etad vai asti \ etad hy 
amritam \ $<M hy \mritcfm tad hy asti \ etad ^ tad yad martyam \ 22. Sa 
aikshata Prajdpdtih " trayydm vdva vidydydm sarvdni bhutdni \ hanta 
traylm eva vidgdm dtmayam dibhisamslcaravai" iti \ 23. Sa richo vyau- 
hat | dvddasa Irihatl-sahasriiny etdvatyo ha richo ydh Prajdpati-srishtds 
ids trimsattame vyuhe panldishv atishthanta \ tdh yat trimsattame vyuhe 
itishthaftta tasmdt trimsad mdsasya rdtrayah \,atha yat panktishu tasmat 
pdnktah Prajdpatih \ tdh ashtdsatam satdni panktayo 'bhavan \ 

21. " Then he looked around upon all beings. He beheld all beings 
in this triple Yedic science. For in it is the soul of all metres, of all 
hymns of praise, of all breaths, of all the gods. This/indeed, exists. 14 
It is an undying thing. For that which is undying (really) exists. 
This is that which is mortal. 15 Prajapati reflected, 'All beings are com- 
prehended in the triple Vedic science : come let me dispose myself in the 
shape of the triple Vedic science. 16 He arranged the yerses of the llig- 
veda. Twelve thousand Brihatis, and as many Rich-verses which were 
created by Prajapati, stood in rows in the thirtieth class. Since they 
stood in the thirtieth class there are thirty nights in the month. Since 
they stood in rows (pankti] Prajapati is called Pankta. They formed 
eighteen hundreds of rows." 

The next text, from the Taittirlya Brahmana, iii. 12, 9, 1, speaks of 
the three Vedas as being respectively the sources of form, motion, and 
heat, or brilliancy : 

Riglhyojdtdm sarvaso murttim dhuh sarvd gatir ydjushl haiva Sasvat \ 
sarvam tejah sdma-rupyam ha sasvat \ 

" They say that form universally proceeds frofh rich yerses; that 
motion is always connected with the yajush, and that all heat has the 
nature of the saman." ,, 

We have already seen, p. 6, that Manu (i. 21) speaks of the names, 

- B ! 

14 > "Always exists" (sarvada vidyate). Comm. 

15 On this the commentator remarks : Yach cha martyam marana-dharmaJcam ma- 
nushyadi lad apy etat trayl-bhutam eva \ ato martlyamritatmakam sarvam jagad 
attrantarbhutam \ " And that which is mortal, subject to death, the human race, etc., 
is also one with the triple'Vedic science. Hence the latter includes all Ifce world both 
mortal and immortal." 

16 I owe this interpretation of this clause to Prof. Aufrecht. 


functions, and conditions of all things as fashioned from the words of 
the Veda. It is similarly said in the Vishnu Parana, i. 5, 58 : 

Nama, rupam cha bhutdndm kritydtwih cha praverttanaih \ Veda-sdb- 

* ,- 

debJiya evddau devddlndm < chakdra sah \ risJilndm ndmadhey-ani yathd 

veda-srutdni vai \ yathd-niyoga-yogydni sarvesham api so 'karot \ 

11 In the beginning he created from the' words ef the Veda the names, 
forms, and functions of the gods and other* beings'. He also assigned 
the names of all the rishis as indicated in the Vedas, and as, appro- 

l t i 

priate to their respective^ effices." 

The same idea is repeated in the Mahabharata, S'antiparvan, 8533 : 

Rishayas tapasd veddn adhyaishanta divdnisam \ An-ddi-nidhand 
vidyd vdg utsrishtd SvayamWmvd \ ddau vedama$l divyd yatah sarvdh 
pravrittayah \ rishmdm ndmadheydni yds cha vedeshu srislitayah \ ndnd- 
rupam cJia bhutdndm Jcarmandm cha pravarttayan (pravarttanam?} \ 
veda-sabdelhya evddau nirmimlte sa Isvarah \ 

" Through austere-fervour (tapas) the rishis studied the Vedas, both 
day and night. In the beginning knowledge (vidydy without begin- 
ning or end, divine speech, formed of the Vedas, was sent forth by 
Svayambhu (= Brahma, the self-existent) : from her all activities are 
derived. It is from the words of the Veda that the lord in the begin- 
ning frames the names of the rishis, the creations which (exist) in the 
Vedas, the various forms of beings, and the activity manifested in works." 

The Mangalacharana, or prayer prefixed to their commentaries on 
the Eik Sanhita and Taittirlya Sanhita, V/ both Say^na and Madhava, 
is as follows : , 

Yasya nissvasitam vedahyo vedebhyo 'khilamjagat \ nirmame tarn ahaih 
vande vidyd-tlrtham mahesvaram \ 

" I reverence Mahesvara th6 hallowed abode of sacred knowledge, of 
whom the Vedas are the breathings, and who from the Yedas formed 
the whole universe." ' 

The following passage from the Taittirlya Brahmana, iii. 10, 11, 3, 
asserts that the Vedas are infinite in extent : < n 

Hharadvdjo ha tribhir dyurlhir Irahmacharyyam uvdsa \ tarn ha jlr'nim 


17 In quoting this line in a passage of his Vedartha-prakas'a, or^coramentary on the 
Taittiriya Saif'iita, which I shall, adduce further on, Madhava Aclmryya gives the 
reading nitya, ' eternal,' instead of vidya, ' knowledge.' It is possible that the line 
may be taken from some other hook. 



sthavtram saydnam Indrah upavrajya uvdcha \ " Sharadvdja yat te cJia- 
turtham dyur dadydm kirn etena kuryydh" iti \ " brahmacharyyam eva 
enena char ey am " iti fyi uvdcha \ 4* Tarn ha trin giri-rupdn avijndtdn iva 
, darsaydnchaiidra \ teshdm ha ekaikasmdd mushtim ddade \ sa ha uvdcha 
"Sharadvdja" ity dmantrya \ "veddhvai ete \ anantdh vai veddh \ etad 
vai etais tribhif- dyurbfcn anvavocJiathdh \ atha te itarad ananuktam eva \ 
ehi tmam viddhi j" aytiih vai^sarva-vidyti " iti \ 5. Tasmai ha etam agnim 
sdvitram uvdcha \ tamsa viditvd amrito^ bhutvd svargam lokam iydya 
ddityasya sdyujyam \ amrito ha eva Ihutvd svargam lokam ety ddityasya 
sdyujyam yah ev&m veda \ eshd u eva trayl vidya \ 6. Ydvantam ha vai 
trayyd vidyayd lokam jayati tdvantam lokam jay ati yah evam veda \ 

"Bharadvaja lived through, three lives 18 in the state of a religious 
student (brahmacharyya). 'Indra approached him when he was lying 
old and decrepit, and said to him : ' Bharadvaja, if I give thee a fourth 
life, how wilt thou employ it ? ' 'I will lead the life of a religious 
student,' he replied. 4. He (Tndra) showed him three mountain-like 
objects, as it were unknown. From each of them he took a handful : 
and, calling to him, 'Bharadvaja,' said, 'These are the Yedas. The 
Yedas are infinite. This is what thou hast studied during these three 
lives. Now there is another thing which thou hast not studied, come 
and learn it. This is the universal science.' 5. He declared to hjrn 
this Agni Savitra. Having known it he (Bharadvaja) became immortal, 
and ascended to the heavenly world, to union with the sun. He who 
knows this ascends to heavei\ to union with the sun. This is the 
triple Vedic science. He who knows this conquers a world as great as 
h'e would gain by the triple Vedic science." , 

Another text from the Taittiriya Sanhita, vii. 3, 1, 4, puts the 
matter 'somewhat differently : 

Atha branma. (jbrahma-vddino ?) vadanti parimitdh vai richah parimi- 
tdni sumdni parimitdni yajumshi athn tasya eva anto ndsti yad brahma \ 

"The expounders of sacred science say, 'Rich verses are limited, 
saman verses are Iknited, yajush verses are limited; but there is no 
end of sacred knowledge." 

Vishnu Parana. At the end of Section 6 of the third book of the 

18 This does not appear to mean, three lives in three different births, but a life of 
thrice the usual length, or already twice renewed. , 



Vishnu Purana we have the following assertion of the eternity of the 

Iti sdkhdh prasankhydtdh sdkhd-bhedas tathaiva cha \ karttdras chaiva 
sdkhdndm Wwda-hetus tatJyditah \ sarvd-manvahtaresM? evai&djthd-bheddh 
samdh smritdh \ Prdjdpatyd srutir nityd tad-vikalpds tv ime dvija \ 

" Thus the S'akhas, their divisions, tlieir authors, ard the fcaus"e of 
the division have been declared. In all the manrantaras the divisions 
of the S'akhas are recorded to be the same. The sriiti (Veda) derived 
from Prajapati (Brahma)-,is eternal : these, 1 o Brahman, are onlyits mo- 

In another passage of the same book, Vishnu is identified with the 
Vedas: Vishnu Purana, iii. 3, 19ff. : r 

Sa rin-mayah sa sdmamayah sa cJidtmd ' sa yajurmayah \ rig-yajuh- 
sdma-sdrdtmd sa evdtmd sarlrindm \ sa Ihidyate vedamayah sa vedam 
karoti bhedair bahubhih sasdkham \ sdkJid-pranetd sa samasta-sdkhdh 
jndna-svarupo bhagavdn anantah \ 

" He is composed of the Eich, of the Saman, of the Yajush ; he is the 
soul. Consisting of the essence of the Rich, Yajush, and Saman, he is 
the soul of embodied spirits. Formed of the Veda, he is divided ; he 
forms the Veda and its branches (sdkhds] into many divisions. Framer 
of the S'akhUs, he is also their entirety, the infinite lord, whose essence 
is knowledge." 

SECT. IV. Passages from the S'atapatJia Brdhmana and Manu, eulogistic 
of the Veda, with ( some statements of a different tenor from Manu and 
other writers. 

r i 

The following panegyric on Vedic study is taken from the S'atapatha 
Brahmana, xi. 5, 6, 1 : , , 

Pancha eva mahdyajndh \ tdny eva mahdsattrdni Ihuta-yajno manu- 
shya-yajnah pitri-ycjno deva-yajno lrah,ma-yajnah t iti \ 2. Ahar ahar 
bhutebhyo balim haret \ tathd etam bhuta-yajnam samdpnoti \ ahcr ahar 
dadydd d uda-pdtrdt tathd etam manushya-yajnaih samdpno'i \ ahar ahah 
svadhdkurydd d uda-pdtrdt tathd etam pitri-yajnam samdpnoti \ ahar ahah 

(} c 

svdhdkurydd d kdshthdt' tathd etam deva-yajnam samdpnoti \ 3. Atha 
brahma-yajnah \ svddhydyo vai brahma-yajnah \ tasya vai etasya brahma- 


yajnasya vug eva juhur mhnah upalhrich chakshur dhruvd medhd sruvah 
satyam avabhrithah svargo lokah udayanam \ ydvantam ha vai imam pri- 
thivlm vittena purndfy dadaih lokayi Jayati tris tdvantam jayati bhuydm- 
sam cha ofcshayyam yad evam vidvdn ahar *ahah svddhydyam adhite \ 
tasmdt svddhydyo 'dhetavyah \ 4. Paya-dhutayo ha vai etdh devdndm yad 
richah ] sa ycfh evam vidvdn 1 richo 'har ahah svddhydyam adhite paya- 
dhutibhir eva tad" detains tarpayati \ te enam triptds tarpayanti yoga- 
kshemenq prdnena retasA sarvdtmand sarvdbhih punydbhih sampadbhih \ 
ghritaJwlydh madhu-kulydh pitrln svadhd abMuahanti \ 5. Ajydhutay 
ha vai etdh devdndm yad yajumshi \ sa yah evam vidvdn yajumshy ahar 
ahah svddhydyam adhite djydhutibhir eva tad devdms tarpayati te enam 
triptds tarpayanti yogn-kshemena ityddi \ 6. Somdhutayo ha vai etdh 
devdndm yat sdmdni \ sa yah evam vidvdn sdmdny ahar ahah svddhydyam 
adhite somdhutibhir eva tad devdms tarpayati ityddi \ 7. Meda-dhutayo 
ha vai etdh devdndm yad atharvdngirasah \ sa yah evam vidvdn atharvdn- 
giraso 'har ahah svddhydyam adhite meda-dhutibhir eva tad devdms tar- 
payati ityddi | 8. Madhv-dhutayo ha vai etdh devdndm yad anusdsandni 
vidyd vdkovdkyam itihdsa-purdnam gdthdh ndrdsamsyah \ sa yah evam vid- 
vdn ityddi | 9. Tasya vai etasya brahma-yajnasya chatvdro vazhatkdrdh 
yad vdto vdti yad vidyotate yat stanayati yad avasphurjati \ tasmdd evam 
vidvdn vdte vdti vidyotamdne stanayaty avasphurjaty adhlylta eva vashgt- 
kdrdndm achhambatkdrdya \ ati ha vai punar mrityum muchyate gachhati 
Jirahmanah sdtmatdm \ sa died api prabalam iva na saknuydd apy ekam 
deva-padam adhlylta eva tathd tyutebhyo na hlyate \ xi. 5, 7, 1 : Atha 
atah svddhydya-pra^amsd \ priye svddhydya-pravachane bhavatah \ yukta- 
m'andh bhavaty aparddhlno 'har ahar arthdn sddkayate sukham svapiti 
parama-chikitsakah dtmano bhavati \ indriya-samyamas cha ekdrdmatd 
cha prajnd-vriddhir yaso loka-paktih \ prajnd varddhamdnd chaturo dhar- 
mdn brtihmanai abhinishpddayati brdhmanyam pratirupa-charyydm yaso 
loka-pjJdim \ lokah pachyamdnas chaturbhir dharmair brdhmanam bhun- 
akty archayd cha ddnena cha a^yeyatayd cha abadhyatayd cha \ 2. Ye ha vai 
ke cha srayidh ime dydvd-prithivl antarena svddhydyo ha eva teshdm para- 
matd "kdshthd yah evam vidvdn svddhydyam adhite \ tasmdt svddhydyo 
'dhetavyah \ ^3. Yad yad ha vai ayam chhandasah svddhydyam adhite tena 
tena ha eva asya yajna-kratund ishtarn bhavati yah evam vidvdn^svddhyd- 
yam adhite \ tasmdt svddhydyo 'dhetavyah \ 4*. Yadi ha vai apy abhyak- 
tah alankritah suhitah sukhe sayane saydnah sjddhydyam adhite d ha 



eva sa nalchdgrebhyas tapyate yah evam vidvdn svddhydyam adhlte \ tas- 
mdt svddhydyo 'dhetavyah \ 5. Madhu ha vai richo ghritarn ha sdmdny 
amritam yajumshi \ yad ha vai aya>"n vdltovdkyam adhlte hshlraudana- 
mdmsaudanau ha eva tau *\ 6. Madhund ha vai esha devdihs^ta^payati yah 
evam vidvdn richo 'har ahah svddhydyam adhlte \ te enam triptds tarp'a- 
yanti sarvaih kdmaih sarvair Ihogaih \ V. Ghritena ha* vai esha devdms 
tarpayati yah evam vidvdn sdmdny ahar aj>,ah svddKydyam adhlte \ te 
enam triptdh ityddi \ 8. Anritena ha vai esha devdms tarpqyati yah 
evam vidvdn yajumshy' ahar ahah svddhydyam adhlte \ te enarr. triptdh 
ityddi \ 9. Kshlraudana-mdmsaudandbhydm ha vai esha devdms tarpa- 
yati yah evam vidvdn vdlcovdkyam itihdsa-purdnam ity ahar ahah svd- 
dhydyam adhlte | te enam triptdh ityddi \ 1C. Yanti vai dpah \ ety 
ddityah \ eti chandramdh \ yanti nakshattrdni \ yathd ha vai na iyur na 
kuryur evam ha eva tad ahar brdhmano lhavati yad ahah svddhydyam na 
adhlte | tasmdt svddhydyo 'dhetavyah \ tasmdd apy richam vd yajur vd 
sdma vd gdthdm vd Icumvydm vd alhivydhared vratasya avyavachheddya \ 
11 There are only five great sacrifices, which are the great ceremonies, 
viz., the offering to living creatures, 19 the offering to men, the offering 
to the fathers, the offering to the gods, and the Veda-offering (brahma- 
yajna). 2. Let an oblation be daily presented to living creatures. Thus 
the offering to them is fulfilled. Let (hospitality) be daily bestowed even 
down to the bowl of water. Thus is the offering to men fulfilled. Let 
the oblation to the fathers be daily presented, 20 down to the bowl of water 
with the svadha formula. Thus is th/, offering to the fathers fulfilled. 
Let the oblation to the gods be daily presented as, far as the faggot of 
wood. Thus is the offering to the gods fulfilled. 3. Next is the Veda- 
offering. This nieans private study 21 (of the sacred books). In this 
Veda-sacrifice speech is the juhu, the soul the upabhrit, the eye the 
dhruva, intelligence the sruva," truth the ablution, and paradise 

19 This sacrifice, as I learn from Prof. Aufrecht, consists in scattering grain for the 
benefit of birds, etc. See Bobtlingk and Roth's I exicon, s.v. bali. In regard to the 
other sacrifices see CoMirooke's Misc. Essays, i. pp. 150, 15'?, 182 fF., 203 ff. 

20 In explanation of this Professor Aufrecht refers to Katyayana's S'rautg Sutras, 
iv. 1, 10, and Manu, iii. 210, 214, 218. 

21 Svadhyayah sva-sakhadhyanam \ " Reading of the Veda in one's own s'akha." 
Comm. , 

21 These words denote saciificial spoons or ladles of different kinds of wood. See 
the drawings of them in Prof. Miiller's article on the funeral rites of the Brahmans, 
Journ. of the Germ. Or. Sec. vol. ix. pp. Ixxviii. and Ixxx. 


the conclusion. He who, knowing this, daily studies the Veda, 
conquers an undecaying world more than thrice as great as that 
which he acquires^ wio bestows, tibis whole earth filled with riches. 
'Wherefore 'the Veda should be studied. 4* Verses of the Big-veda 

are milk- oblations to the gods. He who, knowing this, daily reads 


these verses, satisfies th gods with milk-oblations; and they being 

satisfied, satisfy t him wit 1 ! property, with breath, with generative 
power, \rith complete 6odily soundness, iwith all excellent blessings. 
Streams 'of butter, streams of honey flow as sVadha-oblations to the* 
fathers. 5. Yajush-verses are offerings of butter to the gods. He who, 
knowing this, daily reads these verses, satisfies the gods with offerings 
of butter ; and they, ' being satisfied, satisfy him, etc. (as in the 
preceding paragraph). 6. Saman-verses are soina-libations to the gods. 
He who, knowing this, daily reads these verses, satisfies the gods with 
soma-libations ; and they being satisfied, satisfy him, etc. (as above). 

7. Verses of Atharvan and Angiras (atharvangirasah} are oblations 
of fat to the gods. He who, knowing this, daily reads these verses, 
satisfies the gods with oblations of fat; and they etc. (as above). 

8. Prescriptive and scientific treatises, dialogues, traditions, tales, 
verses, and eulogistic texts are oblations of honey to the gods. He 
who, knowing this, daily reads these, satisfies the gods with oblations 
of honey ; and they etc. (as above). 9. Of this Veda-sacrifice there 
are four Vashatkaras, when the wind blows, when it lightens, when it 
thunders, when it crashes ; wheifefore when it blows, lightens, thunders, 
or, crashes, let the man, who knows this, read, in order that these Va- 
shatkaras may not be interrupted. 24 He who "does so is freed from 
dying a second time, and attains to an union with Ityahma. Even if 
he cannot read vigorously, let him read one text relating to the gods. 
Thus he is not deprived of his living creatures." 

xi. 5, 7, 1 : " N'ow comes an enco*mium upon Vedic study. Study 
and teaching are loved. He (who practise^ them) becomes composed 
in mind." Independent of others, he daily attains his objects, sleeps 
pleasantly, becomes his own best physician. Control of his senses, con- 
centration of mind, increase of intelligence, renown, capacity to educate 
mankind [are the result&of study]. Increasing intelligence secures for 

23 The Atharva Sanhita is so called. 

21 See Bothlingk and Eoth's Lexicon, < chhambat. 


the Brahman the four attributes of saintliness, suitable conduct, renown, 
and capacity for educating mankind. ~Whe,n so educated, men guarantee to 
the Brahman the enjoyment of the four, prerogatives which are his due, 
reverence, the receipt of gifts, freedom from oppression, and from death ' 
by violence. 2. Of all the modes of exertion, which are known betw.een 
heaven and earth, study of the Yeda occupies fhfe highest rank, (iv the 
case of him) who, knowing this, studies it. therefore this study is to 
be practised. 3. On every occasion when a man studies the Yedic 
kymns he (in fact) performs a complete ceremonial of sacrifice, i.e. 
whosoever, knowing this, so studies. "Wherefore this "study, etc., etc. 
4. And even when a man, perfumed with unguents, adorned with 
jewels, satiated with food, and reposing on a comfortable couch, studies 
the Veda he (has all the merit of one who) performs penance (felt) to 
the very tips of his nails : 23 (such is the case with him) who, knowing 
this, studies. "Wherefore etc. 5. Rig-veda -verses are honey, Sama- 
verses butter, yajus-verses nectar (amrita). "When a man reads dia- 
logues (yakovakya} [and legends], these two sorts of composition are 
respectively oblations of cooked milk and cooked flesh. 6. He who, 
knowing this, daily reads Eig-veda-verses, satisfies the gods with 
honey ; and they, when satisfied, satisfy him with all objects of desire? 
and with all enjoyments. 7. He who, knowing this, daily reads Sama- 
verses, satisfies the gods with butter ; and they, when satisfied, etc. (as 
before). 8. He who, knowing this, daily reads Yajus-verses, satisfies 
the gods with, nectar ; and they, etc. (ds before). ,9. He who, knowing 
this, daily studies dialogues and the different classec- of ancient stories, 
satisfies the gods with milk- and flesh-oblations ; and they, etc. (as 
before). 10. The waters move. The sun moves. The moon moves. 
The constellations move. The Brahman who on any day does not study 
the Yeda, is on that day like what these moving bodies would be if the 
ceased to move or act. "Wherefore such study is to be practised'. Let 


25 This sentence is differently rendered by Professor "WebCr, Ind. Stud, x. p. 112, 
as follows: "He burns (with sacred fire) to the Tery tips of his naik." In 
a later page of the same Essay we are told that according to th/> doctrine of a 
teacher called Naka Maudgalya as stated in the Taittiriya Aranyaka, the study and 
teaching o the Veda are the real tapas (svadhyaya-pravachane eva tad hi tapah]. In 
the text of the Aranyaka itself, vii. 8, it is declared that study and teaching should 
always accompany such spiritual or ritual acts as ritam, satyam, lapas, dama, sama, 
the agnihotra sacrifice, etc. <-See Indische Studien, ii. 214, and x. 113. 



a man therefore present tJs his offering a verse of the Rig-veda, or the 
Saman, or the Yajush, or a Gatha, or a Kuril vya, in order that the 
course of his observances may no^ be interrupted." 

i Manu e'sap'loys the foftowing honorific expressions in reference to the 
Vedas (xii. 94 ff.) : 

Pitn-deva-ntanushydjivm veSas chakshuh sandtanam \ asakyam chdpra- 
meyam cha veda'sdstram iti sthitih \ Yd veda-vdhydh smritayo yds cha 
Mscha kudrishtayah \ 6 sarvds td ni&hphaldh pretya tamo-nishthdh hi 
tdh smtiitah \ TTtpadyante chyavante cha ydny &fy 'nydni Icdnichit \ Tdny 
arvdk-kdlikataya z7 nishphaldny anritdni cha \ Chdturvarnyam trayo lokui 
chatvdras chdiramdh prithak \ Bhutam lhavad lhavishyam cha sarvam 
veddt prasiddhyati \ tsabdah sparsas cha rupam cha raso gandhas cha 
panchamah \ veddd eva prasiddhyanii prasuti-guna-Jcarmatah \ Bibhartti* 8 
sarva-lhutdni veda-$astram sandtanam \ Tasmdd etat param manye yaj 

' jantor asya sddhanam \ Saindpatyaih cha rdjyaih cha danda-netritvam 
eva cha \ sarva-lolcddhipatyam cha veda-sdstra-vid arhati \ Yathd jdta- 
lalo vahnir dahaty drdrdn api drumdn \ tathd dahati veda-jnah karma- 
jam dosham dtmanah \ veda-sdstrdrtha-tattva-jno yatra tatrdsrame vasan \ 
ihaiva loke tishthan sa Irahmabhuydya kalpate \ 

lt The Veda is the eternal eye of the fathers, of gods, and of men ; 
it is beyond human power and comprehension ; this is'a certain con- 
clusion. Whatever traditions ar'e apart from the Veda, and all heretical 
views, are fruitless in the next world, for they are declared to be 
founded on darkness. All o^ier [books] external to the Veda, which 
arise and pass aw^y, are worthless and false from their recentness of 
date. The system of the four castes, the three worlds, the four states 
of life, all that -has been, now is, or shall be, is made manifest by the 

26 Drishtartha-vakyani" chaitya-vandanat svargo bhavati " ity admi yani cha asat- 
tarha-mulani devata-purvadi-niralcaranatmakani veda-viruddhani charvaka-darsa- 
nani\ "That is, deductions from experience of the visible world; such doctrines as 
that ' heaven is attained by obeisance to a chaitya,' and similar Chiirvaka tenets 
founded on false reasonings, contradicting the existence of the gods, and the efficacy 
of religious rites, andcontrary to the Vedas." Kulluka. 

27 > Idariintanatvat \ "From their modernness." Kulluka. 

28 " Havi\ agnau huyate \ so 'gnir adityam ttpasarpati \ tat suryo raimibhir var- 
shati \ tenannam bhavati \ at ha iha bhutanam utpatti-sthitti cheti havir jay ate " iti 
brahmanam \ " ' The oblation is cast into the fire ; fire reaches the sun ; the sun causes 
rain by his rays ; thence food is produced; thus thetoblation becomes tl& cause of the 
generation and maintenance of creatures on this earth ; ' so says a Brahmana." 



Yeda. The objects of touch and taste, sound/ form, and odour, as the 
fifth, are made known by the Veda, together with their products, qua- 
lities, and the character of their action,. The eternal Veda supports all 
beings : hence I regard it as the principal insti-umenl of weU-being to 
this creature, man. Command of armies, royal authority, the adminis- 
tration of criminal justice, and the sovereignty f all wbrlds, he ajone 
deserves who knows the Veda. As fire, when it 'has* acquired force, 
burns up even green trees, so hfe who knows the Veda consumes the 

'* <" i 

taint of his soul which has been contracted from works. He who 
comprehends the essential meaning of the Veda, in whatever order of 
life he may be, is prepared for absorption into Brahma, even while 
abiding in this lower world." 

The following are some further miscellaneous passages of the same 
tenor, scattered throughout the Institutes (Manu, ii. lOff.) : 

S'rutis tu vedo vijneyo dharma-sdstram tu vai smritih \ te sarvdrtheshv 
amlmdmsye tdbJiydm dharmo hi nirlabhau \ 11. Yo 'vamanyeta te mule 
hetu-sdstrdiraydd dvijah \ sa sddhubhir vahishlcdryyo ndstilco veda-ninda- 
kah ] . . . . 13. Dharmam jijndsamdndndm pramdnam paramam srutih \ 

" By sruti is meant the Veda, and by smriti the institutes of law : 
the contents of these are not to be questioned by reason, since from 
them [a knowledge of] duty has shone forth. The Brahman who, 
relying on rationalistic treatises, 29 shall contemn these two primary 
sources of knowledge, must be excommunicated by the virtuous as a 

sceptic and reviler of the Vedas 1/5. To those who are seeking a 

knowledge of duty, the sruti is the supreme authority,-" 

In the following passage, the necessity of a knowledge of Brahma is 
asserted, though the practice of ritual observances is also inculcated 
(vi. 82 ff.) : 

Dhydnikam sarvam evaitad yad etad alhisalditam \ na hy. anadhydtma- 
rit Icaschit kriyd-phalam updsnute \<.adhiyajnam trahma japed ddkidai- 
vikam eva cJia \ ddhyatmikam cha satatam veddntdlhihitam cha yat \ Idam 
saranam ajndndm idam eva vyanatdm \ idam anmchcWitjtdm svargqm idam 

dnantyam ichchhatdm \ 


19 This, however, must be read in conjunction with the precept in xii. 106, which 
declares : arshaih dharmopadtsam cha veda-sastravirodhinq \ yas tarkenanusandhaite 
sa dharmam veda naparah \ " H(J, and he only is acquainted with duty, who investi- 
gates the inj unctions of the rishis, and the precepts of the smriti, by reasonings which 
do not contradict the Veda." " 


" All this which has been now declared is dependant on devout me- 
ditation : no one who is .ignorant of the supreme Spirit can reap the 
fruit of ceremonial acts. Let a man repeat texts relating to sacrifice, 
1 texts relating* to deities, {exts relating to the Supreme Spirit, and what- 
ever is declared in the concluding portions of the Veda (the Upanishads). 

' \> * 

This Veda] is the reftige of the ignorant, as well as of the under- 
standing ; it is he refuge of those who are seeking after paradise, as 
well as ( of those who ar} desiring infinity," 

The following text breathes a moral spirit, 6y= representing purity o5 
life as essential to the reception of benefit from religious observances 
(ii. 97): 

Fredas tydgai cha y'ajnds cha niyamds cha tapdmsi cha \ na vipra- 
dushta-lhdvasya siddhim gachhanti karchichit \ 

r "The Yedas, almsgiving, sacrifices, observances, austerities, are in- 
effectual to a man of depraved disposition." 

The doctrine which may be drawn from the following lines does not 
seem so favourable to morality (xi. 261 ff.) : 

Hatvd lokdn apimdms trin asnann api yatastatah \ Rigvedam dhdrayan 
vipro nainah prdpnoti kinchana \ Riksamhitdm trir alhyasya yajushdm 
va samdhitah \ sdmndm vd sa-rahasydndm sarva-ptipaih pramucJiyate | 
yathd mahd-hradam prdpya kshiptam loshtam vinasyati \ tathd duscha- 
ritam sarvam vede trwriti majjati \ 

"A Brahman who should destroy these three worlds, and eat food 
received from any quarter whatever, would incur no guilt if he retained 
in his memory theiRig-veda. Repeating thrice with intent mind the 
Sanhita of the Eik, or the Yajush, or the Samao, with the Upanishads, 
he is freed from all his sins. Just as a clod thrown ipto a great lake is 
dissolved when it touches the water, so does all sin sink in the triple 

Considering the sacredness ascribed in the preceding passages to all 
the Vedas, the characteristics assigned to three of them in the passage 
quoted rbove (p. Il5) from the Harkandeya Pufana, as well as the 
epithet applied to the Sama-veda in the second of the following verses 
are certainly remarkable ; (Manu, iv. 123ff.) : 

Sdma-dhvandv rig-yajyslil nddhlylta kaddchana \ vedasyddhi^ya vd 'py 
antam dranyakam adhltya cha \ Rigvedo deva-daivatyo yajurvedas tu 
mdmishah \ Sdmavedah smritah pitryas tasmdt -tasydsuchir dhvanih \ 


" Let no one read the Rich or the Tajush while the Saman is sounding 
in his ears, or after he has read the conclusion of the Yeda (i.e. the 
TJpanishads) or an Aranyaka. The Rig-veda fcas the gods for its 
deities; the Yajur-veda Ifes men for its objects; the Sama-veda has 
the pitris for its divinities, wherefore its sound is impure." 

The scholiast Kulluka, however, will not allow that the sound qf the 
Sama-veda can be really "impure." "If- has,*' he says, "only a 
semblance of impurity " (tasn\dt tasya asuchir voa dhvanih \ na tv asu- 
chir eva]. In this remark he evinces the tendency, incident too many 
systematic theologians, to ignore all those features of the sacred text on 
which they are commenting which are at variance with their theories 
regarding its absolute perfection. As it was t'he opinion of his age 
that the Veda was eternal and divine, it was, he considered, impossible 
that impurity or any species of defect could be predicated of any of its 
parts; and every expression, even of the highest authorities, which 
contradicted this opinion, had to be explained away. I am not in a 
position to state how this notion of impurity came to be attached to the 
Sama-veda. The passage perhaps proceeded from the adherents of 
some particular Vedic school adverse to the Sama-veda; but its sub- 
stance being found recorded in some earlier work, it was deemed of 
sufficient authority to find a place in the miscellaneous collection ot 
precepts, gathered no doubt from different quarters, and perhaps not 
always strictly consistent with each other, which make up the 
Hanava-dharma-sastra. f> 

Vishnu Purdna. The following passage from the f Yishnu Purana, at 
the close, ascribes the,, same character of impurity to the Sama-veda, 
though on different grounds, Yish. Pur. ii. 1 1 , 5 : 

Yd tu saktih para Vishnor rig-yajuh-sdma-sanjnitd \ saishd trayl 
tapaty amho jagatas cha hinasti yat \ saiva Vishnuh sthitah sthitydfii 
jagatah pdlanodyatah \ rig-yajufosdma-bhuto 'ntah sai'itur dvija tish- 
thati | mdsi mdsi ravir yo yas tatra tatra hj sd pard \ traylmayl VisJmu- 
saktir avasthtinam k&roti vai \ Richas tapanti purt&hne madhy-ahne 'tha 
yajumshy atha \ vrihadrathantarddlni sdmtiny ahnah kshaye ravau \ 
angam eshd trayl Vishnor rig-yajuh-sdma-sanjnitd \ Vislinu-saktir avas- 
thdnam wyusdditye karoti sd \ na Icevalam ravau saktir vaithnavl sd tra- 
ylmayl | Brahmd 'tha Purusho Rudras tray am etat traylmayam \ sar- 
gdddv rinmayo Brahmd $thitau Vishnur yajurmayah \ Rudrah sdmamayo 
'ntdya tasmdt tasydsuchir dhvanih \ 


"The supreme energy of Vishnu, called the Rich, Yajush, and 
Saman this triad burns up s\n and all things injurious to the world. 
During the continuance of the world, this triad exists as Vishnu, who is 
occupied ih the preservation of the universe, %nd who in the form of the 
Rich, Yajush, and Saman, abides within the sun. That supreme energy 
of Yishnu, consisting ofthe triple Yeda, dwells in the particular form 
of the sun, which' presides *>ver each month. The Rich verses shine in 
the moaning sun, the Taju^sh verses in, the meridian beams, and the 
Yrihad^athantara and other Sama verses in *his declining niys. This 
triple Yeda is the body of Yishnu, and this his energy abides in the 
monthly sun. But not only does this energy of Yishnu, formed of 
the triple Yeda, reside in the sun : Brahma, Purusha (Yishnu), and 
Rudra also constitute a triad formed of the triple Yeda. Acting in 
creation, Brahma is formed of the Rig-veda ; presiding over the con- 
tinuance of the universe, Yishnu is composed of the Yajur-veda; and 
for the destruction of the worlds, Rudra is made up of the Sama-veda ; 
hence the sound of this Yeda is impure." 

Vdyu Purdna. Other passages also may be found in works which 
are far from being reputed as heretical, in which the Yedas, or parti- 
cular parts of them, are not spoken of with the same degree of respect 
as they are by Manu. Thus the Vayu Purana gives precedence to ,the 
Puranas over the Yedas in the order of creation (i. 56 ao ) : 

Prathamam sarva-sdstrdndm Puranam Brahmand smritam \ anantarafii 
cha vaktrelhyo vedd<$ tasya vim^sritdh \ 

"First of all ths S'astras, the Purana was uttered by Brahma. Sub- 
sequently the Yedas issued from his mouths." 

Similarly the Padma Purana says : 

Puranam sarva-sdstrdndm prathamam jBrahmand smritam \ tri-varga- 
sddhanam.punyam sata-hoti-pravistaram \ nirdagdheshu cJia lokeshu I'iiji- 
rupena ITesai'ah \ Brahmanas tu samadesdd veddn ahritavdn asau \ angdni 
chaturo redan purtina-nyai/q-vistard[n?^ \ mimamsa[_m?^\ dharma-sastram 
cha par'yrihydtha ^dmpratam \ matsya-riipena cha 1 punah kalpdddv uda- 
kdntare \ asesliam etat Jcathitam ityddi \ 31 

" The Purana, which is an instrument for effecting the three objects 

so p a g e 48 O f Prof. Aufrecht's Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS. in the Bod?eian Library 
at Oxford. 
31 See the same Catalogue p. 12, col. i. > 


of life, which is pure, and extends to the length of a hundred crores of 
verses, was the first of all the S'astras which Brahma uttered. When 
the worlds had heen burnt up, Kesuva (Krishna), in the form of a 
horse, and obeying Brahma's command, rescued the Vedas/- Having 
taken them with their appendages, the Puranas, the Nyaya, the Mi- 
mansa, and the Institutes of Law, he now at 'the beginning of r the 
Kalpa promulgated them all again in the fonr of a fish from the midst 
of the waters." ' 

- In the Matsya Puraiaa, iii. 2 ff., not only is priority of creation 
claimed for the Puranas, but also the qualities of eternity and identity 
with sound, which are generally predicated of the Vedas alone : 

Rupam dadhdra 3 - prathamam amardnam Pitdmahah \ dvirlhutds tato 
veddh sdngopdnga-pada-lcramdh \ 3. Purdnam sarva-sdstrdndm pratha- 
mam Brahmand smritam \ nityam sabdamayam punyam sata-koti-pra- 
vistaram \ 4. Anantaram cha valdrelhyo vedds tasya vinissritdh \ ml- 
mdmsd nydya-vidyd cha pramdndshtaka-samyuta \ 5. Veddlhydsa-rata- 
sydsya prajd-lcdmasya mdnasdh \ manasd puna-srishtdh vai jdtdh ye 
tena mdnasdh \ 

2. "Pitamaha (Brahma), first of all the immortals, took shape : then 
the Vedas with their Angas and Upangas (appendages and minor ap- 
pendages), and the various modes of their textual arrangement, were 
manifested. 3. The Purana, eternal, formed of sound, pure, extending 
to the length of a hundred crores of verses, was the first of the S'astras 
which Brahma uttered: and afterwards the Yedgs, issued from his 
mouth ; and also the Mlmansa and the Nyaya with its eightfold system 
of proofs. 5. From him (Brahma), who was devoted to the study of 
the Yedas, and desirous of offspring, sprang mind-born sons, so called 
because they were at first created by his mind." 

The Vayu Purana says further on in the same section from which I 
have already quoted : 33 * 

Yo vidydch chaturo veddn sdngopanishadQ dvijah \ na ehet purdnam 
samvidydd naiva sa ydd vichakshanah \ Itihdsa-p^rdndlhyd&, veddn 
samupavrimhayet \ vibliety alpa-srutdd vedo mdm ayam praharishyati \ 

32 This quotation is made from the Taylor MS. No. 1918 of the India Office 
Library. T^e Guikowar MS. No. 3032 of the same collection, reads here tapas cha- 
chara, " practised austerity," instead of rupam dadhara, " took shape," and has 
besides a number of other various readings in these few lines. 

3S See p. 50 of Dr. Aufrecht's Catalogue. 




"He who knows the ibur Vedas, with their supplements and Upani- 
shads is not really learned, unless he know also the Puranas. Let a 
man, therefore, complete the Vedas by adding the Itihasas and Puranas. 
The Ved?, itf afraid of d man of little learning, lest he should treat it 

The* first of' these v^Kses is 3 repeated in the Mahabharata, Adiparvan 
verse 645, with'a variation in the first half of the second line na cM- 
khyanam idam vidydt, " unless he know also this narrative " (i.e. the 
Mahabharata). The second of the verses of tfie Vayu Purana also is to 
be found in the same book of the Mahabharata verse 260, and is fol- 
lowed by these lines : 

261. Earshnam vedam imam vidvdn srdvayitvd'nnam asnute \ . . . . 
264. Ekatas chaturo vedad Bharatam chaitad ekatah \ pura Jcila suraih 
sarvaih sametya tulaya dhritam \ chaturlhyah sa-rahasyelhyo vedelhyo 
hy adhikam yadu \ tada-prabhriti loJce 'smin mahalharatam uchyate \ 

" The man who knows this Veda relating to Krishna (the Mahabha- 
rata), and repeats it to others, obtains food 264. All the col- 
lected gods formerly weighed in a balance the four Yedas which they 
placed in the one scale, and this Bharata which they put into the other. 
When the latter was found to exceed (in weight) the four Vedas with 
the Upanishads, it was thenceforward called in this wofld the Maha- 

Here there is a play upon the word Bharata, as in part identical with 
bhdra, "weight." > 

The following verses of the same Adiparvan and many others are 
also eulogistic of the great epic poem : 

2298. Idam hi vedaih sammitam pavitram api chottamam \ sravyunum 
uttamam chedam purunam rishi-samstutam \ 

" This (Mahabharata) is on an equality with the Veda, pure, most 
excellent, the best of all works that are to be recited, ancient, and 
praised by rishis." 

2314,. Vijneyah^sa cha vedunum pdrago Jjhurat-am pathan \ 

The reader of the Bharata is to be regarded as having gone through 
the Vedas/' 

The benefits derivable from a perusal of the same poem are also set 
Yorth in the Svargarohanika-parvan, verses "200 ff. 

In the same way the Ramayana, i. 1, 94^ speaks of itself, as "this 


pure and holy narrative, which is on an equality with the Vedas" 
(idam pavitram dkhydnam puny am vedais cha sammitam). 

And in the Bhagavata Purana, ii. 8^ 28, it is said : Prdha Ihdgavatam 
ndma purdnam Irahma-scmmitam \ Brahmane Bhagavai-pr obtain Brahma- 
kalpe updgate \ 

" (Brahmarata) declared the Purana 'called e the BhiLgavata,' which 
stands on an equality with the Yeda (brahma], and -was declared by 
Bhagavat to Brahma when the Brahma-kalpa hsd arrived." 

Brahma-vaivartta Purana. The Brahma'-vaivartta Purana asserts in 
a most audacious manner its own superiority to the Veda (i. 48 if.) : 

Bhavagan yat tvayd prishtam jndtam sarvam abhlpsitam \ sdra-bhutam 
purdneshu Brahma-vaivarttam uttamam \ Purdnopapurdndndm veddndm 
bhrama-bhanjanam \ 

11 That about which, venerable sage, you have inquired, and which 
you desire, is all known to me, the essence of the Puranas, the pre- 
eminent Brahma-vaivartta, which refutes the errors of the Puranas and 
Upapuranas, and of the Yedas." (Professor Aufrecht's Cat. p. 21.) 

In the following passage also, from the commencement of the Mun- 
daka Upanishad, the Vedic hymns (though a divine origin would no 
doubt be allowed to them 34 ) are at all events depreciated, by being 
classed among other works as part of the inferior science, in contrast to 
the Brahma-vidya or knowledge of Brahma, the highest of all know- 
ledge, which is expressly ascribed to Brahma as its author : 

1. Brahma devdndm prathamah samlal&uvavisvasya Icarttd bhuvanasya 
goptd | sa Irahma-vidydrn sarva-vidyd-pratishthdm Atharvdya jyeshtha- 
putrdya prdha \ 2. Afoarvane yam pravadeta Brahma Atharvd tarn 
purovdchdngire brahma-mdydm \ sa Bhdradvdjdya Satyavdhdya prdha 
Bhdradvdjo 'ngirase pardvardhi \ 3. S'aunalco ha vai Mahdsdlo 'ngirasam 

34 In fact the following verses (4 and 6) occur in the second chapter of the same 
Mund. Up. : Agnir murddha chaJcshushl 'diandra-suryyau disah srotre vag vivritas 
cha vedah | vayuh prano hridayam vis'vam asya padbhyam prithiv! hy esha sarva- 
bhutantaratma | .... 6. TasmUd richah sama ydjTtmshi dlksha yajnas cha sarve 
kratavo dakshinas cha \ samvatsaram cha yajamanas cha lokahsomoyatra pfi'jateyatra 
suryah \ " Agni is his [Brahma's] head, the sun and moon are his eyes, the four 
points of the compass are his ears, the uttered Vedas are his voice, the wirfJ is his breath, 
the universe is his heart, the earth issued from his feet : he is the inner soul of all 
creatures. .<- . . 6. From him came the Rich verses, tke Saman verses, the Yajush 
verses, initiatory rites, all oblations, sacrifices, and gifts, the year, the sacrificer, and 
the worlds where the moon and sun purify." 



tndMvad upapannah prapachchha \ kasmin nu lhagavo vijndte sarvam idam 
vijndtam bhavatlti \ 4. Tasmai sa hovdcha \ dve vidye veditavye Hi ha sma 
yad brahma-vido vadanti para chaii'dpurd cha \ 5. Tatrdpard " rigvedo 
^yajurvedah^ s^imavedo 'tharvaveddh sikshd katyo vydkaranam niruktam 
chhando jyotisham" iti \ atha para yayd tad aksharam adhigamyate \ 

"Brahma was produced tie first among the gods, maker of the 
universe, preserver -.of the world. He revealed to his eldest son 
Atharva ; the science of Brahma, the basis of all knowledge. 2. Atharvan 
of old'declared to Angis this science, which Brahma had unfolded to 
him ; and Angis, in turn, explained it to Satyavaha, descendant of 
Bharadvaja, who delivered this traditional lore, in succession, to 
Angiras. 3. Mahasala S'aunaka, approaching Angiras with the proper 
formalities, inquired, '"What is that, o venerable sage, through the 
knowledge of which all this [universe] becomes known ? ' 4. [Angiras] 
answered, ' Two sciences are to be known this is what the sages versed 
in sacred knowledge declare the superior and the inferior. 5. The 
inferior [consists of] the Rig-veda, the Yajur-veda, the Sama-veda, the 
Atharva-veda, accentuation, ritual, grammar, commentary, prosody, and 
astronomy. The superior science is that by which the imperishable is 
apprehended. 33 

I adduce some further passages which depreciate the ceremonial, or 
exoteric parts of the Yedas, in comparison with the esoteric knowled*ge 
of Brahma. 

My attention was drawn to ^th. 6 following passage of the Bhagavad 
Gita, ii. 42 ff., by its quotation in the Rev. Professor K. M. Banerjea's 
Dialogues on Hindu Philosophy : 

Yam imam pusTipitdmvdchampravadanty avipaschitah \ veda-vdda-ratdh 
pdrtha ntinyad astlti vddinah \ kdmdtmdnfih svarga-pdrdh janma-karma- 
phala-praddM \ kriyd-visesha- bahuldm bhogaisvarya-gatim prati \ bhogais- 
varya-prasaktdndm tayd 'pahrita - chptasdm \ vyavasdydtmikd luddhih 
samudhau na vidhlyate \ traigunya-vishaydh veddh nistraigunyo bhavdr- 

35 Compare the MahabMrata, Adip. verse 258, which, speaks of the Aranyakas as 
superior to (tli3 other parts of) the Vedas, and ararita as the best of medicines (aran- 
yakam cha vedebhyas chaushadhibhyo 'mritam yatha). Similarly the S'atapatha Brah- 
mana, x, 3, 5, 12 (quoted in, MUller's Anc. Sansk. Lit. p. 315, note), speaks of the 
Upanishads as being the essence of the Yajush : Tasya vai etasya yajusho rasah eva 
upanishat \ 



juna | .... ydvdn arthah udapdne sarvatah samplutodalce \ tdvdn sar- 
veshu vedeshu brdhmanasya mjdnatah \ 

11 A flowery doctrine, promising the reward of works performed in 
this embodied state, prescribing numerous ceremonies, a view to, 
future gratification and glory, is preached by unlearned men, deyoted 
to the injunctions of the Veda, assertorfc of its- exclusive importance, 
lovers of enjoyment, and seekers after paradise.' Tiie restless minds 
of the men who, through this flowery doctrine^ have become bereft of 
.wisdom, and are ardenf, ia the pursuit of future gratification and glory, 
are not applied to contemplation. The Vedas have fou their objects the 
three qualities (sattva, rajas, tamas, or ' goodness,' 'passion,' and 'dark- 
ness ') ; but be thou, Arjuna, free from these th^ee qualities .... As 
great as is the use of a well which is surrounded on every side by over- 
flowing waters, so great [and no greater] is the use of the Yedas to a 
Brahman endowed with true knowledge." 

Chhandogya Upanishad, vii. 1, 1, p. 473 (Colebrooke's Essays, i. 12) : 

" Adhlhi bhagavah " Hi ha upasasdda Sanatkumdram Ndradah \ tarn 
ha uvucha " yad vettha tena md upaslda tatas te urddhvam vakshydmi" 
iti | 2. Sa ha uvucha " rigvedam bhagavo 'dhyemi yajurvedam sdmavedam 
dtharvanam chaturtham itihdsa - purdnam panchamam veddndm vedam 
pitryam rd&im datvam nidhim vdlcovdhyam ekdyanaih deva-vidydm brah- 
ma-vidydm bhuta-vidydm Icshatra-vidydm nakshatra-vidydih sarpa-deva- 
jana-vidydm etad lhagavo 'dhyemi \ 3. So ''ham bhagavo mantra-vid evdsmi 
na titma-vit \ srutam hy eva me bhagavaddpisebhyas ' tarati sokam dtma-vid ' 
iti so 'ham bhagavah sochdmi tarn md bhagardn sokasya pdram tdrayatv " 
iti | tarn ha uvdcha " t yadvai kincha etad adhyagishthdh ndma evaitat 
4. Ndma vai rigvedo yajurvedah sdmavedah dtharvanas chaturthah itihdsa- 
purdnah panchamo veddndm nedah pitryo rdsir daivo nidhir vdkovdkyam 
ekdyanam deva-vidyd brahma-vidyd bhuta-vidyd kshatra-vidyd nakshatra- 
vidyd sarpa-deva-jana-vidyd ndma t-vaitad ndma updsva " iti \ 5. " Sa yo 
ndma brahma ity update ydvad ndmno gatam tatra asya yathd kdmachdro 
bhavati yo ndma brchma 'ity itpdste" \ " asti bhapivo ndmno bhuyah " 
iti | " ndmno vdva bhuyo 'sti" iti \ "tan me bhagavdn bravltv" iti \ 

1. " Narada approached Sanatkumara, saying, 'Instruct fne, venerable 
sage.' He received for answer, ' Approach me with [i.e. tell me] that 
which thou knowest ; and I will declare to thee whatever more is to 
be learnt.' 2. Narada replied, 'I am instructed, venerable sage, in the 



Rig-veda, the Yajur-veSa, the Sama-veda, the Atharvana, [which is] 
the fourth, the Itihasas and Puranas, [which are] the fifth Veda of the 
Vedas, the rites of the pitris, arithmetic, the knowledge of portents, and 
of great peripds, the 'art.of reasoning, 36 ethics, the science of the gods, the 

4 > 

knowledge of Scripture, demonology, the science of war, the knowledge 
of thy stars, $he sciences of .serpents and deities ; this is what I have 
studied. 3. I, venerable man, know only the hymns (mantras] ; while 
I am ignorant* of soul. *But I hav<j heard from reverend sages like 
thyself* that 'the man wh is acquainted with soul overpasses grief.' 
Now I, venerable man, am afflicted ; but do thou transport me over my 
grief.' Sanatkumara answered, ' That which thou hast studied is 
nothing but name. 4. The Rig-veda is name ; and so are the Yajur-veda, 
the Sama-veda, the Athar*-ana, which is the fourth, and the Itihasas 
and Puranas, the fifth Veda of the Vedas, etc. [all the other branches 
of knowledge are here enumerated just as above], all these are but 
name : worship name. 5. He who worships name (with the persuasion 
that it is) Brahma, ranges as it were at will over all which that name 
comprehends ; such is the prerogative of him who worships name 
(with the persuasion that it is) Brahma.' ' Is there anything, venerable 
man,' asked Narada, ' which is more than name ? ' ' There is,' he replied, 
' something which is more than name.' * Tell it to me,' rejcyned Narada." 

(S'ankara interprets the words panchamam veddndm vedam differently 
from what I have done. He separates the words veddndm vedam from 
panthamaib and makes them to mean "the means of knowing the 
Vedas," i.e. grammar. See, however, the Bhag. Pur. i. 4, 20, below, 
p. 42, and iii. 12*39, quoted further on. 

S'atapatha Brahmana, xiv. 7, 1, 22 (= Brih'adaranyaka Upanishad, 
iv. 3, 22, p. 792 fi., p. 228-9 of Dr. Roar's English) : Atra pita apitd 
lhavati maid amdtd lokdh alokdTi devdh adevdh veddh aveddh yajndh aya- 
jndh | atra steno 'steno lhavati Ihruna-ltd alhruna-hd paulkaso 'paulkasas 
chdnddlo 'chanddlah sramano 'sramanas ttipaso 'tdpaso namdgatam pun- 
yena ananvdgatam pdpena*~*tlrno hi tadd sarvdn okan hridayasya lhavati \ 

36 1 r akova.kyam = farka-sastram Sayana. The word is elsewhere explained as 
meaning " dialogues " (ukti-pratyukti-rupam prakaranam Comm. on S'. P. Br. xi. 
5, 6, 8). The sense of some of the terms in this list of sciences is obscure; but 
exactness is not of any great importance to the general drift of the passJgj. 

37 I give here the reading of the Br. Ar. Up. The S'.P. Br. in Professor Weber's 


"In that [condition of profound slumber, sashupti,~\ a father is no 
father, a mother is no mother, the worlds are no worlds, the gods are 
no gods, and the Vedas are no Vedas, sacrifices are no sacrifices. In 
that condition a thief is no thief, a murderer of embryus is 710 murderer 
of embryos, a Paulkasa no Paulkasa, a Chandala no Chandala, a S'ra- 
mana no S'ramana, a devotee no devotee ; the saint has then no relation, 
either of advantage or disadvantage, to merit or to sin ; for he then 
crosses over all griefs of the hearV 

(I quote from the commentary on the Br. Ar. Up. S'ankara's explan- 
ation of the unusual words nanvdgata and ananvdgata : Nanvugatam na 
anvdgatam ananvdgatam asambaddkam ity etat punyena sdstra-vihitena 
karmand tathd pdpena vihitdlcarana-pratishiddha-kriyd-lakshanena \ 


" Nanvdgata=na (not) anvdgata, and ananvdjata=asambaddha, uncon- 
nected. This condition is unconnected either with merit, i.e. action 
enjoined by the sastra, or with sin, i.e. action defined as the neglect 
of what is enjoined, or the doing of what is forbidden." 

To the same effect the great sage Narada is made to speak in the 
Bhagavata Parana, iv. 29, 42 ff. : 

Prajdpati-patih sdkshad lhagavdn Giriso Manuh \ Dafohddayah pra- 
jddhyakshdh naishthikdh Sanakddayah \ Marichir Atry-angirasau Pulas- 
tyah PulahaJi Kratuh \ Bhrigur Vasishthah ity ete mad-antdh brahma- 
va&lnah \ adydpi vdchaspatayas tapo-vidyd-samtidhibhih \ pasyanto 'py 
na pasyanti pasyantam Paramesvaram \ sabda-brahmani dushpdre chn- 

rantah uruvistare I mantra-ling air vyavachclihinnam bhajanto na viduh 

param \ yadd yasydnugrihndti bhagavdn dtma-bhdvitah \ sajahdti malim 

lake rede cha parinishthitdm \ tasmdt Jcarmasu varKishmann ajndndd 
artha-kdsishu \ md 'rtha'-drishtim krithdh srotra-sparsishv asprisJita-vas- 
tushu | sva-lokam na vidus te vai yatra devo Jandrdanah \ dhur dhumra- 
dhiyo vedam sa-karmalcam a-tad-vidah \ dstlrya darbhaih prdg-agraih 
litirtmyena kshiti-mandalam \ stabdho vrihad-vadhdd muni karma navaishi 
yat param \ tat karma Hari-tosham yat sd vidyd tan-matir yayd \ 

"Brahma himself, the divine Girisa (S'iva), Manu, Daksha and the 
other Prajapatis, Sanaka and other devotees, Marlchi, Atri, Angiras, 
Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhrigu, Vasishtha all these expounders of 
sacred knowledge, and masters of speech, including myself (Narada) as 

text gives aiianvagatah punyena ananvagatah papena. And yet the commentary 
alludes to the word anamagata being in the neuter. 



the last, though seeing, are yet, to this day, unable, by austerity, by 
science, by contemplation, to see Paramesvara (the supreme God), who 
. sees all things. Wandering in the vast field of the verbal brahma (the 
Veda), whi?h is Himcu^t to traverse, men do^not recognise the Supreme, 
while they worship him as he is circumscribed by the attributes speci- 
fied in the hymns (mqntrast). "When the Divine Being regards any 
man w^th favoijr, that man, sunk in the contemplation of soul, aban- 
dons all thougl/ts which are set upon* the world and the Veda. Cease, 
therefore, Varhishmat, thrtiugh ignorance, tp look upon works which 

(j j 

merely seem to > promote the chief good, as if they truly effected that 
object, (works) which only touch the ear, but do not touch the reality. 
The misty-minded men, who, ignorant of the Veda, declare that works 
are its object, do not krx>w [hisj own world, where the divine Janar- 
dana abides. Thou who, obstinate man that thou art, strewest the 
whole earth with sacrificial grass, with its ends turned to the east, and 
art proud of thy numerous immolations, thou knowest not what is the 
highest work of all. That by which Hari (Vishnu) is pleased, is work . 
that by which the thoughts are fixed on him, is science." 

I copy the comment on a part of this passage, viz. on verses 45 and 46 : 
S'alda-lrahmani vede urur vistdro yasya arthato 'pi pdra-sunye tasmin 
varttamdndh mantrdndm lingair vajra-hastatvddi-guna-yukta-vividha- 
devatd-bhidhdna-sdmarthyaih parichchkinnam eva Indrddi-rupam tat-tat- 
karmdgrahena bhajantah param Paramesvaram na viduh \ Tarhy anyah 
Ico ndma \ karmddy-dgraham hitvd paramesvaram eva lhajed ity ata aha 
" yadd yam anugrihndti" \ anugrahe hetuh \ dtmani Ihdvitah san sa tadd 
'loke loka-vyavahdre 'vede cTia karma-marge parinishthitdm matim tyajati \ 
"Men, conversant with the verbal brahma, the Veda, of which the 
extent is vast, and which, in fact, is % boundless, worshipping Para- 
mesvara [ihe supreme God] under the form of Indra, etc., circum- 
scribed by the marks specified in the hymns, i.e. limited to various 
particular energies denominated deities, who are characterised by such 
attributes as 'wielder of "the thunderbolt,' etc.; worshipping Him, 
I say, ^.us, with an addiction to particular rites, men do not know the 
supreme God. What other [god], then, [is there] ? He therefore, in 
the words, ' When he regards any one with favour,' etc., says, let a 
man, abandoning all addiction to works, etc., worship the supreme God 
alone. The reason for this favour [is supplied in the following words] : 



' Sunk in the contemplation of soul, lie then Relinquishes his regard 
directed to the business of the world and to the Veda, i.e. to the method 
of works.' " 

The following passage from the Katha'Upanisbad (ii.^S) ip of a some- 
what similar tendency (p. 107 of Roer's ed. and p. 106 of Eng. trans.) : 

Ndyam utmd pravachanena labhyo na w^edhayd na lah?4nd srtitenti \ 
yam evai&ha vrinute tena labhyas tasyaisha dtmu vrinyte fynum svdm \ 

" This Soul is not to be attained- by instruction, nor by understanding, 
nor by much scripture. He is attainable by him whom he chooses. " The 
Soul chooses that man's body as his own abode." 

The scholiast interprets thus the first part of this text : 

Yadyapi durvijneyo 'yam dtmu tathtipy- updyena suvijneyah eva ity 
dha nay am dtmd pravacJianena anelia-veda-svikaranena lalkyojneyo ndpi 
medhayd granthdrtha-dhdrand-saktyd na laJmnd srutena kevalena \ kena 
tarhi labhyah ity uchyate \ 

" Although this soul is difficult to know, still it may easily be known 
by the use of proper means. This is what [the author] proceeds to say. 
This soul is not to be attained, known, by instruction, by the acknow- 
ledgement of many Vedas ; nor by understanding, by the power of re- 
collecting the contents of books; nor by much scripture alone. By 
what, then, is r it to be attained? This he declares." 

It is not necessary to follow the scholiast into the Vedantic explana- 
tion of the rest of the passage. 38 

The preceding passages, emanating from two different classes of 
writers, both distinguished by the spirituality of c their. aspirations, 
manifest a depreciation, more or less distinct and emphatic, of the 
polytheism of the Vedic hymns, as obstructive rather than promotive, 
of divine knowledge, and express disregard, if not contempt, of the 
ceremonies founded on that polytheism, and performed with a view to 
the enjoyments of paradise. 

SECT. Y. Division of, the Vedas, according to the Tifknu, Vuyu^, and 
Bhugavata Purdnas, and the Mahdbhdrata. 

Some of the Puranas, as we have seen above, represent the four 
Vedas as having issued from Brahma's different n?ouths. If they had 
38 See Prof. Miiller's Anc. Sansk. Lit. 1st ed. p. 320, and p. 109. 


each a separate origin of this kind, it would seem that they must have 
had from the time of their production a distinct existence also. And 
yet it is elsewhere iaid that there was originally but one Veda, which 
was subsequently divided into four portions. 

Thus the Vishnu Purana gives the following account of the division 
of ihe Veda, describe?! 'as having been originally but one, into four 
parts, iii. 2, 18^: * 

Kribe yuge param jndnary, Kapilddi-smrupa-dhrik \ daddti sarva-bhu- 
tdndm'sarva-bhuta-hite ratah \ chakravartti-svcfrupena tretdydm api s*a 
prabhuh \ Dushidndm nigraham kurvan paripdti jagattrayam \ Vedam 
ekam chatur-bhedam kritvd sdkhd-satair vibhuh \ karoti bahulam bhuyo 
Vedavydsa-svarupa-dHrik \ veddms tu dvdpare vyasya, etc. 

11 In the Krita age, Vishnu, devoted to the welfare of all creatures, 
assumes the form of Kapila and others to confer upon them the highest 
knowledge. In the Treta age the Supreme Lord, in the form of a uni- 
versal potentate, represses the violence of the wicked, and protects the 
three worlds, Assuming the form of Vedavyasa, the all-pervading Being 
repeatedly divides the single Veda into four parts, and multiplies it by 
distributing it into hundreds of sakhas. Having thus divided the 
Vedas in the Dvapara age," etc. 39 

This is repeated more at length in the following section (Vish. Pur. 
iii. 3, 4ff.):" 

Veda-drumasya Maitreya sdkhd-bhedaih sahasrasah \ na sakyo vistaro 
vaktum sankshepene* srinushva? tarn \ Dvdpare dvdpare Vishnur Vydsa- 
rupl mahdmune \ Vedam ekam sa bahudhd kurute jagato hitah \ mryam 
tejo balaih chdlpam manushydndm avekshya vai ^hitdya sarva-bhutdndm 
veda-bheddn karoti sah \ yayd sa kurute tanvd vedam ekam prithak pra- 
bhuh | Vedavydsdbhidhdnd tu sd milrttir Madhuvidvishah | . . . . Ashtd- 
vimsati-kritvo vai veddh vyastdh maharshibhih \ Vaivasvate 'ntare tasmin 
dvdpareshu punah punah \ 

"It is not possible, Maitreya, to describe in detail the tree of the 
Vedas \\ith its thousand branches (sakhas) ; but listen to a summary. 
A friend to the world, Vishnu, in the form of Vyasa, divides the single 
Veda into many parts. He does so for the good of all creatures, because 
he perceives the vigour, energy, and strength of men to haie become 

39 Compare on this subject portions of the passage of the Mahabhitr*ta quoted in 
the First Volume of this work, pp. 144-146. 



decreased. Vedavyasa, in whose person he performs this division, is an 

impersonation of the enemy of Madhu (Vishnu) Eight-and- 

twenty times in the Dvapara ages oV ? ,this Vaivasvata Manvantara 4 " 
have the Yedas been divi'ded by great sages." These sages' are then 
enumerated, and Krishna Dvaipayana 41 is the twenty-eighth. , 

The subject is resumed at the beginning of 'tne next section (Vsh. 
Pur. iii. 4, 1 ff.) : c 

Adyo veda chatushpddah sala-sdhasra-sapimitah \ Tato das^-gunah 
I'ritsno yajno 'yam sarva^lcdmadhuk \ Tato 'tra mat-suto Vydso 'sTlttivifn- 
satitame 'ntare \ vedam ekam chatushpddam chaturdhd vydbhajat pralhuh \ 
yathd tu tena vai vyastdh Vedavyasena dhlmatd \ Vedds tathd samastais 
tair vyastah Vyasais tathd mayd \ tad anenaiva 'veddndm sdkhdbheddn 
dvijottama \ chaturyugeshu rachitdn samasteshv avadhdraya \ Krishna- 
dvaipdyanam Vydsam viddhi Ndrdyanam prdblium \ ko 'nyo hi Ihuvi 
Maitreya Mahdbhdrata-Jcrid IJiavet \ Tena vyastdh yathd Veddh mat-pu- 
trena mahdtmand \ Dvdpare Jiy atra Ifaitreya tad me srinu yatJidrthatah \ 
Brahmand chodito Vydso veddn vyastum prachakrame \ Atha sishydn sa 
jagrdha chaturo veda-pdra-gdn \ Rigveda-srdvakam Pailam jagrdha sa 
mahdmunih \ Vaisampdyana-ndmdnam Yajurvedasya clidgrahlt \ Jaimi- 
nim Sdma-vedasya tathaivdtharvaveda-vit \ Sumantus tasya sishyo 'bhud 
Ve&avydsasya dhlmatah \ Romaharshana-ndmdnam mahdluddhim mahd- 
munim \ Sutam jagrdha sishyam sa itihdsa-purdnayoh \ 

" The original Veda, consisting of four quarters,, contained a hundred 
thousand verses. From it arose the' entire system ff sacrifice, tenfold 
(compared with the present) and yielding all the objects of desire. Sub- 
sequently, in the twenty-eighth manvantara my son, [Parasara is the 
speaker] the mighty Vyasa, divided into four parts the Veda which 
was one, with four quarters. In the same way as the Vedas were divided 

40 For an account of the Manvantaras, ^ee the First Part of this work, pp. 39, 43 ff. 

11 Lassen (Ind. Ant. 2nd ed. i. 777, note) remarks : " Vyusa signifies arrangement, and 
this signification had still retained its place in the recollection of the ancient recorders of 
the legend, who have fermed from his name an irregular 'perfect, viz. f vivyasa." 
Lassen refers to two passages of the Mahabharata in which the name is explained, 
viz. (i. 2417), Vivyasa vedan yasmat sa tasmad Vyasah iti smritah \ "He is called 
Vyasa because he divided the Veda." And (i. 4236) To vyasya vedaihs chaturas 
tapcsa bhagavan rishih \ lake vyasatvam apede karshnyat Tcrishnatvam eva cha \ "The 
divine sage^ (Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa) who, through fervid devotion, divided the 
four Vedas, and so obtained in the world the title of Vyasa, and from his blackness, 
the name of Krishna." , 



by the wise Vyasa, so had they been divided by all the [preceding] Vy- 
asas, including myself. And fcaow that the sakha divisions [formed] by 
him [were the same As those] fqrmed in all the periods of four yugas. 
Learn, too* that Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa was the lord Narayana ; for 
whp else on earth could have composed the Mahabharata ? Hear now 
correctly how the Veda*s were divided by him, my great son, in this Dva- 
para age. Wher^, commanled by Brahma, Vyasa undertook to divide the 
Vedas, he took four discipline who had read through those books. The 
great muni took Paila as teacher of the Ricli, Vaisampayana of the 
Yajush, and Jaimini of the Saman, while Sumantu, skilled in the 
Atharva-veda, was also his disciple. He took, too, as his pupil for the 
Itihasas and Puranas* the great and intelligent muni, Suta, called 
llomahar shan a. " " 

Vdyu Purdna. In the same way, and partly in the same words, the 
Vayu Purana (section Ix.) represents the Vedas to have been divided in 
the Dvapara age. It first describes how this was done by Mann in the 
Svayambhuva, or first manvantara, and then recounts how Vyasa per- 
formed the same task in the existing seventh, or Vaivasvata manvan- 
tara; and, no doubt, also in the Dvapara age, though this is not 
expressly stated in regard to Vyasa. 

The following is an extract from this passage (as given in Dr. 
Aufrecht's Catalogue of the Bodleian Sanskrit MSS. p. 54) : 

Dvdpare tu purdvritte Manoh svdyambhuve 'ntare \ Brahma Mamim 
iivdchedam vedam ly/asyfl matiamate \ Parivrittam yugam tdta svalpa- 
virydh dvijdtayah\ samvrittdh yuga-doshena sarvam chaivayathdkramam \ 
bhrashta-mdnam yuga-vasdd alpa-sishtam hi drisfiate \ Dasa-sdhasra-bhd- 
gena hy avasishtam krittid idam \ mryam tejo balam chdlpam sarvam 
chaiva pranasyati \ rede veddh hi Icdryydh syur md bhud veda-vindsanam \ 

vede ndsam anuprdpte yajno ndsam gamishyati \ yajne nashte deva-ndsas 

42 Mahldhara on the Vajasaneyi Sanhita ("Weber's ed. p. 1) says, in regard to the 

division of the Vedas : Tatradav Brahma-paramparaya praptam Vedam Vedavyaso 
mcmda-mc^tln manush$an vichintya tat-kripaya chaturdhS vyasya Rig-yajuh-sama- 
tharvakhyams chaturo vtdan Paila- Vaisampayana-Jaimini-Sumantubhyah Jcramad 
upadidesa te cha sva-sishebhyah \ Evam paramparaya sahasra-sakho Vedo jatah \ 
" Vedavyasa, having regard to men of dull understanding, in kindness to them, divided 
into four parts the Veda which had been originally handed down by tradition from 
Brahma, and taught the f<5ur Vedas, called Rich, Yftjush, Saman, and Atharvan, in 
order, to Paila, Vaisampayana, Jaimini, and Sumantu ; and they again to their disciples. 
In this way, by tradition, the Veda of a thousand s'akhas was produced." 


tatah sarvam pranasyati \ Adyo vedas chatmh-pddo sata-sdhasra-sammi- 
tah | Punar dasa-gunah kritmo yajno vai, sarva-kdma-dhuk \ Evam uktas 
tatliety uktvd Manur loka-hite ratah \ i-edam ekam ohatysh-pddam chatur- 
dhd vyabhajat prabhuh \ Bfrahmano vachandt tdta lokdndm hita^ttdmyayd \ 
tad aham varttamdnena yushmdlcam veda-Ttalpanam I manvantarena va- 
lishydmi vyatltdndm prahalpanam \ pratyakslienh fyarokshdm vai tad pibo- 
dhata sattamdh \ Asmin yuge krito VydsaTi^ Pdrdsaryah parantapah \ 
"Dvaipdyanah" iti khydto Visitor amsah prakirtiitah \ Brahmand chodi- 
tah so 'smin vedam vyasfum prachalcrame \ A.tha sishyan sa jagrdha clia- 
turo veda-kdrandt \ Jaiminim oha Sumantum cha Vaiiampdyanam eva 
cha | Pailaih teshdm chaturtham tu panchamam Lomaharshanam \ 

" In the former Dvapara of the Svayambhuva' manvantara, Brahma 
said to Manu, ' Divide the Yeda, o sage. The age is changed ; through 
its baneful influence the Brahmans have become feeble, and from the same 
cause the measure of everything has gradually declined, so that little is 
seen remaining. A part (of the Veda) consisting of only these ten thousand 
(verses) is now left to us from the Krita age ; vigour, fire, and energy 
are diminished ; and everything is on the road to destruction. A plurality 
of Vedas must be made out of the one Veda, lest the Veda be destroyed. 
The destruction of the Veda would involve the destruction of sacrifice ; 
thajt again would occasion the annihilation of the gods, and then every- 
thing would go to ruin. The primeval Veda consisted of four quarters 
and extended to one hundred thousand verses, while sacrifice was ten- 
fold, and yielded every object of desire. " Being thy-s addressed, Mann, 
the lord, devoted to the good of the world, replied, <Be it so,' and in 
conformity with the command of Brahma, divided the one Veda, which 
consisted of four quarters, into four parts. 43 I shall, therefore, narrate 
to you the division of the Veda in the existing manvantara ; from which 
visible division you, virtuous sages, can understand those invisible 
arrangements of the same kind wMch were made in past manvantaraf.. 
In this Tuga, the victorious son of Parasara,, who is called Dvaipayana, 
and is celebrated as a"portion of Vishnu, has been made the Vylsa. In 
this Yuga, he, being commanded by Brahma, began to divide the Vedas. 
For this purpose he took four pupils, Jaimini, Sumantu, Vaisampayana, 

43 The Mahabharata, S'untipi> verse 13,678, says the Vedas were divided in the 
Svayambhuva manvantara by Apantaratamas, son of SarasvatI (Tenet bhinnas tada 
veda manoh svayambhuvo 'ntar<"}. 


and Paila, and, as a fifth, Lomaharshana " [for the Puranas and Iti- 
hasas, etc.] , 

Bhdgarata Purdya.-^-'Lt is in its 'third book, where the different man- 
vantaras ar described, that the Yishnu Purana gives an account of the 

division of the Yedas. In the book of the JBhagavata Purana where 

i * 

the manvantaras are enumerated, there is no corresponding allusion to 

the division of the Yedas ; Vut a passage to the same effect occurs in 
the fourth, section of the'first^book, verses14ff. : 

DviijHfre samamiprdpte tritiya-yuga-paryaye ' \ >jafah Pardsardd yogi 
Vdsavydm kalayd "Hareh \ 15. Sa kaddchit Sarasvatydh upasprisyajalam 
suchi \ viviktah ekah dsmah udite ravi-mandale \ 16. Pardvara-jnah sa 
rishih kdlendvyakta-ranthasd \ yuga-dharma-vyatikaram pruptam Ihuri 
yuge yuge \ 17. Bhautikandm cha, bhuvdndm sakti-hrasaih cha tat-kri- 
tam | asraddhadhdnan nissatvdn durmedhdn hrasitdyushah \ 13. Dur- 
bhagdms jandn vlkshya munir divyena chakshushd \ sarva-varndsramdndm 
yad dadhyau hitam amogha-drik \ 19. Chtiturhotram karma suddham pra- 
jdndm vlkshya vaidikam \ vyadadhdd yajna-santatyai vedam ekam chatur- 
vidham \ 20. Rig-yajuh-sdmdtharvdkhyah vedas chatvdra uddhritdh \ 
itihdsa-purdnaiti cha panchamo veda uchyate \ 21. Tattrarg-veda-dharah 
Pailah sdmago Jaiminih kavih \ Vaisampdyana evaiko nishndto yajushdm 
ttta | 22. Atharvdngirasdm tisit Sumantur duruno munih \ itihdsa-purdnd- 
ndmpitd me Romaharshanah \ 23. Te ete rishayo vedam svam svam vyasyann 
anekadhd \ sishyaih prasishyais tach-chhishyair vedds te sdkhino 'bhavan \ 
24. Te era veddh duryiedhair dh&ryante purushair yathd \ evam chakdra 
lhagavdn Vydsah krvpana - vatsalah \ 25. Stri -sudra - dvijabandhundili, 
trayl na sruti-gochard \ karma-sreyasi mudhdndm breyah era bhaved iha \ 
iti Bhdratam dkhydnam kripayd munina, kritam \ 

14. "When the Dvapara age had arrived, during the revolution of 
that third yuga, the Yogin (Vyasa) was born, a portion of Hari, as the 
son of Parasara and Vasavya. 15. As on one occasion he was sitting 
solitary at sunrise, after touching the pure waters of the Sarasvati, (16) 
this rishi,<who knew*the past and the future, perceiving, with the eye 
of divine intelligence, that disorder had in each yuga been introduced 
into the duties proper to each, through the action of time, whose march 
is imperceptible, (17) tha the strength of beings formed of the Clements 
had in consequence declined, that men were destitute of faith, vigour, 
and intelligence, that their lives were shorteised, (18) and that they 


were miserable, reflected with unerring insight on the means of bene- 
fitting the several castes and orders. 19. Discerning that the pureVedic 
ceremonies ought to be performed foi* men by thfr agency of four classes 
of priests, he divided the one Yeda into four parts, with a^iew to the 
performance of sacrifice. 20. Four Yedas, called the Bich t Yajush, 
Saman, and Atharvan, were drawn forth froni it ; while the Itihasas 
and Puranas are called the fifth Veda. 21uOf th'ese'the Rich was held 
by Paila, the sage Jaimini chanted the,.Saman, Yaisampayena alone 
was versed in the Ytfjush, (22) the dreadful muni Sumantu in the 
verses of Atharvan and Angiras, and my father Romaharshana in the 
Itihasas and Puranas. 23. Each of these rishis arranged his own Yeda 
in many ways ; and by the successive generations of their disciples 
the Yedas were separated into branches (sdkhas}. 24. The venerable 
Vyasa, kind to the wretched, acted thus in order that the Yedas might 
be recollected by men of enfeebled understanding. 25. And as women, 
S'udras, and the inferior members of the twice-born classes were un- 
fitted for hearing the Yeda, and were infatuated in desiring the bless- 
ings arising from ceremonies, the muni, with a view to their felicity, 
in his kindness composed the narrative called the Mahabharata." 

But notwithstanding the magnitude of the great legendary and theo- 
logical repertory which he had thus compiled, Yyasa, we are told, was 
dissatisfied with his own contributions to sacred science until he had 
produced the Bhagavata Purana consecrated to the glory of Bhagavat 
(Krishna). 41 The completion of this 'design is ,hus narrated, Bhag. 
Pur. i. 7, 6 : 

Anarthopasamam sdkshdd lhakti-yogam Adhokshaje \ lokasytijanato 
vidvdms chakre Sdtvata - samhitfim \ 7. Yasydm vai sruyamdndyam 
JTrishne parama-purushe \ bhaktir ud/patyate pumsah soha-moha-bliaya- 
pahd | 8. Sa samhitam Bhugavatlm kritva 'nukramya chdtmajam \ 
S'ukam adhyapayamdsa nwritti-vtlratam munih \ 

"Knowing that devotion to Adhokshaja (Krishna) was the evident 
means of putting an end to the folly of the world,' which waa ignorant 
of this, he composed the Satvata-Sanhita (the Bhagavata). 7. When a 
man listens to this work, devotion to Krishna, the supreme Purusha, 
arises in his mind, and frees him from grief, delusion, arid fear. Having 

44 See Wilson's Vishnu Purana, Preface, p. xlvi. 



completed and arranged this Sanhita, the muni taught it to his son 
S'uka, who was indisposed to the .pursuit of secular objects." 

Towards the close, of this Purana? also, in the sixth section of the 
twelfth book(verses 37 if.), there is to be founcf what Professor Wilson 
(Vish. Pur. Pref.) calls " a rather awkwardly introduced description of 


the arrangement of the e9as and Puranas by Vyasa." 

The passage (as* gif en in, the Bombay lithographed edition) is as 
follows : , * * 

Suta ixacha \ samdhitdtmano brahman Brahmaxah parameshthinah \ 
hrid-dkdsdd abhud'nddo vriUi-rodhdd vibhdvyate \ yad-updsanayd brah- 
man yogino malam dtmanah \ dravya-kriyd-kdrakdkhyaih dhutvd ydnty 
apanurbhavam \ Tato 'bhftt trivrid omkdro yo 'vyakta-prabhavah svardt \ 
yat tal lingam Bhagavato Brahmanah paramdtmanah \ srinoti yah imam 
sphotam supta-srotre cha sunya-drik \ yena vug vyajyate yasya vyakiir 
ukase dtmanah \ svadhdmno brahmanah sdJcshdd vdchakah paramdtmanah \ 
sa-sarva-mantropanishad-veda-vtjam sandtanam \ tasya hy dsams trayo 
varndh a-Tcdrddydh Bhrigudvaha \ dhuryante yais trayo bhdvdh gunah 
ndmdrtha-vrittayah \ tato 'Itshara-samdmndyam asrijad bhagavdn aj'ah \ 
Antassthoshma-svara-sparsa-hrasva-dlrghddi-lalcshanam \ tendsau chaturo 
veddms chaturbhir vadanair vibhuh \ sa-vydhritikdn somkdrdms chdtur- 
hotra-vivakshayd \ putrdn adhydpayat tains tu brahmarshln brahma- 
koviddn \ te tu dharmopadeshtdrah sva-putrebhyah samddisan \ te param- 
parayd prdptds tat-tach-chhishyair dhrita-vrataih \ chaturyugeshv atha 
vyastdh dvdparddau wfaharshibhtljt, \ kshmdyushah kshmd-sattvdn dur- 
medhdn mkshya Jedtytah \ veddri brahmarshayo vyasyan hridisthdch- 
yuta-noditdh \ Asminn apy antare brahman bhagwdn loka-bhdvanah \ 
brahmesddyair lokapdlair ydchito dharma-guptage \ Pardsardt Satyavat- 
ydm amsdmsa-kalayd vibhuh \ avatirno mahabhdga vedam chalcre chatur- 
vidham \ rig-atharva-yajuh-sdmndm rdsln uddhritya vargasah \ chatasrah 
samhitds chakre mantrair manigandh nva \ tdsdm sa chaturah sishydn 
updhuya mahdmatih \ Ekaiknm samhitdrn brahman ekaikasmai dadau 
vibhuh \ Puilaya sam^itd^ ddydm bahvrichdkhydm 'tivdcha ha \ Vaisam- 
$>dyana-sanjndya nigaddkhyaih yajur-ganam \ sdmndm Jaiminaye prdha 
tathd chhandoga-samhitdm \ Atharvdngiraslm ndma sva-sishdya Su- 
mantave \ 

11 Suta speaks : ' From the aether of the supreme Brahma's heart, 
when he was plunged in meditation, there issued a sound, which is 


perceived [by the devout] when they close their organs of sense. By 
adoring this sound, devotees destroy the soul's threefold taint, extrinsic, 
inherent, and superhuman, 43 and ^-become exetnp^. from future birth. 
From this sound sprang the omkara, composed of three elements, self- 
resplendent, of imperceptible origin, that which is the emblem of tjie di- 


vine Brahma, the supreme spirit. He it is whrfhears this sound (sghota], 
when the ears are insensible and the visions-inactive, (this sphota or om- 
kdra] through which speeches revealed, and which is manifeeted in the 
aether, from the Soul. 4 . 6 This [omkara] is the sensible exponent o* Brahma, 
the self-sustained, the supreme spirit; and it is the eteYnal seed of the Ve- 
das, including all the Mantras and Upanishads. In this [omkara'] there 
were, o descendant of Bhrigu, three letters, A 1 and the rest, by which 
the three conditions, the [three] qualities, the [three] names, the [three] 
significations, the [three] states 47 are maintained. From these [three 
letters] the divine and unborn being created the traditional system of 
the letters of the alphabet, distinguished as inner (y, r, J, v], iishmas 
(s, sh, s, h\ vowels, long and short, and consonants. With this [al- 
phabet] the omnipresent Being, desiring to reveal the functions of the 
four classes of priests, [created] from, his four mouths the four Vedas 
with the three sacred syllables (vyahritis) and the omkara.^ These he 
taught to 'his sons, the brahmarshis, skilled in sacred lore ; and these 
teachers of duty, in turn declared them to their sons. The Yedas were 
thus received by each succeeding generation of devout pupils from their 

45 Dravya-kriya-karaka, which the scholiast interprets as* answering to adhibhTita, 
adhyatma, and adhidaiv(fi See the explanation of these terms in Wilson's Sankhya- 
karika, pp. 2 and 9. 

46 I quote the scholiast's explanation of this obscure verse : Ko 'sau paramatma 
tarn aha ' srinoti' iti \ imam sphotam avyaktam oihkaram \ natyt Jtvah evo tarn 
srinotu \ na ity aha \ supta-srotre karna-pidhanadina avrittike 'pi srotre sati \ jlvas 
lit karanadinatvad na tada srota \ tad-vpalabdhis tu tasya paramatma-dvarika eva iti 
bhavah \ Isvaras tti naivam \ yatah sunya-drik sunye'pi indriya-varge drik jnanain 
yasya \ tathd hi supto yadci sabdaih srutva prabiAldhyate na tada jJvah srota llnen- 
driyatvcit \ ato yas tadfi sabdam srutva jlvam prabodlQyatP sa yatha pcramatma era 
ttdvat \ ko 'sav onikaras tarn visinashti sardhena yena vag brihatl vyajyate yasya cha 
hridayakase atmanah sakasad vyaktir abhivyaktih. The word sphota will be explained 
below, in a future section. 

47 These the scholiast explains thus : Gunah sattvadayah \ namani rig-yajuh-sa- 
mani \ arthah bhur-bhuvah-svar-lokah \ vrittayo jagrad-adyuh \ 

49 If I have translated this correctly, tbe omkara is both the source of the alphabet, 
'and the alphabet of the omTfara .' 



predecessors, and in each of the systems of four yugas were divided by 
great sages at the beginning of the Dvapara. 49 The Brahmarshis, im- 
pelled by Achyuta, who^ resided in t>heir hearts, divided the Vedas, be- 
ca,use they pe,r.cved that men had declined in age} in power, and in under- 
standing. In this manvantara also, 50 the divine and omnipresent Being, 
the author^of the aniversej being 'supplicated by Brahma, Isa (S'iva), and 
the other guardians ef tke worjd, to maintain righteousness, became par- 
tially incarnate as fhe son. of Parasara and, Satyavati, and divided the 
Veda into"" /our parts. Selecting aggregates of Rich, Atharvan, Yajush, 
and Saman verses, and arranging them in sections (vargas], he formed 
four sanliitus (collections) of the hymns, as gems [of the same description 
are gathered together in separate heaps]. Having summoned four dis- 
ciples, the wise lord gave to Sach of them one of these sanhitas. To 
Paila he declared the first sanhita, called that of the Bahvrichas ; to 
Vaisampayana the assemblage of Yayush verses, called Nigada ; to 
Jaimini the Chhandoga collection of Saman verses: and to his pupil, 
Sumantu, the Atharvangirasi." 

The Bhagavata Purana, however, is not consistent in the account 
which it gives of the division of the Vedas. In a passage already 
quoted in the First Volume of this work, p. 158, it speaks of that division 
as having been the work of the monarch Pururavas, and as having 
' taken place in the beginning of the Treta age. From the importance 
of this text I will extract it here again at greater length. 

The celestial nymph Urvasi, the* Purana tells us, had been doomed, 
in consequence of a curse, to take up her abode upon earth. She there 


49 Dvaparadau can only mean the " beginning of the Dvapara ; " but the scholiast 
undertakes by the following process of reasoning to show that it means the end of that 
yuga : Dvaparadau dvaparam adir yasya tad-antyanisa-lakshanasya kalasya \ tasmin 
dvaparante veda - v+bJiaga - prasiddheh S'antanu - sama - kala - Vyasavatara- prasiddhes 
cha | vyasta vibhahtah \ "Dvaparadau means the period of which the dvapara was 
the beginning, i.e. the time distinguished as tne concluding portion of that yuga ; 
since it is notorious that the Vedas were divided at the end of the Dvapara, and that 
the incarnation of Vyilsa was contemporaneous with S'antanu. f 7 ys<aA = ;^AA;<aA, 
divided." * 

50 From this it appears that hitherto the account had not referred to the present 
manvantara. The scholiast remarks : Evam samanyato veda-vibhciga-kramam uktva 
vaivasvata-manvantare vis'eshato nirupayitum aha \ "Having thus [in the preceding 
verses] generally described the manner in which the Vedas^ are divided, [the Juthor] 
now states [as follows], with the view of determining particularly [what was done] in 
the Vaivasvata manvantara." 



fell in love with. King Pururavas, the report of whose manly beauty 
had touched her heart, even before she had been banished from para- 
dise. After spending many happy, days in the ociety of her lover, she 
forsook him in consequence of his having infringed one 6"f the conditions 
of their cohabitation, and Pururavas was in consequence rendered very 
miserable-. He at length, however, obtained fa renewal of their inter- 
course, and she finally recommended him to worship the Grandharvas, 
who would then re-unite hipi'with her indissolubly! 

The Purana then .proceeds (ix. 14, 43 ff.) : ,' 

Tasya saihstuvatas tushtdh agnisthdllm dadur nrijta \ Urvaslm manya- 
mdnas tarn so 'budhyata char an vane \ Sthdllm nyasya vane gatvd grihdn 
ddhydyato nisi \ Tretdydm sampravrittdydm, manasi trayy avarttata \ 
Sthdll-sthdnam gato 'svattham sami-garlhaih vilakshya sah \ Tena dve 
aranl kritvd Urvasi-loka-kdmyayd \ JJrvaslm mantrato dhydyann adhard- 
ranim uttardm \ Atmdnam ubhayor madhye yat tat prajananam pralhuh \ 
Tasya, nirmathandj jdto jdtaveddh vibhdvasuh \ Trayyd cha vidyayd rdjnd 
pittratve Icalpitas trivrit \ Tenayajata yajnesam lhagavantam adhoksha- 
jam | Urvasi-lolcam anvichhan sarva-devamayaiii Harim \ Ekah eva purd 
vedah pranavah sarva-vdnmayah \ Devo ndrdyano nanyah eko 'gnir varnah 
eva cha \ Pururavasa evdslt trayl tretd-mukhe nripa \ Agnind prajayd 
rdjd lolcam gdndJiarvam eyivdn \ 

" The Gandharvas, gratified by his praises, gave him a platter con- 
taining fire. This he [at first] supposed to be Urvasi, but became 
aware [of his mistake], as he wandtred in the wood. Having placed 
the platter in the forest, Pururavas went home ; and as he was medi- 
tating in the nigW> after the Treta age had commenced, the triple Yeda 
appeared before his mind. 51 Returning to the spot where he had placed 
the platter, he beheld an tisvattha tree springing out of a saml tree, and 
formed from it two pieces of wood. Longing to attain fne world where 
TTrvasI dwelt, he imagined to/ himself, according to the sacred text, 
Urvasi as the lower and himself as the upper piece of wood, and the place 
of generation as situated between the two. 52 ^ Ag.i was produced from its 

51 Karma-bodhaham veda-trayam pradurabhut \ " The three Vedas, expounders of 
rites, were manifested to him," as the scholiast explains." 

52 Elusion is here made, to a part of the ceremonial for kindling a particular sacri- 
ficial fire ; one of the formulas employed at which, as given in the Vaj. Sanhita, 5, 2, 
is, "thou art Urvasi" (JJrvasy asi), and another, "thou art Pururavas" (fururavuh 


' > 

friction, and, according to the threefold science [Veda], was under his 
triple form, adopted by the king , as his son. With this fire, seeking to 
attain the heaven of Ur,vasT, he worshipped the divine Hari, the lord of 
sacrifice, Adho"kshaja, formed of the substance "of all the gods. There 
was formerly but one Yeda, the sacred monosyllable om, the essence of 
all speech' ; one ''god, Narayana ; one Agni, and [one] caste. From 
Purur^vas came the toiple yeda in the beginning of the Treta age. 
Through Agni, his son, the king attained the heaven of the Gan- 
dharvas.'V 3 ' ' 

On the close of this passage the commentator remarks : 
Nanv anddir veda-traya-bodhito brdhmanddmdm Indrddy-aneka-deva- 
yajanena svarga-prdpti-heiuh karma-mdrgah katham sddir iva varnyate \ 
Tatrdha " elca eva" iti dvdtihydm \ Purd krita-yuge sarva-vdnmayah 
sarvdsdm vdchdm vlja-bhutah pranavah eka eva vedah \ Devas cha Ntird- 
yanah eka eva \ Agnis cJia eka eva laukikah \ Varnas cha eka leva hamso 
ndma \ Veda-trayl tu Pururavasah sakdsdd uslt .... Ayam bhdvah \ 
krita-yuge sattva-pradhdndh prdyasah sarve ''pi dhydna-nishthdh \ rajah- 
pradhdne tu Tretu-yuge vedddi-vibhagena karma-mtirgah pralcato babhuva 
ity arthah \ 

" How is it that the eternal method of works, which is pointed out 
by the three Vedas, and through which Brahmans and others, by wor- 
shipping Indra and many other gods, attain to paradise, is spoken of 
[in the preceding verses] as if it had a beginning in time ? He [the 
author of the Purana] answers thio in these two verses. Formerly, i.e. in 
the Krita age, there was only one Veda, the sacred monosyllable om, the 
essence of all words, i.e. that which is the seed of ail words ; and there 

was only one god, Narayana ; only one fire, that for common uses ; and 


asi}, the former denoting the lower (adhararani), and the latter the upper, piece of 
wood (uitararani}, by the friction of which the fire was to be produced. See Weber's 
Indische Studien, i. 197, and note; Roth's Illustrations of the Nirukta, p. 154; 
the S'atapatha Brahmana, iii. 4, 1, 22, and Katyayana's S'rauta Sutras, v. 1, 28 ff. 
The commentator on the Vajanasaneyo Sanhita explains the formula Urvasy asi thus : 
Talha Urvasi fururavo-m tpasya bhogaya adhastat sete tadvat tvam adho 'vasthita 
'si | " As Urvas'l lies under King Pururavas for sexual connection, so thou art placed 

53 This story is also told in a prose passage in the Vish. Pur. iv. 6. It is there 
stated that Pururavas divided fire, which was originally one, in a threefold jpanner 
(Eko 'gnir adav abhavad Ailena \u atra manvantare traita? pravarttita). No mention, 
however, is there made of his having divided the Vedas, or partitioned society into 
castes. > 




only one caste, the Hansa. But the triple Veda came from Pururavas. 
.... The meaning is this : in the Krita age the quality of goodness 
predominated in men, who were almost all absorbed in meditation. But 
in the Treta age, when 'passion (rajas) prevailed, the method of works 
was manifested by the division of the Yedas." 5i 

This last quoted passage of the Bb.aga.vata gives, as I have intimated, 
a different account of the division of the Vedas ft frofli that contajped in 
the other two texts previously adduced from the same work, _and in the 
citations from the Vifihhu and Vayu Puranas. The one set of passages 
speak of the Veda as having been divided by Vyasa iato four parts in the 
Dvapara age; while the text last cited speaks of the triple Veda as having 
originated with Pururavas in the Treta age ; and evidently belonged to 
a different tradition from the former three. The legend which speaks 
of three Vedas may possibly have a somewhat more ancient source than 
that which speaks of four, as it was not till a later date that the Atharva 
asserted its right to be ranked with the three others as a fourth Veda. 
The former tradition, however, would appear to have had its origin 
partly in etymological considerations. The word Treta, though designat- 
ing the second Yuga, means a triad, and seems to have been suggested 
to the writer's mind by the triple fire mentioned in the legend. 

Mahabhurata. The following passage from the Mahabharata, S f anti- 
parvan (verses 13,088 ff.), agrees partially in tenor with the last 
passage from the Bhagavata, but is silent regarding Pururavas : 

Idam krita-yugam nama kalah sr'Jshthah pravarttitah \ Aldmsyali 
yajna-pasavo yuge 'smin na tad anyaiha \ Chatushnat sakalo dharmo Iha- 
I'isliyaty atra rai surah \ Tatas Treta-yugam nama trayi yatra Uta'vish- 

yati | Prokshituh yajna-pasavo ladham prdpsyanti vai makhe 55 | Yatra 


54 This legend is borrowed from the S'atapatha Brahmana, xi. 5r, 1, 1 ff. (pp. 855- 
858 Weber's ed.), where the motive for its introduction is to describe the process by 
which fire was generated by Pururavas in obedience to the command of the Gan- 
dharvas, as the means of his admission into their paradise. See Professor Miiller's 
translation of this story in the Oxford Essays for 1856, p,p. 62, 63, or the reprint in 
his Chips from a German Workshop; and the First Volume of this' work, p v 226. 
The legend is founded on the 95th hymn of the tenth book of the Rig-veda. 

55 Manu (i. 85, 86) differs from this passage of the Mahabharata in making the 
Dvapara the age of sacrifice : Anye krilayuge dharmas Tretayam Dvapare pare \ Anye 
kaliyugc nrlnaih yuga-hrasanurupatah \ Tapth parf.m Kritayuge Tretayam jnanam 
ucliyate \ Lvapare yajnam evahur danam ekam kalau yuge \ " Different duties are 
practised by men in the ( Krita age, and different duties in the Treta, Dvapara, and 


pddas chaturtho vai dharmasya na lhavishyati \ Tato vai dvdparam ndma 
misrah kdlo hhavishyati \ 

" This present Krit^ age is the best of all the yugas ; in it it will be 
unlawful to^ldy any animals for sacrifice ; in this age righteousness shall 
consist of all its four portions and be entire. Then shall follow the 
Treta age, in which the triple* Yeda shall come into existence, and 
animals fit for sadrifise shalj. be slaughtered as oblations. In that age 
the fourth part of 'righteousness shall be* panting. Next shall succeed 
the Dva|jara, a mixed period." ' . 

The M. Bh. (S'antip. 13,475) relates that two Asuras, who beheld 
Brahma creating the Yedas, suddenly snatched them up and ran off. 
Brahma laments their lees, exclaiming : 

Vedo me paramdm chakshur vedo me paramam lalam | . . . . Vedan 
rite M kim kurydm lokdndm srishtim uttamdm \ 

" The Veda is my principal eye ; the Veda is my principal strength. 
.... What shall I do without the Vedas, the most excellent creation 
in the universe ? " They were, however, recovered and restored to 
Brahma (verses 13,506 ff.). 

Vishnu Pur ana,. The following verse, Vish. Pur. iii. 2, 12, refers to 
the periodical disappearance of the Vedas : 

Chaturyugante veddndm jdyate kali-viplavah \ pravarttayanti tan etya 
Ihuvi saptarshayo divah \ 

" At the end of the four ages (yugas} the disappearance of the Vedas, 
incident to the Kali, takes placed The seven rishis come from heaven 
to earth, and again give them currency." (Compare M. Bh. S'antip. 

verse 7660, which will be quoted further on.) 

SECT. VI. Accounts in the Vishnu and Vdyu Purdnas of the schisms 
leticeen the adherents of the Yajur-veda, Vaisampdyana and Ydjna- 
valkya ; hostility of the Atharvanas towards the other Vedas ; and of 

the Chhandogas towards th<?Rig-veda. 

The Vishnu Purana, iii. 5, 2 ff., gives the following legend regarding 

Kali ages, in proportion to the decline in those yugas. Devotion is said to he supreme 
in the Krita, knowledge in the Treta, sacrifice in the Dvlpara, and liherality'alone in 
the Kali." See also Mahabharata, S'untiparvan, verse 8505, which agrees with Manu. 
Sec also the First Volume of this work, pp. 39 ff. 


the way in which the Yajur-veda came to be divided into two schools, 
the black and the white : 


Ydjnavalkyas tu tasydbhud Brahmardta-suto dyija \ S'ishyah parama- 
dharma-jno guru-vritti-parah sadd \ Rishir y\) 'dya mahtimgrum samdj$ 
ndgamishyati \ Tasya vai sapta-rdtram tu brahma-hatyd bhavishyati \ 
Purvam eva muni-ganaih samayo 'bhut krito dvija \ Viisampdyana ekas 
tu tarn vyatikrdntavdms tadd \ S'vasrlyam bdlakam 86 'tha padd sprish- 
jam aghdtayat \ S'ishydn dha^sa " bhoh sishydh,brahma-hatydpaham vra- 
tam | Charadhvam ma.t-*rite sarve na vichtiryyam idam tathd " I Athdha 
Ydjncwalkyas tarn " kim ebhir bhagavan dvijaih \ Klesitair alpatejobhir cha- 
risJiye 'ham idam vratam " | Tatah kruddho guruh prdha Ydjnavalkyam 
mahdmatih \ "Muchyatdm yat tvayd 'dhltam matt') viprdvamanyaka \Niste- 
j'aso vadasy etdn yas tvam brdhmana-pungavdn \ Tena sishyena ndrtho 'sti 
mamdjnd-bhanga-kdrind " | Ydjnavalkyas tatah prdha bJiaktau tat te mayo- 
ditam \ Mamdpy alam tvayd 'dhltam yad mayd tad idam dvija \ Ity uktvd 
rudhirdktdni sarupdni yajumshi sah \ Chhardayitvd dadau tasmai yayau 
cha svechhayti munih \ yajumshy atha visrishtfini Ydjnavalkyena vai dvija \ 
Jagrihus tittirlbhutvd Taittirlyas tu te tatah \ Brahma-hatyd-vratam 
chlrnam gurund choditais tu yaih \ Charakddhvaryavas te tu charandd 
munisattamdh \ Ydjnavalkyo'tha Maitreya prdndydma-pardyanah \ tush- 
fdva prayatah suryam yajumshy abhilashams tatah | . . . . Ity evam- 
ddibhis tena stuyamanah stavaih ravih \ vdji-rupa-dharah prdha "vriya- 
tdm " Hi " vdnchhitam " | Ydjnavalkyas tadd prdha pranipatya divd- 
karam \ yajumshi tdni me dehi ydni stnti na me gurau \ Evam ukto da- 
dau tasmai yajumshi bhagavan ravih \ aydtaydma-sanjndni ydni vetti na 
tad-guruh \ Yajumshi yair adhltdni tdni viprair dvijottama \ vdjinas te 
samdkhydt&h suryo 'svah so 'bhavad yatah \ 

" Tajnavalkya, son of iirahmarata, was his [Vaisampayana'sJ dis- 
ciple, eminently versed in duty, and always attentive to h'is teacher. An 
agreement had formerly been m,de by the Munis that any one of their 
number who should fail to attend at an assembly on Mount Mem on 
a certain day should incur the guilt of Brahmanicide during a period 
of seven nights. Yaisampayana was the only person who infringed 
this agreement, and he in consequence occasioned the death of his 
sister's child by touching it with his foot. He then desired all his 
disciples to perform on 'his behalf an expiation which should take away 
his guilt, and forbade any hesitation. Tajnavalkya then said to him, 


i l 

' Reverend sir, what is the necessity for these faint and feeble Brah- 
mins? I will perform the expiation.' The wise teacher, incensed, 
replied to Yajnavalkya, 'Contemner of Brahmans, give up all that thou 
hast learnt froni me ; I Have no need of a disobedient disciple, who, 
like thee, stigmatizes these eminent Brahmans as feeble.' Yajnavalkya 
rejoined, '* It wafe from devotion [to thee] that I said what I did ; but 
I, too, have done fritlf thee ^ here is all that I have learnt from thee.' 
Having spoken, he vomked forth the identical Yajush texts tainted 
with blopd, and giving them to his master, h'e .departed at his will. 
[The other pupilo] having then become transformed into partridges 
(tittiri), picked up the Yajush texts, which were given up by Yajna- 
valkya, and were thencs called Taittiriyas. And those who by their 
teacher's command had performed the expiation for Brahmanicide, 
were from this performance (charana) called Charakadhvaryus. Yajna- 
valkya then, who was habituated to the exercise of suppressing his 
breath, devoutly hymned the sun, desiring to obtain Yajush texts .... 
[I pass over the hymn.] Thus celebrated with these and other praises, 
the sun assumed the form of a horse, and said, ' Ask whatever boon 
thou desirest.' Yajnavalkya then, bowing down before the lord of 
day, replied, ' Give me such Yajush texts as my teacher does not pos- 
sess.' Thus supplicated, the sun gave him the Yajush texts called 
Ayatayama, which were not known to his master. Those by whom 
these texts were studied were called Vajins, because the sun (when he 
gave them) assumed the shape offc horse (vajin}." 

I quote also the parallel text from the Vayu Purana, as it exhibits 
some slight variations from the preceding (Aufr. Cat. p. 55) : 

Kdryam dsld rishlndm cha kinchid brdhmana-sattamdh \ Meru-prish- 
tham samdsddya tais tada " 'stv " iti mantritam \ Yo no 'tra sapta- 
rdtrena ndgacfthed dvija-sattamdh \ sa kurt/dd brahma-badhydm rai 
samayo nah pralfirttitali \ Tatas te sa-yandh sarve Vaisampdyana-varji- 
tdh | Prayayuh saptardtrena ya,tra sandhih krito 'bhavat \ Brdhmand- 
ndm tu vachyndd brahma-ladliydm chakdra sah \ S'ishydn atha samdniya 
sa Vaisampdyano>''lravit \ " Brahma-ladhydm charadhvam vai mat-krite 
dvijah-sattamdh \ sarve yuyam samdgamya bruta me tad-hitam vach,ih " | 
Ydjnavalkyah uvdcha \ Aham eva charishydmi tishthantu munayas te ime \ 
bdlam chotthapayishydmi tapasd svena bhdvitah \ *Evam uktas tatah krud- 
dho Ydjnavalkyam athdbravlt \ uvdcha "yat tvaydldhltam sarram praty- 




arpayasva me " | Evam uktah sarupani yajumshi pradadau gwroh \ ru- 
dhirena tathti 'ktuni chliarditvd brahma-i'ittamah \ Tatah sa dhydnam 
dsthdya suryam drddhayad dvijah.\ " surya Imhma yad uchchhinnam 
kham gatvd pratitishthati" \ Tato ydni gatdny urdvUicm yajuih&fry 
dditya-mandalam \ Tdni tasmai dadau*tushtah suryo vai Brdhmarataye \ 
Asva-rupas cha mdrttando Ydjnavalkyaya dhltnate \ YajumsJiy adhlyate 
ydni brdhmandh yena kenachit (yani kdnichit ?) [ ^aswi-rupdni (-rupena ?) 
dattdni tatas te Vdjmo'bhava.n' j6 \ Irahma-hatyci tu yais chlrnu cfiarandt 
charakdh smritdh \ Tfaiiampdyana-sisJiyas te chardkdli samuddj>ritdh \ 

" The rishis having a certain occasion, met on th summit of Mount 
Meru, when, after consultation, they resolved and agreed together that 
any one of their number who should fail to attend there for seven 
nights should become involved in the guilt of brahmanicide. They all in 
consequence resorted to the appointed place for seven nights along with 
their attendants. Yaisampayana alone was absent, and he, according to 
the word of the Brahmans, committed brahmanicide. He then as- 
sembled his disciples, and desired them to perform, on his behalf, an 
expiation for his oifence, and to meet and tell him what was salutary 
for the purpose. Yajnavalkya then said, ' I myself will perform the 
penance ; let all these munis refrain : inspired by my own austere- 
fervour I r shall raise up the boy (whom thou hast slain).' Incensed at 
this speech of Yajnavalkya [Yaisampayana] said to him, ' Restore all 
that thou hast learned (from me).' Thus addressed, the sage, deeply 
versed in sacred lore, vomited forth 4?he identical Yajush texts stained 
with blood, and delivered them to his teacher. Plunged in meditation, 
the Brahman (Yajnavalkya) then adored the sun, saying, ' Sun, every 
sacred text which disappears [from the earth] goes to the sky, and 
there abides.' The sun, gratified, and [appearing] in the form of a 
horse, bestowed on Yajnavalkya, son of Brahmarata, '&!! the Yajush 
texts which had ascended to the solar region. As all the Yajush texts 
which these Brahmans study were given by him in the form of a horse, 
they in consequence became Vajins. And tht disciples of Yaisam- 
payana, by whom the expiatory rite was accomplished, were called 
Charakas, from its accomplishment (char ana}. " ^ 

56 If im indebted to Dr. Hall for communicating to me the various readings of this 
verse in the India Office Library MSS., but some parts of it seem to be corrupt. 

57 In a note to p. 461 (4to. ed.) of his Translation of the Vishnu Purana, Prof. Wilson 



It is sufficiently evident from the preceding legend that the adherents 
of the two different divisions of the Tajurveda (the Taittiriya or black, 
and the Vajasaneyi or white), must in ancient times have regarded each 
ether with feelings of the greatest hostility feelings akin to those with 
which the followers of the rival deities, Vishnu and S'iva, look upon 
each other in motlern days. On this subject I translate a passage from 
Professor "Weber's History o Indian Literature, p. 84 : 

"Whilst the theologians of the Rich, are called Bahvrichas, and 
those of '.the Saman Chhandogas, the old name'fgr the divines of the , 
Yajush is Adhvaryu : and these ancient appellations are to be found in 
the Sanhita of the Black Yajush (the Taittiriya), and in the Brahmana 
of the White Yajush (the S'atapatha Brahmana). The latter work ap- 
plies the term Adhvaryus to its own adherents, whilst their opponents 
are denominated Charakadhvaryus, and are the objects of censure. This 
hostility is also exhibited in a passage of the Sanhita of the White 
Yajush, where the Charakacharya, as one of the human sacrifices to be 
offered at the Purushamedha, is devoted to Dushkrita or Sin." 58 

In his Indische Studien (iii. 454) Professor Weber specifies the fol- 
lowing passages in the S'atapatha Brahmana as those in which the Cha- 
rakas, or Charakadhvaryus are censured, viz. iii. 8, 2, 24 ; iv. 1, 2, 19 ; 
iv. 2, 3, 15 ; iv. 2, 4, 1 ; vi. 2, 2, 1, 10; viii. 1, 3, 7 ; viii. 7*, 1, 14, 24. 
Of these I quote one specimen (iv. 1, 2, 19) : 

mentions the following legend illustrative of the effects of this schism. " The Vayu 
and Matsya relate, rather obscurely, a diipute between Janamejaya and Vais'ampayana, 
in consequence of the former's patronage of the Brahmans of the Vajasaneyi branch 
of the Yajur-veda, in opposition to the latter, who was the author of the Black or 
original Yajush. Janamejaya twice performed the As'vamedha according to the Vaja- 
saneyi ritual, and established the Trisarvi, or use of certain texts by As'maka and 
others, by the Brahmans of Anga, and by those of thje middle country. He perished ) 
however, in consequence, being cursed by Vais'ampayana. Before their disagreement, 
Vais'ampayana related the Mahabharata to Janamejaya." 

88 Vajasaneyi Sanhita, xxx. 18 (p. 846 of ,Weber's ed.) : Dushkritaya charalca- 
charyyam | (charakanam gurum Scholiast). Prof. Miiller also says (Anc. Sansk. 
Lit. p. 350), "This name Charaka is used in one of the Khilas (the passage just 
quoted) of tl^ Vajasaney? Sanhita as a term of reproach. In the 30th Adhyaya a 
list of people is given who are to be sacrificed at the Purushamedha, and among them 
we find the Charakacharya as the proper victim to be offered to Dushkrita or Sin. 
This passage, together with similar hostile expressions in the S'atapatha Bruhmana, 
were evidently dictated by a feeling of animosity against the ancient schools of the 
Adhvaryus, whose sacred texts we possess in the TaiHiriya-veda, and from whom 
Yajnavalkya seceded in order to become himself the founder of the new Charanas of 
the Vajasaneyins." 


Tdh u ha CharaMh ndnd eva mantrdlhydm juhvati "prdnoddnau vai 
asya etau \ ndnd-vlryau prdnoddnau kurmah" iti vadantah \ Tadu tathd 
na kurydt \ mohayanti ha te yajamdnasya prdnoddnau \ api id vai enam 
tushnim juhuydt \ * 

"These the Charakas offer respectively with two mantras, saying 
thus : ' These are his two breathings,' and ' we thus'make these two 
breathings endowed with their respective powers/ But let no one 
adopt this procedure, for they confound the breathings of the wor- 
shipper. Wherefore Jet this libation be offered in silence." ' 

But these sectarian jealousies were not confined to the different 
schools of the Yajur-veda ; the adherents of the Atharva-veda seem, to 
have evinced a similar spirit of hostility towards the followers of the 
other Vedas. On this subject Professor Weber remarks as follows in 
his Indische Studien, i. 296 : " A good deal of animosity is generally 
displayed in most of the writings connected with the Atharvan towards 
the other three Vedas ; but the strongest expression is given to this 
feeling in the first of the Atharva Parisishtas (Chambers Coll. No. 112)." 

He then proceeds to quote the following passage from that work : 

Hahvricho hanti vai rdshtram, adhvaryur ndsayet sutdn \ Chhandogo 
dhanam ndsayet tasmdd Atharvano guruh \ Ajndndd vd pramdddd vd 
yasya syda lahvricho guruh \ desa-rdshtra-purdmdtya-ndsas tasya na 
samsayah \ yadi vd 'dhvaryavam rdjd niyunalcti purohitam \ Sastrena 
ladhyate Icshipram parikshlndrtha-vdhanah \ yathaiva pangur adhvdnam 
apakshl chdnda-lhojanam (chdnda-jo nafohahtY 9 I warn chhandoga-gurund 
rdjd vriddhim na gachhati \ purodhd jalado yasya maudo vd sydt kathan- 
chana \ abddd dasabhyo mdselhyo rdshtra-bhramsam sa gachhati \ 

"A Bahvricha (Eig-veda priest) will destroy a kingdom; an Adh- 
varyu (Yajur-veda priest) 'will destroy offspring; and a Chhandoga 
(Sama-veda priest) will destroy wealth ; hence an Atharvana priest 
is the [proper] spiritual adviser. (The king) who, through ignorance or 
mistake, takes a Bahvricha priest for his guide will, without doubt, lose 
his country, kingdem, cities, and ministers. Or if a king ? ppoints an 
Adhvaryu priest to be his domestic chaplain, he forfeits his wealth and 
his chariots, and is speedily slain by the sword. As a lame man makes 
no progress on a road, and an egg-born creature which is without wings 

59 For the ingenious conjectural emendation in brackets, I am indebted to Professor 
Aufrecht. I adopt it in my translation. 



cannot soar into the sky, so no king prospers who has a Chhandoga for 
his teacher. He who has a Jalada or a Mauda for his priest, loses his 
kingdom after a year or ten months." 

, " Thus,'^ continues Professor Weber, " the author of the Parisishta 
attacks the adherents of certain S'akhas of the Atharva-veda itself, for 
such' are the Jaladas and the'Maudas, and admits only a Bhargava, a 
Paippalada, or a Sauuaka to be a properly qualified teacher. He further 
declares that the A.tharv,a-veda is intended only for the highest order of 
priest, t,he brahman, not for the three other inferior sorts." 

The following passage is then quoted : 

Aiharva, srijate ghoram adbhutam samayet tathd \ atharvd rakshate 
yajnam yajnasya patir ^-ngirdh \ Divydntariksha-bhaumdndm utpdtdndm 
anekadhd \ samayitd brahma-veda-jnas tdsmdd dakskinato Bhriguh \ 
Brahmd samayed nddhvaryur na chhandogo na bahvrichah \ rakshdmsi 
rakshati brahmd brahmd tasmdd atharva-vit \ 

''The Atharva priest creates horrors, and he also allays alarming 
occurrences ; he protects the sacrifice, of which Angiras is the lord. 
He who is skilled in the Brahma-veda (the Atharva) can allay manifold 
portents, celestial, aerial, and terrestial; wherefore the Bhrigu [is to 
be placed] on the right hand. It is the brahman, and not the adh- 
varyu, the chhandoga, or the bahvricha, who can allay [portents] ; the 
brahman wards off Rakshases, wherefore the brahman is he who knows 
the Atharvan." 

I subjoin another extract from Professor Weber's Indische Studien, 
i. 63 if., which illustrates the relation of the Sama-veda to the Rig- 
veda, 60 as well as the mutual hostility of the different schools: "To 
understand the relation of the Sama-veda to the Rig-veda, we have 
only to form to ourselves a clear and distinct idea of the manner in 
which these'hymns in general arose, how they were then carried to a 
distance by those tribes which emigrated onward, and how they were 
by them regarded as sacred, whilst in their original home, they were 
either a^s living ir\ the immediate consciousness ,of the people sub- 
jected to modifications corresponding to the lapse of time, or made way 
for new hymns by which they were pushed aside, and so became for- 
gotten. It is a foreign country which first surrounds familiar things 
with a sacred charm ; emigrants continue to sccupy their ancient men- 
60 See the Second Volume of this work, pp. 202 f. 


tal position, preserving what is old with painful exactness, while at 
home life opens out for itself new paths. New emigrants follow those 
who had first left their home, and unite with those who are already 
settlers in a new country And now the old and the ne w hymns and 
usages are fused into one mass, and are faithfully, but uncritically, 
learned and imbibed by travelling pupils from different masters; 
several stories in the Brihad Aranyaka are especially instructive on 
this point, see Ind. Stud. p. 83 , so that a varied intermixture arises. 
Others again, more learned, then strive to introduce arrangement, to 
bring together what is homogeneous, to separate what is distinct ; and 
in this way theological intolerance springs up ; without which the 
rigid formation of a text or a canon is impossible. The influence of 
courts on this process is not to be overlooked ; as, for example, in the 
case of Janaka, King of Yideha, who in Yajnavalkya had found his 
Homer. Anything approaching to a clear insight into the reciprocal 
relations of the different schools will in vain be sought either from the 
Puranas or the Charanavyuha, and can only be attained by comparing 
the teachers named in the different Brahmanas and Sutras, partly with 
each other and partly with the text of Panini and the ganapatha and 
commentary connected therewith (for the correction of which a thorough 
examination, of Patanjali would offer the only sufficient guarantee). 
For the rest, the relation between the S.V. and the R.V. is in a certain 
degree analogous to that between the "White and the Black Yajush ; 
and, as in the Brahmana of the former, , (the S'atapatha Brahmana), we 
often find those teachers who are the representatives of the latter, men- 
tioned with contempt, it cannot surprise us, if in the Brahmana of the 
Sama-veda, the Paingins and Kaushitakins are similarly treated." 

It is sufficiently manifest from the preceding passages of the Puranas 
concerning the division and different S'akhas of the YeJas, that the 
traditions which they embody contain no information in regard to the 
composition of the hymns, and nothing tangible or authentic regarding 
the manner in which c they were preserved, collected, />r arranged. In fact, 
I have not adduced these passages for the purpose of elucidating those 
points, but to show the legendary character of the narratives, and their 
discrepancies in matters of detail. For an account of the S'akhas of the 
Vedas, tLe ancient schools of the Brahmans, and other matters of a 
similar nature, I must refer to the excellent work of Professor Miiller, 



the "History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature," pp. 119-132 and 364- 
388 and elsewhere. 

' SECT. YIP. Reasonings of the Commentators on the Vedas, in support 

, t of the authority of the Vedas. 


I proceed now to adduce* some extracts from the works of the more 
systematic authors who have .treated of tie origin and authority of the 
Vedas, ] mean the commentators on these book's themselves, and the* 
authors and expositors of the aphorisms of several of the schools of 
Hindu philosophy. 61 Whatever we may think of the premises from 
which these writers set but, or of the conclusions at which they arrive, 

61 Although the authors of the different schools of Hindu philosophy (as we shall 
see) expressly defend (on grounds which vary according to the principles of the several 
systems) the authority of the Vedas, they do not consider themselves as at all bound to 
assert that the different portions of those works are all of equal value : nor do they 
treat their sacred scriptures as the exclusive sources out of which their own theology 
or philosophy are to be evolved. On the relation of Indian thinkers generally to the 
Vedas, I quote some remarks from an article of my own in the Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society for 1862, pp. 310 f. : "It is evident from some of the hymns of the 
Veda (see Miiller's Hist, of Anc. Sansk. Lit. p. 556 ff.) that theological speculation has 

been practised in India from a very early period As, therefore^ the religious 

or mythological systems of India became developed, it was to be expected that they 
should exhibit numerous variations springing out of the particular genius of different 
writers ; and more especially that, whenever the speculative element predominated in 
any author, he should give utterance to ideas on the origin of the world, and the 
nature and action of the \Deity or deities, more or less opposed to those commonly 
received. In the stage here supposed, a fixed and authoritative system of belief or 
institutions had not yet been constructed, but was only in process of construction, and 
therefore considerable liberty of individual thought, expression, and action would be 
allowed ; as is, indeed, also shown by the existence of different schools of Brahmans, 
not merely attached to one or other of the particular Vedas, but even restricting their 
allegiance to sonJe particular recension of one of the Vedas. Even after the Brahmanical 
system had been more firmly established, and its details more minutely prescribed, it 
is clear that the same strictness was not extended to speculation, but that if a Brahman 
was only an observer of the established ceremonial, and an assertor of the privileges 
of his own order, he mighj; entertain and even profess almost any philosophical opinion 
which he p?eased (Colebrooke, Misc. Ess. i. 379; Miiller, Anc. Sansk. Lit. 79). In 
this way the tradition of free thought was preserved, and speculative principles of 
every character continued to be maintained and taught without hindrance or scandal. 
Meanwhile the authority of the Vedas had come to be generally regarded as para- 
mount and divine, but so long as this authority was nominally acknowledged, inde- 
pendent thinkers were permitted to propound a variety of speculative principles, at 
variance with their general tenor, though perhaps not inconsistent with some isolated 


we cannot fail to be struck with the contrast which their speculations 
exhibit to the loose and mystical ideas of the Puranas and Upanishads, 
or to admire the acuteness of their reasoning, the logical precision with 
which their arguments are presented, and the' occasional liveliness and 
ingenuity of their illustrations. 

I. The first passage which I shall adduce is from "Sayan a' s intro- 
duction to his commentary on the Big-^eda, the Vedarthaprakasa, 
pp. 3 ff. (Sayana, as we have seen in the Second Volume of this work, 
<p. 172, lived in the I 4 th century, A.D.) : 

Nanu Vedah eva tdvad ndsti \ kutas tad-avdntara-viseshah rigvedah \ 
Tathd hi \ ko ''yam vedo ndma \ na hi tatra lakshanam pramdnam vd 'sti \ 
nacha tad-ulhaya-vyatirekena kinchid vastu prasidhyati \ Lakshana-pra- 
mdndbhydih hi vastu-siddhir iti nydya-viddm matam \ " PratyaJcshdnu- 
mdndgameshu pramdna-visesheshv antimo Vedah iti tallakshanam" iti chet \ 
na | Manv-ddi-smritishv ativydpteh \ Samaya-balena samyak parokshd- 
nubhava-sddhanam ity etasya dgama-lakshanasya tusv api sadbhdvdt \ 
" apaurusheyatve sati iti viieshanaA adoshah" iti chet \ na \ Vedasyapi 
paramesvara-nirmitatvena paurusheyatvdt \ " S'arlra-dhari-jiva-nirmitat- 
vdbhdvdd apaurusheyatvam " iti chet \ [na~\ \ " Sahasra-slrshd purushah" 
ityddi-srutibhir Isvarasyapi sarlritvdt \ " Karma- phala-rupa- Sarlra- 
dhdri-jlva-nirmitatvdbhdva-mdtrena apaurusheyatvam vivakshitam" iti 
chet | na \ Jlva-viseshair Agni- Vdyv-Adityair veddndm utpdditatvdt \ 
"Rigvedah eva Agner ajdyata Yajurvedo Vdyoh Sdmavedah Aditydd" iti 
sruter Isvarasya agny - ddi - prerakatvVna nirmdtritvam drashtavyam \ 
" mantra-br&hmandtmakah sabda-rdsir vedah" iti chet \ na \ Idriso 
mantrah \ idrisam br^hmanam ity anayor adydpi anirnltatvdt \ Tasmdd 
ndsti kinchid vedasya lakshanam \ Ndpi tat-sadbhdve pramdnam pasyd- 
mah | " ' Rigvedam bhagavo ''dhyemi Yajurvedam Sdmavedam Atharvanam 
chaturtham ' ityddi vdkyam pramdnam " iti chet \ na \ tasydpi vdkyasya 
veddntahpdtitvena dtmdsrayatva ~prasangdt \ Na khalu nipuno 'pi sva- 
skandham drodhum prabhaved iti \ " l Ved^ah eva dvydtzndm nihsreyasa- 
karah parah ' iti ddi smriti-vdkyam pramdnam " vti chet \ np \ tasydpy 
ukta-sruti-mulatvena nirdkritatvdt \ pratyakshddikam sankitum apy ayo- 

portions of their contents. It was only when the authority of the sacred books was 
not merely tacitly set aside or undermined, but openly'-discarded and denied, and the 
institutions founded on them were abandoned and assailed by the Buddhists, that the 
orthodox party took the alarm." 


gyam \ Veda-vishaya loka-prasiddhih sarvajariind 'pi " riilam nabhah " 
ityddi-vad bhrdntd \ Tasmdl lahhana-pramdna-rahitasya vedasya sad- 
bhdvo na anglkarttym sakyate Hi purva-pafahah \ 

Atra uchyate \ mantrd-brdhmantitmakam tdvad admhtam lakshanam \ 
ata eva Apastambo yajna-paribhdshdyam evdha " mantra-brdhmanayor 
veda-ndmadheyftm " iti*] tayos tu rupam uparishtMd nirneshyate \ apau- 
rusheya-vdkyatvafo iVi idam t api yddrisam asmdbhir vivakshitam tadrisam 
uttaratrq spashtlbham&kyati \ pramanut\y api yafhoktani sruti-smriti- 
loka-prsiddhi-rupani veda-sadbhdve drashtavyum \ Yathu ghata-patadi* 
dravydndm sva-prakdsatvdbhdve 'pi surya-chandrddlndm sva-prakd&atvam 
avirttdham tathd manushyddmdm sva-skandhdrohdsambhave 'py akunthita- 
sakter vedasyci itara-vastu-pratipadaliatva-vat sva-pratipddakatvam apy 
astu | Ata eva sampraddya-vido 'kunthitdm saktim vedasya darsayanti 
" chodand hi bhutam bhavishyantam sukshmam vyavahitam viprakrishtam 
ity evanjdtlyam artham saknoty avagamayitum " iti \ Tatha sati veda- 
muldydh smrites tad-ulJiaya-muldydh loka-prasiddhes cTia prdrndnyam 
durvdram \ Tasmdl lakshana-pramdna-siddho vedo na kendpi chdrvdkddind 
'podhum sakyate iti sihitam \ 

Nanv astu ndma Veddkhyah kaschit paddrthah \ tathdpi ndsau vyd- 
khydnam arhati apramdnatvena anupayuktatvdt \ Na hi Vedah pramdnam 
tal-lakshanasya tatra duhsampddatvdt \ tathd hi " samyag anubhava-sd- 
dhanam pramdnam " iti kechil lakshanam dhuh \ apare tu " anadhigatdr- 
tha-gantri pramdnam " ity achakshate \ na chaitad ubhayam vede sambha- 
vati | mantra-brdhmagdtmako h? vedah \ tatra mantra hkechidabodhakdh \ 
" amyak sd te Indrp rishtir" (E.V. i. 169, 3) ity eko mantrah \ "Yd- 
drismin dhdyi tarn apasyayd vidad" (11. V. v. 44, 8) ity any ah \ "S'rinyd 
ivajarbhan turpharitu^ (E.Y. x. 106, 6) ity aparah \ " 'Apdnta-manyus 
tripala-prabharmd " (R.V. x. 89, 5) ity-ddayah uddhdrydh \ na hy etair 
mantraih kaschid apy artho 'vabudhyate \ eteshv anubhavo eva yadd ndsti 
tadd tat-samyaktvam tadlya-sddhanatvam cha durdpetam \ " Adhah svid 
dsld " (R.Y. x. 129, 5) iti maqtrasya bodhakatve 'pi " sthdnur vd purusho 
va" ityadi-vdkya-'Jat sandigdhdrtha-bodhakatvdd*ndsti prdmdnyam \ 
" Oshadhe trdyasva enarn" (Taitt. Sanh. i. 2, 1, 1) iti mantro darbha- 
vishayah \ "Svadhite md enam himsir " (Taitt. Sanh. i. 2, 1, 1) iti kshura- 
vishayah \ "Srinota grdvdnak " iti pdshdna-vishayah \ Eteshv achetana- 
ndm darlha-kshura-pdshdndndm chetana-vat sambodhanam sruyate \ tato 
11 dvau chandramasdv " iti vdkya-vad viparltdrtfia-lodhakatvdd aprdmdn- 


yam \ "Ekah eva Riidro na dvitlyo 'vatasthe" \ u sahasrdni sahasraso ye 
Rudrah adhi bhumydm" 62 ity anayos tu mantrayor " ydvajjlvam aham 
mauni" ity vdlcya-vad vydghdta-bodhakatvdd aprdmdnyam \ " Apah un- 
dantu" (Taitt. Sanh. i. 2, 1, 1) iti mantro yajamtina&ya 'kshaura-kdle 
jalena 6irasah kledanam brute \ "S'ubhike sirah droJia sobhayantl mukliam 
mama" iti mantro vivdha-kdle mangalucharandrtJeam pustipa-nirmitdydh 
subhiMydh vara-badhvoh sirasy avasthdnam brute \rfaybs cha mantrayor 
loka-prasiddharthdnuvdditvad agiadhigatdrtha-ganiritvam ndsti |_ tasmdd 
mantra-bhdgo na pramdgatn \ 

Atra uchyate \ "Amyag"-ddi-mantrdndm artJio Ydskena niruTcta- 
granthe 'vabodhitah \ tat-parichaya-rahitdndm anavabodho na mantrdndm 
dosham avaJiati \ Ata eva atra lolca-nydyam uddJiaranti " na esTia sthdnor 
a/par adho yad enam andho na pasyati \ purusMparddho sambhavati" iti \ 
" Adhah svid dsld" iti mantras cha na sandeha-prabodhandya pravrittah 
Icimtarhi jagat-kdranasya para-vastuno 'tigambhlratvam nischetum eva 
pravrittah \ tad-artham eva hi guru-sdstra-sampraddya-rahitair durbo- 
dhyatvam " adJfah svid " ity anaya, vacho-bhangyd upanyasyati \ Sa eva 
abhiprdyah uparitaneshu "ho addhd veda" (E.Y. x. 129, 6) ity ddi- 
mantreshu spaslitlkritah \ " Oshadh^'-ddi mantreshv api chetandh eva 
tat-tdd-abhimdni-devatds tena tena ndmnd sambodhyante \ ids cha devatdh 
bhagavatd Badardyanena " abhimdni-vyapadesas tu" iti sutre sutritdh \ 
Ekasydpi Rudrasya sva-mahimnd sahasra-murtti-svilcdrdd ndsti paras- 
param vydghdtah \ Jalddi-dravyena sirah-lcledandder loka-siddhatve 'pi 
tad-abhimdni-devatdnugrahasya aprasiddnatvdt tad-vishayatvena ajndtdr- 
tha-jndpakatvam \ tato lakshana-sadbhdvdd asti mantra-bhdgasya pra- 
mdnyam \ r, 

" But, some will say, there is no such thing as a Yeda ; how, then, 
can there be a Rig- veda, forming a particular part of it ? For what is 
this Yeda ? It has no characteristic sign or evidence ; and without 
these two conditions, nothing cart be proved to exist. For logicians 
hold that 'a thing is established by characteristic signs and by proof.' 
If you answer that 'x>f the three kinds of proof, perception, inference, 
and scripture, the Yeda is the last, and that this is its sign ;' then the 
objectors rejoin that this is not true, for this sign extends too far, and 

includes also Manu's and the other Smritis ; since there exists in them 
*r 1 

62 The Vajasaneyi Sanhita, xvi. 53, has, asankhyata sahasrani ye Rudrah adhi 
bhumyam \ n 




also this characteristic of Scripture, viz. that in virtue of common con- 
sent it is a perfect instrument for the discovery of what is invisible.' 
If you proceed, ' the Yeda is faultless, in consequence of its charac- 
teristic thptMt has no person (purushd) forits author;' 63 they again 
reply, ' Not so ; for as the Veda likewise was formed by Paramesvara 
(God), it had a person. (puruSha) for its author.' If you rejoin, ' It had 
no person (puru$ha]oi[ its author, for it was not made by any embodied 
living being ; ' [they refuse 64 to admii; this] on the ground that, accord- 
ing to'jsuch Yedic texts as 'Purusha has a thousand heads,' it is clea^r 
that fsvara (God) also has a body. If you urge that apaurusheyatva 
('the having had no personal author') means that it was not composed 
by a living being endowed with a body which was the result of works 
the opponent denies this also, inasmuch as the Yedas were created 
by particular living beings Agni (fire), Yayu (wind), and Aditya (the 
sun) ; for from the text ' the Big-veda sprang from Agni, the Yajur- 
veda from Vayu, and the Sama-veda from Surya,' etc., it will be seen 
that Isvara was the maker, by inciting Agni and the others. If you 
next say that the Yeda is a collection of words in the form of Mantras 
and Brahmanas, the objectors rejsin, 'Not so, for it has never yet been 
defined that a Mantra is so and so, and a Brahmana so and so.' There 
exists, therefore, no characteristic mark of a Yeda. Nor do we see any 
proof that a Yeda exists. If you say that the text, 'I peruse, reverend 
sir, the Rig-veda, the Yajur-veda, the Sama-veda, and the Atharvana 
as the fourth,' is a proof, the Antagonist answers, 'No, for as that text 
is part of the Yeda, the latter would be open to the objection of depending 
apon itself; for no one, be he ever so clever, c^n mount upon his own 
shoulders.' If you again urge that such texts of the Smriti as this, 
' It is the Yeda alone which is the source of blessedness to twice-born 
men, and transcendent,' are proofs, the objector rejoins,' ' Not so ; since 
these too must be rejected, as being; founded on the same Yeda.' The 

63 Or, the meaning of this may be, " If you urge that, as the Veda has no personal 
author, tUere is in consequence of this peculiar characteristic no flaw (in the pro- 
posed definition), etc." 

64 I have translated this, as if it there had been (which there is not) a negative 
particle na in the printed text, after the iti chef, as this seems to me to b"e necessary 
to the sense. I understand from Prof. Mviller that the negative particle,is found in 
some of the MSS. [I am, however, informed by Prof. Goldstiicker that na is often 
omitted, though understood, after iti chet.] 


evidence of the senses and other ordinary sources of knowledge ought 
not even to be doubted. 69 And common report in reference to the 
Veda, though universal, is erroneous, like such phrases as ' the blue 
sky,' etc. Wherefore, as the Veda is destitute of characteristic sign 
and proof, its existence cannot be admitted. Such is the first side of 
the question. 

" To this we reply : The definition of the Veda, as 3 work composed 
of Mantra and Brahmana, is unobjectionable. Hence Apastamba says 
in the Yajnaparibhasha, ,'the name of Mantra and Brahmana is Veda.' 
The nature of these two things will be settled hereafter. 66 The sense 
we attach to the expression ' consisting of sentences which had no per- 
sonal author ' will also be declared further on. Let the proofs which have 
been specified of the existence of the Veda, viz. the Veda (itself), the 
Smriti, and common notoriety, be duly weighed. Although jars, cloth, 
and other such [dark] objects have no inherent property of making them- 
selves visible, it is no absurdity to speak of the sun, moon, and other 
luminous bodies, as shining by their own light. Just in the same way, 
though it is impossible for men or any other beings to mount on their own 
shoulders, let the Veda through the keenness of its power be held to have 
the power of proving itself, as it has of proving other things. 67 Hence 
traditionists <set forth this penetrating force of the Veda ; thus, ' Scrip- 
ture is able to make known the past, the future, the minute, the distant, 
the remote.' Such being the case, the authority of the Smriti, which 
is based on the Veda, and that of common notoriety, which is based on 
both, is irresistible. Wherefore it stands fast that the Veda, which is 

85 The drift of this sentence does not seem to me clear. From what immediately 
follows it would rather appear that *he evidence of the senses may be doubted. Can 
the passage be corrupt ? 

66 See the First Volume of this work, pp. 2ff. and the Second Volume, p. 172. 

67 The same thing had been said befo.e by S'ankura Achiiryya (who lived at the 
end of the 8th or beginning of the 9th century, A.D. See Colebrooke's Misc. Essays, 
i. 332), in his commentary on the Brahma Sutras, 'ii. 1, 1 : Vedasya hi nirapeksham 
svarthe pramanyani raver iva rupa-vishaye \ purusha-vachasam tu mulant&apeksham 
svdrthe pramanyam vaktri-smriti-vyavahitaih cha iti viprakarshah \ " For the Veda 
has an independent authority in respect of its own sense, as the sun has of manifesting 
forms. The words of men on the other hand, have, as regards their own sense, an 
authority wtiich is dependent upon another source [the Veda], and which is separated 
[from the authority of the VedaJ by the fact of its author being remembered. Herein 
consists the distinction [between the two kinds of authority]." 


* i 

established by characteristic sign, and by proof, cannot be overturned by 
the Charvakas or any other opponents. 

"But let it be admitted that 'there is a thing called a Yeda. Still, 
the opponent! say,' it does not deserve explanation, being unsuited for it, 
since it does not constitute proof. The Veda, they urge, is np proof, as 
it is' difficult to show that it -has any sign of that character. Now, 
gome 'define proof as, the instrument of perfect apprehension; others 
say, it is that which arrives at what was not before ascertained. 
But neither of these definitions can be reasonably applied to the Veda. 
For the Veda consists of Mantra and Brahmana. Of these mantras 
some convey no meaning. Thus one is amyak sd te Indra rishtir, etc. ; 
another is yadrismin, etc. ; a third is srinyd wa, etc. The texts 
dpdntu-manyuh, 68 etc., and ethers may be adduced as further examples. 
Now no meaning whatever is to be perceived through these mantras ; 
and when they do not even convey an idea at all, much less can they 
convey a perfect idea, or be instruments of apprehension. Even if 
the mantra adhah svid dsld upari svid dsld, ' was it below or above ? ' 
(R.V. x. 129, 5) convey a meaning, still, like such sayings as 'either a 
post or a man,' it conveys a dubious meaning, and so possesses no au- 
thority. The mantra, ' deliver him, o plant,' has for its subject grass. 
Another, ' do not hurt him, axe,' has for its subject an &xe (kshura). 
A third, ' hear, stones,' has for its subject stones. In these cases, grass, 
an axe, and stones, though insensible objects, are addressed in the Veda 
as if they were intelligent. B^ence these passages have no authority, 
because, like the saying, ' two moons,' their import is absurd. So also 
the two texts, 'there is one Eudra; no second has existed,' and 'the 
thousand Rudras who are over the earth,' involving, as they do, a mu- 
tual contradiction (just as if one were to say, 'I have been silent all 
my life '), cannot be authoritative. The mantra dpah undantu expresses 
the wetting of the sacrificer's head with water at the time of tonsure ; 
while the text ' subhike,' etc. (' garland, mount on my head and decorate 

my face') expresses the placing of a garland formed of flowers on the 

heads of the bridegroom and bride, by way of blessing, at the time of 
marriage. Now, as these two last texts merely repeat a matter of 

68 See Nirukta, v. 12, and vi. 15, and Roth's Illustrations. It is not necessary for 
my purpose to inquire whether the charge of intelligibility brought against these 
different texts is just or not. 


i l 

common notoriety, they cannot be said to attain to what was not before 
ascertained. Wherefore the Mantra portion of the Veda is destitute t)f 

" To this we reply, the meaning of these 1 texts, ' aifiyali? and the 
others, has been explained by Yaska in the Nirukta. 69 The fact that 
they are not understood by persons igno'rant of that explanation, does 
not prove any defect in the mantras. It is customaryto quote here the 
popular maxim, ' it is not the fault of the post ,that the blind man does 
( not see it; the reasonable thing to say is that it is the man's fault.' 
The mantra ' adhah svid,' etc. ('was it above or below?') (H.V. x. 129, 
5) is not intended to convey doubt, but rather to signify the extreme 
profundity of the supreme Essence, the cause of the world. With this 
view the author intimates by this turn of expression the difficulty which 
persons who are not versed in the deep Scriptures have, in compre- 
hending such subjects. The same intention is manifested in the fol- 
lowing mantras ko addhd veda, etc. (R.V. x. 129, 6) ('who knows? ' 
etc.) In the texts oshadhe, etc. (*o herb,' etc.), the deities who pre- 
side over these various objects are addressed by these several names. 
These deities are referred to by the venerable Badarayana in the apho- 
rism alhimdni-vyapadesah. As Rudra, though only one, assumes by his 
power a thousand forms, there is no contradiction between the different 
texts which relate to him. And though the moistening, etc., of the 
head by water, etc., is a matter of common notoriety, yet as the good- 
will of the deities who preside over thes-e objects is not generally known, 
the texts in question, by having this for their subject, are declaratory 
of what is unknown, Hence the Mantra portion of the Veda, being 
shown to have a characteristic mark, is authoritative." 

Sayana then, in p. 11 of 'his Preface, proceeds to extend his argu- 
ment to the Brahmanas. These are divisible into two parts, Precepts 
(vidhi], and Explanatory remarks (arthavada). Precepts again are either 
(a) incitements to perform some act in which a man has not yet engaged 
(apravritta-pravarttfinain), such as are contained ir the ceremonial sec- 
tions (Karma-kanda} ; or ( V) revelations of something previously unknown 
(ajndta-jndpanam\ such as are found in the portions which treat of sa- 
cred knowledge or the supreme spirit (Brahma-kdnda}. Both these parts 

f r 

69 See the Journal of the' Royal Asiatic Society for 1866, pp. 323, 329, 334, and 


are objected to as unauthoritative. The former is said (1) to enjoin 
things afterwards declared to be improper ; and (2) to prescribe in some 
texts things which, are. prohibited in others. Thus in the Aitareya, 
Taittiriya, rud other Brahmanas, many injunctions given in other 
places are controverted in such phrases as, " This or that must not be 
regarded ; " " This must* not be done in that way " (tat tad na ddrit- 
yam \ tat tathd na ftdryfyam}. t And again prescriptions are given which 
are mutually contradictory. Another objection is that no result, such 
as the att'ainment of paradise, is perceived to follcnr the celebration of a 
jyotishtoma or other sacrifice; whilst satisfaction never fails to be ex- 
perienced immediately after eating (jyotishtomddishv apy anushthdnd- 
nantaram eva cha svargadi-phalam na upaldbhyate \ na hi bhojandnan- 
taram tripter anupalambho 'sti |). The answer given to the earlier of 
these objections is that the discrepant injunctions and prohibitions are 
respectively applicable to people belonging to different S'akhas or Vedic 
schools ; just as things forbidden to a man in one state of life (dsrama] 
are permitted to one who is in another. It is thus the difference of per- 
sons which gives rise to the apparent opposition between the precepts 
(tathd jarttilddi-vidhir attra nindyamdno 'pi kvachit sdkhdntare bhaved iti 
chet | bhavatu ndma \ prdmdnyam api tach-chhdlchddhydyinam prati bha- 
vishyati \ yathd grihasthdsrame nishiddham api pardnna-bhojanam dsra- 
mdntareshu prdmdnikam tad-vat \ anena nydyena sarvattra paraspara- 
viruddhau vidhi-nishedhau purusha-bhedena vyavasthdparilyau yathd man- 
treshu ptitha-bhedah |). ,In the same way, it is remarked, the different 
S'akhas adopt different, readings in the mantras. As regards the objection 
raised to the authoritativeness of the revelations of 'things hitherto un- 
known, which are made in the Brahma-kanda, that they are mutually 
contradictory as when the Aitareyins say, Atmd vaiidam ekah eva agre 
dslt, " This was in the beginning soul only ; " whilst the Taittirlyakas 
on the other hand affirm, asad vai idam xgre dsit, " This was in the be- 
ginning non-existent ; " the answer is given that it is determined by a 
particular aphorism (waich is quoted) 71 that in the tatter passage the 
word asat does not mean absolute vacuity or nothingness, but merely an 

70 Compare the quotation given above, p. 54, from the S'atapatha Brahmana, iv. 
1, 2, 19. ' 

'Brahma Sutra, ii. 1, 7, appears to be intended; but the text of it as given by 
Sayana does not correspond with that in the Bibliotheca Imlica. 

' 5 


undeveloped condition (. . . . iti sutre Taittiriya-gata-vdkyasya asach- 
chhabdasya na sunya-paratvam kintv avyaktdvasthd-paratvam iti nirm- 
tam |). 72 Sayana accordingly concludes (p. 19 of his Preface) that the 
authority of the whole 'Veda is proved. 

II. The second passage which I shall quote is from the Vedartha- 
prakasa of Madhava Acharyya on the Taittirlya Yajtir-veda (p. 1 ff. in 
the Bibliotheca Indica). Madhava was ( the brother of Sayana, 73 and 
flourished in the middle of the 14th century (Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. 
i. 301) : 

Nanu ko 'yam vedo ndma Ice vd asya vishaya-prayyana-sambandhddhi- 
Icdrinah katham va tasya prdmdnyam \ na khalv etasmin sarvasminn asati 
vedo vydkhydna-yogyo bhavati \ Atra uchyate \ Tshta-prdpty-anishta-pari- 
hdrayor alaukikam updyam, yo grantho vedayati sa vedah \ Alaukika-pa- 
dena pratyakshdnumdne vydvartyete \ Anubhuyamdnasya srak-chandana- 
vanitdder ishta-prdpti-hetutvam aushadha-sevdder anishta-parihara-hetut- 
vam cha pratyaksha-siddham \ Svendnulhavishyamdnasya purushdntara- 
gatasya cha tathdtvam anumdna-gamyam \ "Evamtarhilhdvi-janma-gata- 
sukhddikam anumdna-gamyam" iti chet \ na \ tad-viseshasya anavagamdt \ 
Na khalu jyotishtomddir ishta-prdpti-hetuh kalanja-lhakshana-varjanddir 
anishta-parihdra-hetur ity amum artham veda-vyatirekena anumdna-saJias- 
rendpi tdrkika-siromanir apy asydvagantum Saknoti \ Tasmdd alaukiko- 
pdya-bodhaJco vedah iti lakshanasya na ativydptam \ ata evoktam \ " Pra- 
tyakshendnumityd vd yas tupdyo na ludhyate \ Etam vindanti vedena 
tasmdd vedasya vedatd " iti \ sa eva tipdyo vedasya vishayah \ tad-lodhah 
eva prayojanam \ tad-bodhdrthl cha adhikdri \ tena saha upakdryyopaltd- 
raka-lhdvah sambaKdhah \ nanu " evam sati strl-sudra-sahitdh sarve vedd- 
dhikdrinah syur l isJitam me sydd anishtam md bhud' iti dsishah sdrvaja- 
nlnatvdt " \ mawam \ stri-sudrayoh saty updye bodhdrthitve hetv-antarena 
vedddhikdrasya pratiladdhatvdt \ upanltasya eva adJiyayanddhikdram 

72 Compare with this the passages quoted from the S'atapatha and Taittirlya Brah- 
manas in the First Volume of this work, pp. 19 f., 24 f., 27, f., and from the Taitt. Sanh. 
and Brah. in pp. 52 and 53 ; and see also the texts referred to and commented upon 
in the Journ. of the Roy. As. Soc. for 1864, p. 72, and in the No. for 1865, pp. 

73 Whether either of these ;twp brothers, who were ministers of state, were the 
actual writers of the works which bear their names; or whether the works were com- 
posed by Pandits patronized by the two statesmen, and called after the names o^heir 
patrons, is a point which I need not attempt to decide. 


j , 

bruvat sdstram anupanltayoh strl-sudrayor vedddhyayanam anishta-prd/p- 
ti-hetur iti bodhayati \ katham tarhi tayos tad-updydvagamah \ purdnd- 
dibhir iti brumah \ afy evoktam \ ll strl-sudra-dvijabandhundm trayl na 
iruti-gocha^d*\ iti Bhdratam dkhydnam munind kripayd kritam" (Bhag. 
Pur. i. 4, 25) | iti \ tasmdd upanltair eva traivarnikair vedasya sam- 
bandhah \ tat-j)rdmdny>am tu 'bodhakatvdt svatah eva siddham \ pauru- 
sheya-vdlcyam tu dodljakam api sat purusha-gata-bhrdnti-mulatva-sam- 
bhdvanayd tat-pafihardya mula-pramdnatty apekshate na tu vedah \ tasya 
nityatvtya vaktri - dosha - sankdnudaydt | . . . '. JVanu vedo 'pi Kdlidti-> 
sddi-vdkya-vat paurusheyah eva BraJima-kdryyatva-sravandt \ "richah 
sdmdni jajnire \ chhanddmsi jajnire tasmdd yajus tasmdd ajdyata " iti 
sruteh \ ata eva Bddardyynah (i. 1, 3) " sdstra-yonitvdd " iti sutrena Erah- 
mano veda-kdranatvam avocrlat \ maivam \ sruti-smritibhydm nityatvdva- 
gamdt \ " vdchd Virupa nityayd" (R.Y. viii. 64, 6) iti sruteh |" anddi- 
mdhand nityd vdg utsrishtd svayambhuvd " iti smrites cha \ Sddard- 
yano 'pi devatddhikarane sutraydmdsa (i. 3, 29) " ata eva cha nityatoam " 
iti | tarhi " paraspara-virodhah " iti chet \ na \ nityatvasya vydvahdri- 
katvdt | srishter urdhvam samhdrdt purvam vyavahdra-kdlas tasmin ut- 
patti-vindsddarsandt \ kdldkdsddayo yathd nitydh evam vedo 'pi vyavahd- 
ra-kdle Kdlidd&ddi-vdkya-vat purusha-virachitatvdlhdvdd nityah \ ddi- 
srishtau tu kdldkdsddi-vad eva Brahmanah sakdsdd vedotpattir dmnd- 
yate \ ato vishaya-bheddd na paraspara-virodhah \ Brahmano nirdoshat- 
vena vedasya vaktri-doshtilhdvdt svatas-siddham prdmdnyam tad-avas- 
tham \ tasmdl lakshana-pramdrm-sadbhdvdd vishaya-prayojana-samban- 
dhddhikdri-sadbhdvdt prdmdnyasya susthatvdch cha vedo vydkhydtavyah 
eva I i 

" Now, some may ask, what is this Veda, or what are its subject- 
matter, its use, its connection, or the persons who are competent to 
study it ? and how is it authoritative ? For, in the absence of all these 
conditions, the Veda does not deserve, to be expounded. I reply: the 
book which makes known (vedayati} the supernatural (lit. non-secular) 
means of ^obtaining Desirable objects, and getting* rid of undesirable 
objects, is the Veda. By the employment of the word " supernatural/' 
[the ordinary means of information, viz.] perception and inference; are 
excluded. By perception it is established that such objects of sense, 
as garlands, sandal-wood*, and women are caiises of gratification, and 
that the use of medicines and so forth is th means of getting rid 


of what is undesirable. And we ascertain by inference that we shall in 
future experience, and that other men now experience, the same results 
(from these same causes). If it be asked whether, then, the happiness, 
etc., of a future birth be not in the same way a'scertainable bf inference, 
I reply that it is not, because we cannot discover its specific character. 
Not even the most brilliant ornament of the logical school could, by 
a thousand inferences, without the help ( of ther Vtdas, discover the 
truths that the jyotishtoma gnti. other sacrifices are 'the means of at- 
, taining happiness, and tliat abstinence from intoxicating drugs ;4 is the 
means of removing what is undesirable. Thus it is not too wide 
a definition of the Veda to say that it is that which indicates super- 
natural expedients. Hence, it has been said\ 'men discover by the 
Veda those expedients which cannot be Ascertained by perception or 
inference; and this is the characteristic feature of the Veda.' These 
expedients, then, form the subject of the Veda; [to teach] the know- 
ledge of them is its use ; the person who seeks that knowledge is 
the competent student; and the connection of the Veda with such 
a student is that of a benefactor with the individual who is to be 

" But, if such be the case, it may be said that all persons whatever, 
including women and S'udras, must be competent students of the Veda, 
since the aspiration after good and the deprecation of evil are common 
to the whole of mankind. But it is not so. For though the expedient 
exists, and women and S'udras are dtsirous to know it, they are de- 
barred by another cause from being competent students of the Veda. 
The scripture (sdstra,} which declares that those persons only who have 
been invested with the sacrificial cord are competent to read the Veda, 
intimates thereby that the s'ame study would be a cause of unhappiness 
to women and S'udras [who are not so invested]. How, then, are these 
two classes of persons to discover the means of future happiness ? We 
answer, from the Puranas and other such works. Hence it has been 
said, ' since the triple Veda may not be heard bj women, S'udras, and 
degraded twice-born men, the Mahabharata was, in his benevolence, 

74 Kalanja-bhakshanam is mentioned in the Commentary on the Bhagavata Purana, 
i. 33, 2ft In his translation of the Kusumanjali, p. 81, note, Professor Cowell says : 
" Some hold the Ealanja to be the flesh of a deer killed by a poisoned arrow others 
hemp or bhang, others a V.ind of garlic. See Raghunandana's Ekudas'i tattva." 


composed by the Muni.' 75 The Yeda, therefore, has only a relation to 
men of the three superior classes who have obtained investiture. 

" Then the authority of the Yeda is self-evident, from the fact of its 
communicating knowledge. For though the "words of men also com- 
municate knowledge, still, as they must be conceived to participate in 
the fallibility of their Authors, they require some primary authority to 
remedy that fallibility. B'jt such is not the case with the Veda ; for 

9 ' 

as that bad no beginning, it ,is impossible to suspect any defect in the 
utterer.'' ... ' 

"A doubt may,' however, be raised whether the Veda is not, like the 
sentences of Kalidasa and others, derived from a personal being, 76 as it 
proclaims itself to have'been formed by Brahma, according to the text, 
1 the Eich and Saman verses, the metres, sprang from him j from him 
the Yajush was produced ;' 77 in consequence of which Badarayana, in 
the aphorism 78 'since he is the source of the sastra,' has pronounced 
that Brahma is the cause of the Veda. But this doubt is groundless ; 
for the eternity of the Veda has been declared both by itself, in the 
text, 'with an eternal voice, o Virupa,' 79 and by the Smriti in the 
verse 'an eternal voice, without beginning or end, was uttered by 
the Self-existent.' 80 Badarayana, too, in his section on the deities 
(Brahma Sutras, i. 3, 29) has this aphorism; 'hence also [its] eternity 
[is to be maintained].' If it be objected that these statements of his 
are mutually conflicting, I answer, No. For [in the passages where] 
the word eternity is Applied to* the Vedas, it is to be understood as 
referring to the period of action [or mundane existence]. This period 
is that which commences with the creation, and Jasts till the destruc- 
tion of the universe, since, during this interval, no worlds are seen to 

75 See the quotation from the Bhagavata Purana, above, p. 42. 

76 This seems to he the only way to translate paurusheya, as purwha cannot here 
mean a human being. 

77 E.V. x. 90, 9, quoted in the First Volume of this work, p. 10 ; and p. 3, above. 

78 Brahma Sutras, i. 1, 3, p. 7 ofDr. Ballantyne's Aphorisms of the Vedanta. 

79 These -swords are pa;t of Rig-veda, viii, 64, 6 : Tasmai tfunam abhidyave vacha 
Virupa nityaya \ vrishne chodasva sushtutim \ " Send forth praises to this heaven- 
aspiring and prolific Agni, o Virupa, with an unceasing voice [or hymn]." The word 
nityaya seems to mean nothing more than " continual," though in the text I have 
rendered it "eternal," as the author's reasoning requires. Colebrooke (Misc. Ess. i. 
306), however, translates it by " perpetual." I shall again quote and illustrate this 
verse further on. 

80 This line, from the M.Bh. S'antip. 8533, has alreadj been cited above, in p. 16. 


originate, or to be destroyed. Just as time and asther (space) are 
eternal, 81 so also is the Veda eternal, because, during the period of 
mundane existence, it has not been composed hy any person, as the 
works of Kalidasa and others have been. 83 Nevertheless, the Veda, like 
time and ffither, is recorded in Scripture to have originated from Brahma 
at the first creation. There is, therefore, no discrepancy between the 
two different sets of passages, as they refe^ to different points. And 
since Brahma is free from defect, the utterer of the Vecla is consequently 
1 free from defect ; and therefore a self-demonstrated authority resides in 
it. Seeing, therefore, that the Veda possess a characteristic mark, and 
is supported by proof, and that it has a subject, a use, a relation, and 
persons competent for its study, and, moreover, that its authority is 
established, it follows that it ought to be interpreted." 

SECT. VIII. Arguments of the Mlmdnsakas and Vedantim in support 
of the eternity and authority of the Vedas. 

I shall now proceed to adduce some of the reasonings by which the 
authors of the Purva Mimansa, and Vedanta, aphorisms, and their com- 
mentators, defend the doctrine which, as we have already seen, is held 
by some of the Indian writers, that the Vedas are eternal, as well as 

I. Purva Mlmdnsd. I quote the following texts of the Purva Mi- 
mansa which relate to this subject from Dr. Baliantyne's aphorisms of 
the Mimansa, pp. 8 fjf. 83 I do not always follow (he words of Dr. Bal- 
iantyne's translations, though I have made free use of their substance. 
(See also Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. i. 306, or p. 195 of Williams and 
Norgate's ed.) The commentator introduces the subject in the follow- 
ing way : 

81 Passages affirming both the eternity of the aether, and its creation, are given in 
the First Volume of tMs work, pp. 130 and 506. 

e2 The same subject is touched on by Sayana, at p. 20 of the introductory portion 
of his commentary on the Rigveda. The passage will be quoted at the end of the 
next section." 

63 Since the 1st edition of this Volume was published, the Sanskrit scholar has 
obtained easy access to a more considerable portion" of the Mimansa Sutras with 
the commentary of S'abara Svamin by the appearance of the first, second, and part of 
third, Adhyayas in the Bibiiotheca Indica. 


j > 

S'abddrthayor utpatty-anantaram purushena kalpita-sanketdtmaka-sam- 
bandhasya kalpitatvdt purmha-kalpita-samlandha-jndndpekshitvdt sal- 
ddsya yatJid pratyaksha-mdnam suktikddau satyatvam vyabhicharati tathd 
pyrushddhinittfena sabde 'pi satyafoa-vyabhichdva-sambhavdt na dharme 
cTiodand pramdnam iti purva-pahshe siddhdntam aha \ 

" Since^ subsequently to the production of words and the things 
signified by them,->a connection of a conventional character has been 
established between the two by the will of man, and since language 
is dependent upon a knowledge of this 'conventional connection de- 
termined by man, [it follows that] as perception is liable to error in 
respect of mother-of-pearl and similar objects [by mistaking them for 
silver, etc.], so words alsf) may be exposed to the risk of conveying unreal 
notions from [their sense] being dependent on human will ; and con- 
sequently that the Vedic precepts [which are expressed in such words, 
possessing a merely conventional and arbitrary meaning] cannot be au- 
thoritative in matters of duty. Such is an objection which may be 
urged, and in reply to which the author of the aphorisms declares the 
established doctrine." 

Then follows the fifth aphorism of the first chapter of the first book 
of the Mimansa : Autpattikas tu (&) abdasya w arthena sambandhas^ tas- 
ya ( jndnam (e) upadeso 'vyatirekas cha (s) arthe 'nupalabdhe w tdt (i] pramd- 
nam Bddardyanasya anupekshatvdt \ which may be paraphrased as fol- 
lows : " The connection of a word with its sense is coeval with the 
origin of both. In consequence* of this connection the words of the 
Veda convey a knowledge of duty, and impart unerring instruction in 
regard to matters imperceptible. Such Yedic injunctions constitute the 
proof of duty alleged by Badarayana, author of the Vedanta Sutras ; 
for this proof is independent of perception ahd all other evidence." 

I subjoin ihost of the remarks of the scholiast as given by Dr. 
Ballantyne, indicating by letters the yords of the aphorism to which 
they refer : 

(a) Autpattikah \ svc$hdvikah \ nityahitiydvat \ "Awtpattilia (original) 
means natural, eternal in short." 

w S'aldasya \ nitya-veda-ghataka-padasya " agnihotram juhuydt svarga- 
kdmah " ityddeh \ " S'abda (word) refers to terms which form part "of 
the eternal Yeda, such as, ' ' the man who desired heaven should perform 
t'ae Agnihotra sacrifice.' " 


(c) Sambandha (connection), " in the nature of power," i.e. according 
to Dr. Ballantyne, depending on the divine will that such and such 
words should convey such and such meanings. 

(d) Atas tasya \ dhtirr.iasya \ "'Hence' is to be supplied before 'this,' 
which refers to 'duty.' " 

(e) Jndnam \ air a karane lyut \ jnapter yathdrtha-jndnasya Icaranam \ 
" In the word jntina (knowledge) the affix lyut has the force of ' in- 
strument,' ' an instrument of correct knowledge.' " 

(f) Upadesah \ artha pratipddanam \ ' k Instruction, i.e. the ^stablish- 
ment of a fact." 

(gl AvyatireTcah \ avyalhichdrl drisyate atah | " ' Unerring,' i.e. that 
which is seen not to deviate from the fact." . 

to) Nanu " vahnimdn iti safida-sravandnantaram pratyakshena vahnim 
drishtvd abde pramdtvam grihndti iti lolce prasiddheh pratyalcshddltara- 
pramdna-sdpelcshatvdt sabdasya sa Jcatham dharme pramanam ata aha 
" anupalabdhe " iti \ anupalabdhe pratyahshadi-pramanair ajnute 'rthe \ 
" Since it is a matter of notoriety that any one who has heard the words 
' [the mountain is] fiery ' uttered, and afterwards sees the fire with his 
own eyes, is [only] then [thoroughly] convinced of the authority of the 
words, it may be asked how words which are thus dependent [for con- 
firmation *on] perception and other proofs, can themselves constitute the 
proof of duty ? In reference to this, the word anupalabdhe ('in regard 
to matters imperceptible') is introduced. It signifies ' matters which 
cannot be known by perception and ether such proofs.' " 

(i) Tat | vidhi-ghatita-vdkyam dharme pramanam Bddarayandchdryasya 
sammatam \ ay am tisayah \ ' parvato vahnimdn ' iti doshavat-purusha- 
prayulctam vdkyam artham vyalhicharati \ atah prdmdnya-nischaye praty- 
aTcshddilcam apeJcshate \ tarthd 'gnihotram juhoti iti vakyam kdla-traye 
'py artham na vyalhicharati \ ata itara-nirapekshaih dhar'ihe pramanam \ 
"This, i.e. a [Yedic] sentence consisting of an injunction, is regarded 
by Badarayana also as proof of duty. The purport is this. The 
sentence, ' the mountain is fiery,' when uttered by a person defective 
[in his organ of vision], may deviate from the reality ; it therefore 
requires the evidence of our senses, etc.' to aid us in determining its 
sufficiency as proof. Whereas the Vedic sentence regarding the per- 
formance of the Agnihctra sacrifice can never deviate from the truth in 
any time, past, present, or future ; and is therefore a proof of duty, in- 
dependently cf any other evidence." 



. ^ 

The commentator then proceeds to observe as follows : Purva-sutre 
sabddrthayos samlandho nityah ity uktam \ tach cha sabda-nityatvddhlnarn 
iti tat sisddhayishur ddau sabddnityatva-vddi-matam purva-palcsham upd- 
^dayati \ " InHhe preceding apho*rism it was declared that the connection 
of words and their meanings [or the things signified by them] is eternal. 
Des'iring now to prove that this [eternity of connection] is dependent 
on tile eternity of words [or sound], he begins by setting forth the first 
side of the question, ^viz. the doctrine of those who maintain that 
sound'is not eternal." . 

This doctrine js accordingly declared in the six following aphorisms 
(sutras), which I shall quote and paraphrase, without citing, in the 
original, the accompanying comments. These the reader mil find in 
Dr. Ballantyne's work. * 

Sutra 6. Karma eke tatra dar&andt \ " Some, i.e. the followers of 
the Nyaya philosophy, say that sound is a product, because we see that 
it is the result of effort, which it would not be if it were eternal." 

Sutra 7. Asthdndt \ "That it is not eternal, on account of its 
transitoriness, i.e. because after a moment it ceases to be perceived." 

Sutra 8. Karoti-salddt \ " Because, we employ in reference to it 
the expression 'making,' i.e. we speak of ' making ' a sound." 

Sutra 9. Sattvdntare yaugapadydt \ "Because it is perceived by 
different persons at once, and is consequently in immediate contact with 
the organs of sense of those both far and near, which it could not be if 
it were one and eternal." , 

Sutra 10. Prakriti-vikrityos cha \ "Because sounds have both an 
original and a modified form ; as e.g. in the case of dadhi atra, which 
is changed into dadhy atra, the original letter i being altered into y by 
the rules of permutation. Now, no substance which undergoes a 
change is eiJernal." 

Sutra 11. Vriddhis cha Tcartri-lhumnd 'sya \ "Because sound is 
augmented by the number of those who make it. Consequently the 
opinion of the Mim^nsakas, who say that sound js merely manifested, 
and not created, by human effort, is wrong, since even a thousand 
manifesters do not increase the object which they manifest, as a jar is 
not made larger by a thousand lamps." 

These objections agaJnst the Mimansaka theory that sounc> is mani- 
fested, and not created, by those who utter it, are answered in the 
following Sutras : ; 


i i ( 

Sutra 12. Samam tu tatra darsanam \ " But, according to both 
schools, viz. that which holds sound to be created, and that which 
regards it as merely manifested, the perception of it is alike momen- 
tary. But of these two views, the theory of manifestation i,s shown in r 
the next aphorism to be the correct one." 

Sutra 13. Satah param adarsanam $shayandgamdt' \ "The non- 
perception at any particular time, of sound, whieh, in reality, perpe- 
tually exists, arises from the fact"that the utterey of sound has not come 
into contact with his object, i.e. sound. $ound is eternal, because we 
recognise the letter k, for instance, to be the same sourd which we have 
always heard, and because it is the simplest method of accounting for 
the phenomenon to suppose that it is the same., The still atmosphere 
which interferes with the perception of sound, is removed by the con- 
junctions and disjunctions of air issuing from a speaker's mouth, and 
thus sound (which always exists, though unperceived) becomes per- 
ceptible. 84 This is the reply to the objection of its ' transitoriness ' 
(Sutra 7)." 

An answer to Sutra 8 is given in 

Sutra 14. Prayogasya param \ "The word 'making' sounds, 
merely means employing or uttering them." 

The objection made in Sutra 9 is answered in 

Sutra 15. Aditya-vad yaugapadyam \ "One sound is simultane- 
ously heard by different persons, just as one sun is seen by them at one 
and the same time. Sound, like the sun, is a vast, and not a minute 
object, and thus may be perceptible by different persons, though remote 
from one another." r 

An answer to Sutra 10 is contained in 

Sutra 16. Varnuntaram f avikdrah \ "The letter y, which is sub- 
stituted for i in the instance referred to under Sutra 10, is 'not a modi- 
fication of i, but a distinct letter^ Consequently sound is not modified." 

The llth Sutra is answered in 

Sutra 17. Nada-Jiriddhih para 85 1 "It is an increase of ' noise,' not 

84 " Sound is unobserved, though existent, if it reach not the object (vibrations of 
air emitted from the mouth of the speaker proceed and manifest sound by their 
appulse to ^ir at rest in the space bounded by the hollow r of the ear ; for want of such 
appulse, sound, though existent, is unapprehended)." Colebrooke, i. 306. 

85 The text as given in the Bibliotheca Indica has riada-vriddhi-para. 




of sound, that is occasioned by a multitude of speakers. The word ' noise ' 
refers to the ' conjunctions and disjunctions of the air ' (mentioned under 
Sutra 13) which enter simultaneously into the hearer's ear from dif- 
fsrent quarters ; and it is'of these that an increase takes place." 

The next following Sutras state the reasons which support the Mi- 
mansaka view : 

Sutra 18. Nityastu sydd darsanasya pararthatvat \ "Sound must 
be eternal, becausfe its utterance is fitted to convey a meaning to other 
persons/, If it were not eternal [or abiding]^ it would not continue 
till the hearer had learned its sense, and thus he would not learn the 
sense, because the cause had ceased to exist." 

Sutra 19. Sarvatrajjaugapadyat \ "Sound is eternal, because it is 
in every case correctly and uniformly recognized by many persons 
simultaneously ; and it is inconceivable that they should all at once fall 
into a mistake." 

When the word go (cow) has been repeated ten times, the hearers 
will say that the word go has been ten times pronounced, not that ten 
words having the sound of go have been uttered ; and this fact also is 
adduced as a proof of the eternity of sound in 

Sutra 20. Sankhydbhdvat \ " Because each sound is not numerically 
different from itself repeated." 

Sutra 21. Anapelcshatvat \ "Sound is eternal, because we have no 
ground for anticipating its destruction." 

" But it may be urged that 'sound is a modification of air, since it 
arises from its conjunctions (see Sutra 17), and because the S'iksha (or 
Vedanga treating of pronunciation) says that 'ajr arrives at the con- 
dition of sound ; ' and as it is thus produced from air, it cannot be 
eternal." A reply to this difficulty is giv<Bn in 

Sutra 22.^Prakhydlhdvdch cha yogyasya \ " Sound is not a modi- 
fication of air, because, if it were, the organ of hearing would have no 
appropriate object which it could perceive. No modification of air 
(held by #ie Naiyayikas to be tangible) could he perceived by the 
organ of hearing, which deals only with intangible sound." 

Sutra 23. Linga-darsandch cha \ "And the eternity of sound is 
established by the argument discoverable in the Vedic text, ' with* an 
eternal voice, o Virupa.' '(See above, p. 69.) Now, though this Sentence 
had another object in view, it, nevertheless, declares the eternity of 
language, and hence sound is eternal." > 


" But though words, as well as the connection of word and sense, be 
eternal, it may be objected as in the following aphorism that a com- 
mand conveyed in the form of a sentence is no proof of duty." 

Sutra 24. Utpattau vd rachandh syur artrtasya a-tan-nimittatvdt \ 
" Though there be a natural connection between words and their mean- 
ings, the connection between sentences and their meanings is a facti- 
tious one, established by human will, from these" meanings (of the 
sentences) not arising out of the meanings of ,the words. The connec- 
tion of sentences with-/ their meanings is not (like the connection of 
words with their meanings) one derived from inherent power (see 
Sutra 5, remark (c) , above, p. 72), but one devised by men ; how, then, 
can this connection afford a sufficient authority for duty ? " 

An answer to this is given in 

Sutra 25. Tad-lhutdndm kriydrthena samdmndyo 'rthasya tan-nimit- 
tatvdt | " The various terms which occur in every Yedic precept are 
accompanied by a verb ; and hence a perception (such as we had not 
before) of the sense of a sentence is derived from a collection of words 
containing a verb. A precept is not comprehended unless the individual 
words which make it up are understood ; and the comprehension of the 
meaning of a sentence is nothing else than the comprehension of the 
exact muti^al relation of the meanings arising out of each word." 

Sutra 26. Loke sanniyamdt prayoga-sannikarshah sydt \ "As in 
secular language the application of words is known, so also in the 
Yeda they convey an understood sensv>, which has been handed down 
by tradition." 

The author now proceeds in the next following Sutras to state and 
to obviate certain objections raised to his dogmas of the eternity and 
authority of the Vedas. 

Sutra 27. Veddms chaeke sannikarsham purusMlchydh ' \ " Some (the 
followers of the Nyaya) declare the Vedas to be of recent origin, i.e. not 
eternal, because the names of men are applied to certain parts of them, 
as the Kathaka and, Kauthuma." ., 

This Sutra, with some of those which follow, is quoted in Sayana's 
commentary on the B.V. vol. i. pp. 19 and 20. His explanation of the 
present Sutra is as follows : 

YathK Raghuvamsddayah iddnintands tathd^veddh api \ na tu vedtih 
anadayah \ atah eva veda-kartritvena purushdh dkhydyante \ Vaiyusikam 



Bhdratam Valmlkiyam Rdmdyanam ity atra yathd Bhdratddi-kartritvena 
Vydsddayah dkhydyante tathd Kdthakdm Kauthumam Taittirlyakam ity 
evam tat-tad-veda-sdkhd-karttritvena Kathddlndm dkhydtatvdt paurush- 
eiidh \ Nany, nitydndm^&a veddndm itpddhydya-vat sampraddya-pra- 
varttakatvena Kdthakddi - sdmdkhyd sydd ity dsankya yukty - antaram 
sutrayati j ..-.-. .*kd tarki Kdtflakddy -dkhydyikdydh gatir ity dsankya 
sampraddya-pravaritandt sd warn upapadyate \ 

" Some say, that as the Raghuvamsa* etc., are modern, so also are 
the Vedas, and that the Vedas are not eternah , Accordingly, certain , 
men are named as the authors of the Vedas. Just as in the case of the 
Hahabharata, which is called Vaiyasika (composed by Vyasa), and the 
Ramayana, which is called Yalmlkiya (composed by Valmiki), Vyasa 
and Valmiki are indicated as "the authors of these poems ; so, too, Katha, 
Kuthumi, and Tittiri are shown to be the authors of those particular 
S'akhas of the Vedas which bear their names, viz. the Kathaka, Kau- 
thuma, and Taittiriya ; and consequently those parts of the Vedas are 
of human composition. After suggesting that the Vedas, though eternal, 
have received the name of Kathaka, etc., because Katha and others, as 
teachers, handed them down ; he adduces another objection in the next 

The explanation here indicated is accepted a little further on, in the 
remarks on one of the following Sutras: "What, then, is the fact in 
reference to the appellations Kathaka, etc. ? It is proved to have arisen 

from the circumstance that Ka*a, etc., handed down the Vedas." I 

proceed to 

Sutra IS.Anitya-darsandch cha \ "It is also objected that the 
Vedas cannot be eternal, because we observe that persons, who are not 
eternal, but subject to birth and death, are mentioned in them. Thus 
it is said in the Veda ' Babara Pravahani desired,' ' Kusuruvinda Aud- 
dalaki desired.' N"o\v, as the sentences of the Veda, in which they are 
mentioned, could not have existed before these persons were born, it is 
clear that |hese sentences had a beginning, and beirg thus non-eternal, 
they are proved to be of human composition" (' Babarah Prdvahanir 
akdmayata ' ' Kusuruvindah Audddlakir akdmayata ' ityddi (vdkydndm ?) 
vedeshu darsandt teshdm janandt prdg imdni vdkydni ndsann iti sdditvdd 
anityatvam paurusheyatvdm cha siddJiam]. 

These objections are answered in the following aphorisms : 


Sutra 29. Uktam tu Sabda-purvatvam \ " But the priority eternity 
of sound has been declared, and, by consequence, the eternity of the 

Sutra 30. Akhyd pfavachandt \ " The riatnes, derived., from tho?e 
of particular men, attached to certain parts of the Yedas, were given on 
account of their studying these particular parts'. Thus- the portion read 
by Katha was called Kdthaka, etc." * 

Sutra 31. Parantu sruti-sSmdnya-mdtram ,\ "Arid names occurring 
. in the Veda, which appear to be those of men, are appellations;common 
to other beings besides men." t 

" Thus the words Babara Prdvahani are not the names of a man, but 
have another meaning. For the particle pro. denotes 'pre-eminence,' 
vahana means 'the motion of sound,' and the letter i represents the 
agent ; consequently the word prdvahani signifies that ' which moves 
swiftly,' and is applied to the wind, which is eternal. Babara again is 
a word imitating the sound of the wind. Thus there is not even a sem- 
blance of error in the assertion that the Veda is eternal " ( Tadyapi Ba- 
barah Prdvahanir ity asti parantu srutih prdvahany ddi-sabdah sdmdn- 
yam \ anydrthasydpi vdchakam \ tathd hi \ "pra" ity asya utkarshds- 
rayah \ "vahanah" saldasya gatih \ i-kdrah Icarttd \ tathd cha utkrishfa- 
gaty-dsray'b vdyu-parah \ sa cha anddih \ Babarah iti vdyu-sabddnulcara- 
nam \ iti na anupapatti-gandho 'pi |). 

Before proceeding to the 32nd Sutra, I shall quote some further 
illustrations of the 31st, which are t<j be found in certain passages of 
the Introduction to Sayana's Commentary on the Eig-veda, where he 
is explaining another section of the Mimansa Sutras (i. 2, 39 ff.). 
The passages are as follows (p. 7) : 

Anitya-samyogad mantrdharthakyam \ "Mm ie Icrinvanti KlTcateshv " 
iti mantreKlkato ndma janapadah dmndtah \ Tathd NaichasdTcham ndma 
nagaram Pramagando ndma rdjd f ity ete'rthdh anitydh dmndtah \ Tathd 
cha sati prdk Pramaganddd na ayam mantro bhuta-purvah iti gamyate \ 
And in p. 10: Yed apy uktam Pramagandddy < anitydrthq - samyogdd 
mantrasya andditvam na sydd iti tatrottaram sutrayati \ " Uktas chd- 
nitya-samyogah " iti \ prathama-pddasya antimddhikarane so ''yam anitya- 
samyoga-doshah uktah parihritah \ Tathd hi \ tatra purva-pakshe Vedd- 
ndm paurusheyatvam va'ktum Kdthakam Kdldpakam ity-ddi-purusha- 
sambandhdbhidhdnam hetukritya " anitya-darsandch cha'' 1 iti hetv-antaram 



sutritam \ "Babarah prdvdhanir akdmayata" ity anitydndm Babarddlndm 
arthdndm darsandt tatah purvam asattvdt paurusheyo vedah iti tasya 
uttaram sutritam " param tu sruti-sdmdnya-mdtram" iti \ tasya ayam 
>arthah \ yyt *Kdthalidd\-tamdkhydnam tat pr&vachana-nimittam \ yat tu 
param Babarddy-anitya-darsanam tat sabda-sdmtinya-mdtram na tu tatra 
Babartikhyah Itaschit purusho vivakshitah \ Icintu "babara" iti sabdam 
Icurvan vdyur abhidklyate \ sa cha prdvdhanih \ prakarshena vahana- 
sllah \ Evam anfatrdpy, uhanlyam \ * 

"It* ,1s objected that the mantras are useless 4 because they are con- 
nected with temporal objects. Thus in the text, ' what are thy cows 
doing among the Klkatas ? ' 86 a country called Kikata is mentioned, as 
well as a city named Naichasakha, and a king called Pramaganda, all 
of them non-eternal objects. Such being the case, it is clear that this 
text did not exist before Pramaganda." The answer to this is given in 
p. 10 : To the further objection that the mantras cannot be eternal* 
because such temporal objects as Pramaganda, etc., are referred to in 
them, an answer is given in the following Sutra : ' The connection 
with non-eternal objects has been already explained.' In the last 
section of the first chapter, this very objection of the hymns being con- 
nected with non-eternal things has been stated and obviated (see above, 
Sutras 28-31). For in the statement of objections, after it has first 
been suggested as a proof of the human origin of the Vedas, that they 
bear names, Kathaka, Kalapaka, etc., denoting their relation to men, a 
further difficulty is stated in a^Sutra, viz., that ' it is noticed that non- 
eternal objects are mentioned in the Yedas ; ' as, for example, where it 
is said that ' Babara Pravahani desired.' Now, as it specifies non- 
eternal objects of this kind, the Yeda, which could not have existed 
before those objects, must be of human*composition. The answer to 
this is given in the aphorism, ' any further names are to be understood 
as common to other things.' The mganing is this : the names Kathaka, 
etc., are given to the Vedas because they are expounded by Katha, etc. ; 
and the further difficulty arising from the names,of Babara and other 
objects supposed to be non-eternal, is removed by such names being 
common to other objects [which are eternal in their nature]. Ko 
persons called Babara, etc., are intended by those names, but the wind, 
which makes the sound babara, is so designated. And pravaHani refers 

86 See the First Volume of this work, p. 342, and the Second Volume, p. 362. 


to the same object, as it means that which carries swiftly. The same 
method of explanation is to be applied in other similar cases." 

I proceed to the 32nd Sutra. It is asked ho^r the Veda can consti- 
tute proof of duty when It contains such incoherent nonsense as the' 
following: " An old ox, in blanket and slippers, is standing at the door 
and singing benedictions. A Brahman female, desirous of offspring, 
asks, ' Pray, o king, what is the meaning of intercourse on the day of 
the new moon?' or the following: 'the cows celebrated this sacrifice'" 
(JTanu " Jaradgavo kantbala-padukdlhydm dvdri sthito gayati manga- 
Idni*"' | tarn Irdhmanl prichhati puttra-kdmd rdjann amdydm lalhanasya 
ko'rthah" \ iti \ " gdvo vai etat, sattram dsata" ity-ddlndm asamladdha- 
praldpdndm vede sattvdt katham sa dharme prfmunani}. A reply is 
contained in 

Sutra 32. Krite vd viniyogah sydt karmanah sambandhdt \ " The 
passages to which objection is taken may be applicable to the duty to 
be performed, from the relation in which they stand to the ceremony " 
(as eulogistic of it). 

As a different reading and interpretation of this Sutra are given by 
Sayana in his commentary, p. 20, I shall quote it, and the remarks 
with which he introduces and follows it : 

Nanu vede kvachid evam sruyate " vanaspatayah satram dsata sarpdh 
satram dsata " iti \ tatra vanaspatlndm achetanatvdt sarpdndih chetanatve 
'pi vidyd-rahitatvdd na tad-anmhthanam samlhavati \ Ato "Jaradgavo 
gdyati madrakdm '" ityddy-unmatta-bdla-vdkya-sadrisatvdt kenachit krito 
vedah ity dsankya uttaram sutrayati \ " Krite cha aviniyogah sydt kar- 
manah samatvdt" | Tadi jyotishtomddi-vdkyam kenachit purushena kri- 
yeta taddriim krite tasmin vdkye svarga-sddhanatve jyotishtomasya vini- 
yogah na sydt \ sddhya-sddhana-lhdvasya purushena jndtum asakyatvdt \ 
sruyate tu viniyogah \ "jyotishtomena svarga-kdmo yajeta " iti \ na cha 
etat unmatta-vdkya-sadrisam laukika-vidhi-vdkya-vad Ihdvya-karaneti- 
kartavyatd-rupais trilhir aihsair upetdyd^ bhdvandydh avagamdt \ loke 
hi " bruhmandn Ihojayed" iti vidhau kim kena kathtfm ity dkd^kshdydm 

87 In his commentary on the following aphorism S'abara Svamin gives only a part 
of this quotation, consisting of the words Jaradgavo gayati mattakani, " An old ox 
sings senseless words ; " and adds the remark : katham n5ma Jaradgavo gayet, "How> 
now, can an old ox sing ? " We must not therefore with the late Dr. Ballantyne take 
jaradgava, for a proper name. 


triptim uddisya odanena dravyena sdka-supddi-pariveshana-pralcdrena iti 
yaihd uchyate jyotishtoma-vidhdv api svargam uddisya sotnena dravyena 
dlJcshaniyddy-angoyakdua-prakdrgna ity ukte Icatham unmatta - vdkya- 
sudrisam bh&ved iti \ vanaspaty-ddi-satra-vdkyam api na tat-sadrisam 
tasya t satr t a-karmano jyotishtomddind samatvdt \ yat-paro hi sabdah sa 
sabddrtfhah iti nydya-vidah dhuh \ jyotishtomddi-vdlcyasya vidhdyakatvdd 
anushthdne tatparyyath \ vaxaspaty - ddi- satra - vdlcyasya arthavddatvdd 
prasammydm tdtparyam 1 sd gha avidyamdnendpi liarttufn, ialcyate \ ache- 
tandh avidvdmso 'pi satram anushthitavantah kimpanas chetandTi vidvdmso ' 
Irdhmandh iti satr'a-stutih \ 

" But it will be objected that the Yeda contains such sentences as 
this: 'trees and serpents sat down at a sacrifice.' Now, since trees 
are insensible, and serpents, though possessing sensibility, are destitute 
of knowledge, it is inconceivable that either the one or the other should 
celebrate such a ceremony. Hence, from its resembling the silly talk 
of madmen and children, as where it says, ' An old ox sings songs (fit 
only for the Madras ?)' (see the Second Volume of this work, pp. 481 ff.), 
the Veda must have been composed by some man. The answer to this 
doubt is contained in the following Sutra (which I can only render by 
a paraphrase) : ' If prescribed by mere human authority, no rite can 
have any efficacy ; but such ceremonies as the jyotishtoma rest on the 
authority of the Veda ; and narrative texts such as that regarding the 
trees and serpents have the same intention as precepts, i.e. to recom- 
mend sacrifice.' If thesentence enjoining the jyotishtoma sacrifice had 
been composed by awy man then, as the sentence was so composed, 
the sacrifice so enjoined would not have been applicable as a means of 
attaining paradise ; for no man could know either the end, or the means 
of accomplishing it. But the application in question is prescribed in 
the Veda by the words ' let him, who seeks paradise, sacrifice with the 
jyotishtoma.' Now this injunction dfoes not resemble the talk of a 
madman, since we recognize init, as in injunctions of a secular kind, 
the contemplation of he three characteristics of the action to be per- 
formed, viz. its end, means, and mode. For, as when a question is put 
in regard to the object for. which, the instrument through which, and 
the manner in which the nrecept, ' to feed Brahmans,' is to be fulfilled, 
we are told that the object is to be their satisfaction, the instrumental 
substance boiled rice, and the manner, that it is* to be served up with 



vegetables and condiments; in the same way, in the Vedic injunction 
regarding the jyotishtoma, we are told that paradise is the object, that 
soma is the instrumental substance, and that c the Application of the 
introductory and other portions of the -ritual is the manner. P And when 
this is so, how can this precept be compared to the talk of a madman ? 
Nor does the sentence regarding trees, etc., ' celebrating a sacrifice, 
admit of such a comparison, since the sacrifice in question is similar 
to the jyotishtoma and other such rites v For logicians say t that the 
> meaning of a word is ,itoe sense which it is intended to intimate. The 
purport of the sentence regarding the jyotishtoma, which is of a pre- 
ceptive character, is to command performance. The object of the sen- 
tence regarding trees, etc., attending at a sacrifice, which is of a narra- 
tive character, is eulogy ; and this can be offered even by a thing 
which has no real existence. The sacrifice is eulogized by saying that 
it was celebrated even by insensible trees and ignorant serpents : how 
much more, then, would it be celebrated by Brahmans possessed both 
of sensation and knowledge ! " 

The following passage from the Nyaya-mala-vistara, a treatise con- 
taining a summary of the doctrines of the Purva-mimansa of Jaimini, 
by Madhava Acharyya, the brother of Sayana Acharyya (see above, 
p. 66) repeats some of the same reasonings contradicting the idea that 
the Yeda had any personal author (i. 1, 25, 26) : 

Paurusheyam na vd veda - vdkyam sydt paurusheyatd \ Kdthakddi- 
samdkhydndd vdkyatvdch chdnya-vdkya-vat \ Samdkhyd 'dhydpakatvena 
vdkyatvam tu pardhatam \ Tatkartr-anupalamlhena, syat tato 'paurushe- 
yatd \ Kdthakam Kauthumam Taittirlyakam ityddi samdkhyd tat-tad- 
veda-vishayd loJce drishtd \ taddhita -pratyayas cha tena proktam ity 
asminn arthe varttate \ tathd sati Vyasena proktam Vaiyasikam Bhdra- 
tam ity-addv iva paurusheyatvam pratlyate \ kincha \ vimatam veda-vdk- 
yam paurusheyam \ vdkyatvdt \ Ktiliddsddi-vakya-vad iti prdpte brumah \ 
adhyayana-sampraddya-pravarttakatvena xamdkhyd upapadyate \ Edlidd- 
sddi-grantheshu tai-sargdvasdne karttdrah upalalltyante \ tatk.d vedasydpi 
paurusheyatve tat-karttd upalabhyeta na cha upalabhyate \ ato vdkyatva- 
hetuh pratikula-tarka-pardhatah \ tasmdd apaurusJieyo vedah \ tathd sati 
purusha-luddhi-kritasya aprdmdnyasya andsankariiyatvdd vidhi-vdkyasya 
dharme prdmdnyam susthitam \ 88 

88 I have extracted this passage from Prof, Goldstiicker's text of the Nyaya-mala- 



" [Verses] ' Is the word of the Yeda derived from a personal author 
or not? It must (some urge). be so derived, since (1) it bears the 
names of Kathaka, ekb. and (2) has the characters of a sentence, like 

') '\ * t 

other sentences. No (we reply) ; for (1) the names arose from parti- 
cular^ persons being teachers of the Yedas, and (2) the objection that 
the Ye ( dic precepts have' the characters of common sentences is refuted 
by other consideration^. The Veda can have no personal author, since 
it has neyer been J perceived ,to have had a maker.' [Comment] It is 
objected! (1) that the names Kathaka, Kauthum*a,'TaittirIyaka, etc., are j 
applied in common usage to the different Vedas ; and the taddhita affix 
by which these appellations are formed, denotes ' uttered by ' [Katha, 
Kuthumi, and Tittiri]/(comp. Panini, iv. 3, 101). Such being the 
case, it is clear that these parts of the Vedas are derived from a per- 
sonal author, like the Mahabharata, which is styled Vaiyasika, because 
it was uttered by Vyasa, etc. And further (2), the sentences of the 
Veda, being subject to different interpretations, must have had a per- 
sonal author, because they have the properties of a sentence, like the 
sentences of Kalidasa, etc. To this we reply (1), the name applied to 
any Veda originates in the fact that the sage whose name it bears, was 
an agent in transmitting the study of that Veda. But (2) in the books 
of Kalidasa and others, the authors are discoverable [from the notices] 
at the end of each section. Now if the Veda also were the composition 
of a personal author, the composer of it would, in like manner, be dis- 
coverable ; but such \s not the case. Hence, the objection that the 
Veda partakes of the,,nature of common sentences is refuted by opposing 
considerations. Consequently the Veda is not the" work of a personal 
author. And such being the case, as we cannot suspect in it any falli- 
bility occasioned by the defects of human reason, the preceptive texts 
of the Veda are demonstrated to be authoritative in questions of duty." 

II. Veddrtha-prakdsa. The versed just quoted are repeated in the 
Vedartha-prakasa of Madhava^on the Taittiriya Sanhita (p. 26), with 
a various rrading at t3e beginning of the third line, viz. " samdkht/dnam 
pravachandt" instead of " samdkJiyd ' ' dhyapakatvena" The comment 
by which the verses are explained in the same work, is as follows : 

Vdlmlkiyam Vaiydsiklyam ityddi-samdkhyundd Rdmayana-Bfydratd- 

vistara ; and I am indebted to the same eminent scholar for some assistance in my 
translation of it. > 


dikam yatJid paurusheyam tathd JTdthakam Kauthumam Taittiriyam iiy- 
ddt-samdkhydndd vedah paurusheyah \ Tcincha veda-vdkyam paurusheyam 
vdkyatvdt Kdliddsddi-vdkya-vad Hi chet \ maivam^ \ sampraddya-pravrit- 
tyd samdkhyopapatteh \ Vlkyatva-hetus tv anupakibdhi-viruddha-kdldtya- 
ydpadishtah \ Yathd Vydsa- Vdlmlki-prabhritayas tad-grantha-nirmdnd- 
vasare kai&hid u/palabdhah anyair apy hvichhinna - sampraddyena wpa- 
lalhyante \ na tathd veda-karttd purushah Itaschid upalabdhah \ prat- 
yuta vedasya nityatvam sruti-si/iritibhydm puryam wJdhritam \ Para- 
mdtmd tu veda-karttd 'fi na laukika-purushah \ tasmdt karttr^-doshd- 
bhdvdd nasty aprdmdnya-ankd \ a 

"It may be said (1) that as the Eamayana, the Mahabharata, and 
other such books, are regarded as the works of^ personal authors from 
the epithets Yalmlkiya (composed by Yalnaki), Yaiyasikiya (composed 
by Yyasa), etc., which they bear, so too the Yeda must have had a 
similar origin, since it is called by the appellations of Kathaka, Kau- 
thuma, Taittiriya, etc. ; and further (2), that the sentences of the Yeda 
must have had this origin, because they possess the properties of a 
common sentence, like those of Kalidasa and others. But these ob- 
jections are unfounded, for (1) the appellations of those parts of the 
Yeda are derived from the sages who were agents in transmitting the 
study of them; and (2) the objection about the Yeda having the pro- 
perties of a common sentence is opposed to the fact that no author 
was ever perceived, and so proceeds upon an erroneous generalization. 89 
For though Yyasa and Yalmiki, etc., when employed in the composition 
of their respective works, were perceived by some persons to be so en- 

89 This phrase thus translated (kalatyayapadishta} is a technical term in the 
Nyaya philosophy, denoting one of the hetv-abhasas, or "mere semblances of reasons," 
and is thus defined in the Nyaya-;utras, i. 49, Kalatyayapadishtah kalatJtah, which 
Dr. Ballantyne (Aphorisms of the Nyaya, p. 42) thus explains : " That [semblance of 
a reason] is mis-timed, which is adduced when the time is not [that when it might 
have availed]. [For example, suppose^ one argues that] fire does not contain heat, 
because it is factitious, [his argument is mis-timed if we have already ascertained by 
the superior evidence of the senses that fire does Cbntain heat]." It does not, however, 
appear, how the essential validity of an argument can depend at all on tfce time when 
it is adduced, as is justly observed by Professor Goldstiicker, who has favoured me 
with his opinion on the sense of the phrase. After consulting the commentary of 
Vatsyayana in loco, he thinks the aphorism (which is not very distinctly explained 
by the commentators) must denote the erroneous transference of a conclusion deduced 
from the' phenomena happening at one " time," i.e. belonging to one class of cases, 
to another class which does not exhibit, or only apparently exhibits, the same pheno- 
mena ; in short, & vicious generalization. 


gaged, and are known by others also [in after ages] to be the authors, 
from the existence of an unbroken tradition to that effect ; no human 
author of the V^da ias ever been perceived. On the contrary, we 

* i u 

have formerly shown that the eternity of the Yeda is declared both by 
itself and by the Smriti. And even if the Supreme Spirit be the maker 
of it,,still he isnot a mundane person ; and consequently, as no defect 
exists in the maker, there it>no reason to suspect fallibility in his work." 

No notice has been'take,n by these commentators of an objection 
which might have been raised to the validity of i?his reasoning, viz. that 
the hymns of the Rich and other Vedas are all set down in the Anu- 
kramams, or indices to those works, as being uttered by particular 
rishis ; the rishis being; in fact, there denned as those whose words the 
hymns were yasya vdkyam sa rishih. 90 (See Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. 
i. 26, or p. 12 of Williams and Norgate's ed.) Though, however, this 
objection has not been alluded to in any of the preceding passages, an 
answer has been provided to it in the well-known assertion of the 
orthodox Indian writers that the rishis did not compose, but only saw 
and afterwards repeated the hymns and other parts of the Vedas, which 
had in reality pre-existed from eternity. 

Thus, in the Vedartha-prakasa on the Taittirlya Sanhita, p. 11, it is 
said: Atindriydrtha-drashtdrah rishayah \ Teshdm veda-drashtritvam 
smaryate \ Yugdnte 'ntarhitdn 91 Veddn setihdsdn maharshayah \ Lebhire 

tapasd purvam anujndtdh svayambhuvd \ (Mahabharata, S'antiparvan, 

verse 7660. See atove, p. 49.) " The rishis were seers of things 

beyond the reach of the bodily senses. The fact of their seeing the 
Vedas is recorded in the Smriti: 'The great rishis, empowered by 
Svayambhu, formerly obtained, through devotion, the Vedas and the 
Itihasas whigh had disappeared at the end of the [preceding] Yuga.' " 
So, too, Manu (as already quoted, Vol. I. p. 394) says, in similar, 
although more general language : Prtydpatir idaih sdstram tapasaivd- 
srijat pralhuh \ Tathaiva vedUn ri&hayas tapasd pratipedire \ " Praja- 
pati created this S'astra (the Institutes of Manu) by austere-fervour 
(tapas) ; and by the same means the rishis obtained the Vedas." 

90 Some passages from the Nirukta on this subject will be quoted in a later part of 
this volume. * 

81 The text of the Biblioth. Ind. reads tarhi tan. I have followed the M. Bh., 
which evidently gives the true reading. . , 


The following extract from the account of the Purva-mimansa philo- 
sophy, given in the Sarva-darsana-sangraha of Madhava Acharyya 
(Bibliotheca Indica, pp. 127 ff,), contains a fulle,r summary of the con- 
troversy between the Mlmansakas an'd the Ivaiyayikas respecting the 
grounds on which the authority of the Yeda should be regarded as 
resting : 

Sydd etat \ vedasya katham apaurusheyatvam clhidhiyate \ tat-prati- 
pddaka-pramdndlhdvdt katham ^nanyethdh apa-^rusheydh veddh \ sampra- 
f ddydvichchhede saty asmaryyamdna-karttrikatvdd dtma-vad iti \ ~tad etad 
mandam viseshandsiddheh \ paiirusheya-veda-vddilhih pralaye sampra- 
ddya - vichchhedasya kakshlkarandt \ kincha kirn idam asmaryyamdna- 
Tcarttrikatvam ndma \ apratiyamdna-karttrikatvam asmarana - gochara- 
Jcarttrikatvam vd \ na prathamah halpah Paramesvarasya harttuh pra- 
miter abhyupagamdt \ na dvitlyo vilcalpdsahatvdt \ tathd hi [ him ekena 
asmaranam abhipreyate sarvair vd \ na ddyah \ " yo dharma-silo jita- 
mdna-roshah" ityddishu muUakoJctishu vyabhichdrdt \ na dvitiyah \ sar- 
vdsmaranasya asarvajna-durjndnatvdt \ 

Paurmheyatve pramdna-sambhavdch cha veda-vdkydni paurmheydni \ 
vdlcyatvdt | Kdliddsddi-vakya-vat \ veda-vdjcydni dpta-pranitdni \ pra- 
mdnatve sati vdkyatvdd Manv-ddi-vdkya-vad iti I 

Nanu \ " : Vedasyddhyayanam sarvam gurv-adhyayana-purvakam \ vedd- 
dhyayana-sdmdnydd adhund 'dhyayanam yathd " | ity anumdnam prati 
sddhanam pragalbhate iti cJiet \ tad api na pramdna-kotim praveshtum 
zshte | " Bhdratddhyayanam sarvam giarv-adhyayana-purvalcam \ Ithara- 
tddJiyayanatvena sdmpratddhyayanam yathd " iti dlhdsa-samdna-yoga- 
kshematvdt \ nanu ttira, Vydsah karttd iti smaryyate "ho hy anyah 
Pundarlkdkshdd Mahdlhdrata-krid lhavet " ity-dddv iti diet \ tad 
asdram \ " richah sdmdni jdjnire \ chhanddmsi jajnire tasmdd yajus tas- 
mdd ajdyata " iti purusha-sukte vedasya, sa-kartrikatd-pratipddandt \ 

Kincha anityah ialdah sdmdnyavattve sati asmad-ddi-vdhyendriya- 
grdhyatvdd ghata-vat \ nanv idam anumdnam sa evdyani ga-kdrah ity 
pratyalhijnd-pramlna-pratihatam iti chet \ tad at&phalgu " fana-punar- 
jdta-kesa-dalita-kund"-dddv iva pratyalhijndydh sdmdnya-vishayatvena 
bddhakatvdlhavdt \ 

Nanv asarlrasya Paramesvarasya tdlv-ddi-sthdndhhdvena varnochchd. 
randsanibhavdt katham tat-pranitatvam vedasya sydd iti chet \ na tad 
lhadram svabhdvato 'sarlrasydpi tasya lhaktdniigrahdrtham llld-vigraha- 


i t 

grahana - sambhavdt \ tasmdd vedasya apaurusheyatva-vdcho yuktir na 
yuktd iti chet \ 

Tatra samddhdnam abhidhlyate \ Kim idam paurusheyatvam sisddhayi- 

t 1 

shitam \ purudhdd utpannatva-mdtram \ yathdtasmad-ddibhir ahar aJiar 
uchchdryyamdnasya vedasya \ pramdndntarena artham vpafabhya tat- 
prakusanaya raeliitatvam vd \ yathd asmad-ddibhir iva nibadhyamdnasya 
prabandhasya \ pwthayne na vipratipattih \ charame kirn anumdna-baldt 
tat-sddhanam agama-balad vd \ na ddyah \ Mdlatl-mddhavddi-vdlcyeshu 
savyalhichdratvdt \ atha pramdnatve sati iti visishyate iti diet \ tad api^ 
nd vipaschito man^asi vaisadyam dpadyate \ pramdndntardgocliardrtha- 
pratipddakam hi vdkyam Veda-vdkyam \ tat pramdndntara-gochardrtha- 
pratipddalcam iti sddhyamdne " mama mdtd bandhyd " iti vad vydghdtd- 
pdtdt | kincha Paramesvarasya llld-vigraha-parigrahdbhyupagame'py 
atlndriydrtha-darsanam na sanjdghatiti desa-kdla-svabhdva-viprakrtsh- 
tdrtha- grahanopdydbhdvdt \ na cha tach-chaksJiur-ddikam eva tddrilc- 
pratiti-janana-kshamam iti mantavyam \ drishtdnusdrenaiva kalpandydh 
dsrayaniyatvdt \ tad . uktam Gurubhih sarvajna - nirdkarana - veldydm 
" yatrdpy atisayo drishtah sa svdrthdnatilanghandt I dura-sukshmddi- 
drishtau sydd na rupe srotra-vrittitd " iti \ atah eva na dgama-baldt tat- 
sddhanam | 

" Tena proktam" iti Pdniny-anusdsane jdgraty api Kdth&ka-Kdldpa- 
Taittirlyam ityddi-samdkhyd adhyayana-sampraddya-pravarttaka-visha- 
yatvena upapadyate \ tad -vad atrdpi sampraddya-pravarttaka-vishaya- 
tvendpy upapadyate \ na cha amsmdna-baldt sabdasya anityatva-siddhih \ 
pratyabhijnd-virodhdt | . . . . 

Nanv idam pratyabhijndnam gatvddi-jdti-vish#yam na gddi-vyakti- 
rishayam tdsdih prati-purusJiam bhedopalambhdd \ anyatJid "Somasarmd 
'dhlte" iti vibhdgo na sydd iti diet \ tad dpi sobhdm na bibhartti gddi- 
vyakti-bhede "pramdndbhdvena gatvddi-jdti-vishaya-kalpandydm pramdnd- 
bhavdt | Yathd gatvam ajdnatah ekam eva bhinna-desa-parimdna-sam- 
sthdna-vyakty-iipadhdna-vasdd bJiinna-desam iva alpam iva mahad iva 
dlrgJiam iqa vdmanam iva prathate tathd ga-vyaktim ajdnatah ekd 'pi 
vyanjaka-bheddt tat-tad-dharmdnubandhinl pratibhdsate \ etena virud- 
dha-dharmddhydsdd bheda - pratibhdsah iti praty uktam \ tatra kim 
svdbhdviko viruddha-dharmddhydso bheda- sddhakatvena abhimatah prd- 
tltiko vd | prathame aslddhih \ aparathd svdbhu,vika-bheddbh7/upagame 
dasa ga-kdrdn udachdrayat Chaitra iti prattipattih sydd na tu dasa- 


kritvo ga-kdrah iti \ dvitlye tu na svdbhdvika-bheda-siddhih \ na hi 
paropddhi-lhedena svdbhdmkam aikyam vihanyate \ ma bhud nabhaso ''pi 
kumbhddy-upddhi-bheddt svdbhdviko bkedah | . . . . tad uktam dchdry- 
yaih \ ' prayojanam tu y<y jdtes tadvatndd ev&labhyate \ cyakti-lalhyaih 
tu nddelhyah iti gatvddi - dhlr vrithd" iti \ tathd cha " pratyabhij 'nd 
yadd sabde jdgartti niravagrahd \ anity^tvdnumdndni "aiva sarvdni bd- 
dhate " | .... tatai cha vedasya apauru8heyataydy,irqpta-samasta-sankd- 
kalankdnkuratvena svatah siddhaxi dharme prdmdnyam iti msthitam \ 

" Be it so. But how,, [the Naiyayikas may ask] is the Veda alleged 
to be underived from any personal author ? How can you regard the 
Vedas as being thus underived, when there is no evidence by which 
this character can be substantiated ? The argument urged by you Ml- 
mansakas is, that while there is an unbroken tradition, still no author 
of the Veda is remembered, in the same way as [none is remembered] 
in the case of the soul (or self). But this argument is very weak, be- 
cause the asserted characteristics [unbrokenness of tradition, etc.] are not 
proved ; since those who maintain the personal origin [i.e. origin from 
a person] of the Veda, object that the tradition [regarding the Veda] 
was interrupted at the dissolution of the universe (pralaya).^ And 
further : what is meant by the assertion that no author of the Veda is 
remembered ? Is it (1) that no author is believed ? or (2) that no author 
is the object of recollection ? The first alternative cannot be accepted, 
since it is acknowledged [by us] that God (Paramesvara) is proved to 
be the author. Nor can the second alternative be admitted, as it cannot 
stand the test of the following dilemma, viz. Is it meant (a) that no 
author of the Veda is recollected by some one person, or (&) by any 
person whatever ? The former supposition breaks down, since it fails 
when tried by such detached- stanzas as this, f he who is religious, and 
has overcome pride and anger,' etc. 93 And the latter supposition is in- 
admissible, since it would be impossible for any person who was not 
omniscient to know that no author of the Veda was recollected by any 
person whatever. ( , ( 

92 This objection occurs in a passage of the Eusumdnjali, which I shall quote 
further on. 

93 I do not know from what work this verse is quoted, or what is its sequel. To 
proye anything in point, it must apparently go on to assert that such a saint as is here 
described remembers the author of the Veda, or at least has such superhuman facul- 
ties as would enable him to discover the author. 



" And moreover, [the Naiyayikas proceed], the sentences of the Veda 
must have originated with a personal author, as proof exists that they 
had such an origin, since they have the character of sentences, like 
those of Kjilidasa and 'other writers. The sentences of the Yeda have 
been composed by competent persons, since, while they possess au- 
thority, they have, at the same time, the character of sentences, like 
those of Manu and other sages. 

" But [ask th6>Mlma j nsakas] may it 'not be assumed that, ' All study 
of the -Veda was preceded by an earlier study x>f it by the pupil's pre : 
ceptor, since the study of the Yeda must always have had one common 
character, which was the same in former times as now ; ' 91 and that 
this inference has force^ to prove [that the Veda had no author or was 
eternal] ? Such reasoning [the Naiyayikas answer] is of no force as 
proof, [for it might be urged, with an equal show of reason, that] ' All 
study of the Mahabharata was preceded by an earlier study of it by the 
pupil's preceptor, since the study of the Mahabharata, from the mere 
fact of its being such, [must have had the same character in former 
times] as it has now ; ' and the advantage of such an argument is 
simply illusory. But the [Mimansakas will ask whether there is not a 
difference between these two cases of the Veda and the Mahabharata, 
since] the Smriti declares that [Vishnu incarnate as] Vylasa was the 
author of the latter, according to such texts as this, 'Who else than 
Pundarikaksha (the lotus-eyed Vishnu) could be the maker of the 
Mahabharata?' (see above, p. ^39), [whilst nothing of this sort is 
recorded in any S'astra in regard to the Veda]. This argument, how- 
ever, is powerless, since it is proved by these -words of the Purusha- 
sukta, ' From him sprang the Rich and Saman verses and the metres, 
and from him the Yajush verses,' (above 1 , p. 3) that the Veda had a 

"Further [proceed the Naiyayika.s] we must suppose that sound 
[on the eternity of which the eternity and uncreatedness of the Veda 
depend] is,not eternnl, since, while it has the properties belonging to a 

94 The purport of this verse is, that as every generation of students of the Veda 
must have been preceded by an earlier generation of teachers, and as there is no reason 
to assume any variation in this process by supposing tfiat there ever hacS been any 
student who taught himself; we have thus a regressus ad infinitum, and must of 
necessity conclude that the Vedas had no author, but were eternal. ? 


genus, it can, like a jar, be perceived by the external organs of beings 
such as ourselves. But [rejoin the Mimansakas], is not this inference 

of yours refuted by the proof arising from the fact that we recognise 

t- i 

the letter G [for exampla] as the sanle we have heard ^before ? This 
argument [replies the Naiyayika] is extremely weak, for the recogni- 
tion in question having reference to a Community ofspecies, as in 
the case of such words as ' hairs cut and grown a;gaii?., or of full- blown 
jasmine,' etc., has no force to- refute my assertion* [that letters are 
not eternal]. i ; 

" But [asks the Mimansaka] how can the Yeda have been uttered 
by the incorporeal Paramesvara (God), who has no palate or other 
organs of speech, and therefore cannot be conceived to have pronounced 
the letters [of which it is composed] ? This objection [answers the 
^aiyayika]is not happy, because, though Paramesvara is by nature 
incorporeal, he can yet, by way of sport, assume a body, in order to 
shew kindness to his devoted worshippers. Consequently, the argu- 
ments in favour of the doctrine that the Yeda had no personal author 
are inconclusive. 

"I shall now [says the Mlmansaka] clear up all these difficulties. 
"What is meant by this paurusheyatva 9 (' derivation from a personal 
author ') which it is sought to prove ? Is it (1) mere procession (ut- 
pannatva] from a person (purusha\ like the procession of the Yeda 
from persons such as ourselves, when we daily utter it ? or (2) is it the 
arrangement with a view to its manifestation of knowledge acquired 
by other modes of proof, in the sense in which persons like ourselves 
compose a treatise ? If the first meaning be intended, there will be no 
dispute. If the second sense be meant, I ask whether the Yeda is proved 
[to be authoritative] in virtue (a) of its being founded on inference, or 
(5) of its being founded on supernatural information (dgama-lalut] ? The 
former alternative (a) [_i.e. that Jhe Yeda derives its authority from 
being founded on inference] cannot be correct, since this theory breaks 
down, if it be applied to the sentences of the Mr lati Madhava or any 
other secular poem [which may contain inferences destitute of autho- 
rity]. If, on the other hand, you say (5), that the contents of the 
Yeda are distinguished from those of other books by having authority, 
this explanation also will fail to satisfy a philosopher. For the word 
of the Yeda is [defined to be] a word which proves things that are not 


) t 

provable by any other evidence. Now if it could be established that 
this Vedic word did nothing more than prove things that are provable 
by other evidence, we should be involved in the same sort of contra- 

j '5 

diction as if a' man wero to say "that his mother was a barren woman. 
And even if we conceded that Paramesvara might in sport assume a 
body, it would aot be conceivable that [in that case] he should perceive 
things' beyond tho reach of the senses, from the want of any means of 
apprehending obj jets removed from him in place, in time, and in nature. 
Nor is it to be thought that liis eyes and other> senses alone would have 
the power of producing such knowledge, since men can only attain to 
conceptions corresponding with what they have perceived. This is 
is what has been said by the Guru (Prabhakara) when he refutes [this 
supposition of ] an om'nisciant author: 'Whenever any object is per- 
ceived [by the organ of sight] in its most perfect exercise, such per- 
ception can only have reference to the vision of something very distant 
or very minute, since no organ can go beyond its own proper objects, 
as e.g. the ear can never become cognizant of form.' Hence the au- 
thority of the Yeda does not arise in virtue of any supernatural in- 
formation [acquired by the Deity in a corporeal shape]. 

"Without any contravention 95 of the rule of Panini (iv. 3, 101 ; see 
above, p. 83) that the grammatical affix with which the wo^rds Kathaka, 
Kalapa, and Taittiriya are formed, imparts to those derivatives the sense 
of ' uttered by ' Katha, Kalapa, etc., it is established that the names first 
mentioned have reference [not to those parts of the Veda being composed 
by the sages in question, but] to the fact that these sages instituted the 
practice of studying those parts of the Veda. IJere also these appella- 
tions ought to be understood in the same manner, as referring to the fact 
of those sages being the institutors of the 3tudy of the Veda ; and we are 
not to think" that the eternity of sound [or of the words of the Veda] is 
disproved by the force of any inference [to be drawn from those names], 
since this would be at variance with the recognition [of letters as the 
same we knew befoT'e] (see above, Mimansa Sutras.,!. 19 f., p. 75) 

"But [the Naiyayikas will ask] does not the recognition [of G and 

other letters as the same we knew before] refer to them as belonging 

to the [same] species, and not as being the [same] individual letters, 

since, in fact, they are perceived to be different [as uttered "by] each 

95 Literally " although the rule of Panini be awake." 


person, for otherwise it would be impossible for us to make any dis- 
tinction [between different readers, as .when we say], ' Somasarman is 
reading? ' This objection, however, shines as little t as its predecessors, 
and has been answered in. this way, viz. that as there is no <proof of any 
distinction of individuality between G's, etc., there is no evidence that 
we ought to suppose any such thing as a species of G's 6 , etc. \_i.e. of G's 
and other letters each constituting a specie*]. J'ast Us to the man who 
is ignorant that G's constitute a species, [that letter], though one 
,only, becomes, through distinction of place, magnitude, form, indi- 
viduality, and position, variously modified as distinct in place, as 
small, as great, as long, or as short, in the same way, to the man who 
is ignorant of an individuality of G's, \_i.e. of G's being numerically 
different from each other], this letter, though only one, appears, from 
the distinction existing between the different persons who utter it, to be 
connected with their respective peculiarities ; and as contrary characters 
are in this way erroneously ascribed [to the letter G], there is a falla- 
cious appearance of distinctness [between different G's]. But does this 
ascription of contrary characters which is thus regarded as creating a 
difference [between G's] result from (1) the nature of the thing, or (2) 
from mere appearance ? There is no proof of the first alternative, as 
otherwise an inherent difference being admitted between different G's, 
it would be established that Chaitra had uttered ten (different] G's, 
and not [the same] G ten times. But on the second supposition, there 
is no proof of any inherent distinction [between G's].; for inherent 
oneness (or identity) is not destroyed by a difference of extrinsic dis- 
guises [or characteristics]. "We must not conceive, from the merely 
apparent distinctness [occasioned by the separation of its parts] by 
jars, etc., that there is any inherent distinctness in the atmosphere 
itself. .... It has been said by the Acharyya 'The object which 
the Naiyayikas seek, by supposing a species, is in fact gained from 
the letter itself; and the object at whi,ch they aim by supposing an 
individuality in letters, is attained from audibly sounds (S.e. the se- 
parate utterances of the different letters), so that the hypothesis of 
species, etc., is useless.' And he thus reaches the conclusion that, 
' since, in respect of sounds (letters), recognition has so irresistible a 
power, [literally, wakes, unrestrained], it atone repels all inferences 
against the eternity [of sound, or the Veda]." After some further 


argumentation the Mimansaka arrives at the conclusion that "as every 
imputation of doubt which has germinated has been set aside by the 
underived character f the Yeda, its authority in matters of duty is 
shewn to be self-evident." 

I , shall not attempt to carry further my translation of this abstruse 
discussion, as the remainder of it contains much which I should find 
great difficulty in comprehending. 96 

[Although not direcdy connected with the subject in hand, the fol- 
lowing passage from S'ankara's commentary on fche Brahma Sutras, iii'l 
2, 40, 97 will throfa some further light on the doctrines of the Hlmansa. 
In the two preceding Sutras, as explained by S'ankara, it had been 
asserted, both on grovjids of reason and on the authority of the Veda, 
that God is the author of rewards. In the 40th S'utra a different doc- 
trine is ascribed to Jaimini : 

Dharmam Jaiminir atah eva \ Jaiminis tv dchdryyo dharmam phalasya 
ddtdram manyate \ ata eva hetoh iruter upapattes cha \ fruyate tdvad 
ayam arthah " svarga-kdmo yajeta " ity evam ddishu vdkye'shu \ tatra cha 
vidhi-sruter vishaya-lhdvopagamdd ydgah svargasya utpddakah iti gam- 
yate \ anyathd hy ananushthdtriko ydgah dpadyeta tatra asya upadesasya 
vaiyarthyam sydt \ nanv anukshana-windsmah Icarmanah pJialam na upa- 
padyade iti parity akto 'yam pakshah \ na esha dosJiah sruti-prdmdnydt \ 
srutis chet pramdnam yatJid 'yam karma-pJiala-sairibandhah srutah upa- 
padyate tathd kalpayitavyah \ na cha anutpddya Icimapy apurvaih karma 
vinasyat kdldntaritam pJialam datum saknotiity atah karmano vd sufcshmd 
kdchid uttardvasthdrpJialasya vd purvdvasthti apurvam ndma asti iti tark- 
yate \ upapadyate cha ayam ar.thah iiktena prakdrena \ livaras tu phalam 
daddti ity anupapannam avichitrasya kdranasya vichitra-kdryydnupapat- 
teh vaishamyfl-nairgJtrinya-prasangdd anushthdna-vaiyarthydpattes cha \ 
tdsmdd dharmdd eva phalam iti \ 

11 ' Jaimini says that for this reason virtue [is the giver of reward].' 
The Acharyya Jaimini regards virtue [i.e. the performance of the pre- 
scribed ri?es and duties] as the bestower of reward. 1 ' For this reason,' 

96 In fact I have left out some pages of the translation which I had given in the 
first edition, as well as the corresponding portion of the text. I am indebted to the 
kindness of Professor Goldstucker for various suggestions towards the improvement 
of my translation. But two' of the passages on whicil he had favoured nle with his 
opinion are, to my own apprehension, so obscure, that I have omitted them. 

97 It is partly quoted in Prof. Bauerjea's work on Hiadu Philosophy. 


and because it is proved by the Yeda. This is the purport of the Vedic 
text, ' Let the man who seeks paradise, sacrifice,' and others of the 
same kind. As from this Vedic injunction we must infer the existence 
of an object [to be sought after] it is concluded that sacrifice has the 
effect of producing heavenly bliss ; for otherwise we should be involved 
in the absurdity of a sacrifice without a p'erformer [sincb no one would 
care to sacrifice without an object], and thus the injunction would be- 
come fruitless. But may it not' be said that it. is not' conceivable that 
any fruit should result ,/rom a ceremony which perishes every moment, 
so that this view must be abandoned ? No, this defect does not attach 
to our Mimansaka statement, since the Veda is authoritative. If the 
Veda be authority, this connection of the rewerd with the ceremony 
must be supposed to exist just as is proved by the Veda. But as a 
ceremony which perishes without generating any unseen virtue, can- 
not produce a reward at a distant time, it must be concluded that there 
is either a certain subtile ulterior form of the ceremony, or a certain 
subtile anterior form of the reward, which is called ' unseen virtue.' 
And this result is established in the manner before mentioned. But it 
it is not proved that God bestows rewards, because it is inconceivable 
that a uniform Cause [such as He is] should produce various effects, 
and because the performance of ceremonies would be useless, owing to 
the partiality and unmercifulness which would attach [to the supposed 
arbiter of men's deserts]. Hence it is from virtue alone that reward 

How far this passage may be sufficient to prove the atheism of the 
Himansa, I will not attempt to say. Before we could decide on such 
a question, the other Sutras of that school which refer to this question 
(if there be any such) would have to be consulted. 

Professor Banerjea also quotes the following text from the popular 
work, the Vidvan-moda-tarangini, in which the Mimansakas are dis- 
tinctly charged with atheism : ,,. 

Devo na kaschid *bhuvanasya karttd bharitd na tiarttd 'pi fha kaschid 
aste | karmdnurupdni subhdsubhdni prdpnoti sarvo hi janah phaldni \ 
vedasyd karttd na cha kaschid aste nitydh hi sabddh rachand hi nityd \ 
pramdnyam asmin svatah eva siddham anddi-siddheh paratah katham tat \ 
" There is no God, maker of the world ; nor has it any sustainer or 
destroyer ; for, every man obtains a recompence in conformity with his 


works. Neither is there any maker of the Veda, for its words are 
eternal, and their arrangement i eternal. Its authoritativeness is self- 
demonstrated, for ^inc<i it has been established from eternity, how can 
it be dependent upon anything but itself? " * 

I learn from Professor Banerjea that the Mimansaka commentator 

Prabhakara ancf his school treat the Purva Mimansa as an atheistic 


system, while Kumar/la makes it out to be theistic. In fact the latter 
author makes the" following complaint at the commencement of his 
Yarttika, yerse 10: Prdyenaiva hi Mlmdmsd lofo lokdyatlkritd \ tdm< 
dstika-pathe karttiim ay am yatnah krito may a \ " For in practice the 
Mimansa has been for the most part converted into a Lokayata 98 
(atheistic) system ; but I have made this effort to bring it into a theistic 
path." See also the lines wliich are quoted from the Padma Parana by 
Vijnana Bhikshu, commentator on the Sankhya aphorisms, in a passage 
which I shall adduce further on.] 

It appears from a passage in Patanjali's Hahabhashya, that that great 
grammarian was of opinion that, although the sense of the Yeda is 
eternal, the order of the words has not continued uniform ; and that it 
is from this order having been variously fixed by Katha, Kalapa, and 
other sages, that different portions of the Indian scriptures are called 
by their names. 

The following passages from the Mahabhashya, and from the Com- 
mentaries of Kaiyyata and Nagojibhatta thereon, are extracted from 
the fuller quotations^ given by 'Professor Goldstiicker in pp. 147 f. of 
the Preface to his Manava-kalpa-sutra. 

Patanjali : Nanu dm ulctam "na hi chhanddmsi kriyante nitydni chhan- 
ddmsi" iti \ yadyapy artho nityah \ yd tv asau varndnupurvl sd anityd 
tad-lheddch cha etad lhavati Kdthakam Kdldpakam MaudaJcam Paippald- 


dafaim ityddi . . . . | Kaiyyata: "Nitydni" iti \ karttur asmaranat 
teshdm iti bhuvah \ "yd tv asdv" iti \ mahdpralayddishu varndnupiirm- 
vindse punar utpadyarishayah t samskdrdtisaydd veddrtham smritvd salda- 
rachandh wdadhati uy arthah \ " tad-bheddd " iti \ dnupurvl-bheddd ity 
arthah \ tatas cha Jfathddayo veddnupurvydh karttdrah eva ityddi \ 
Nagojibhatta : Amsena vedasya nityatvam svlkritya amsena anityatvam 
dha "yadyapy arthah" iti \ anena vedatvam salddrtholhaya-vritti-dhva- 
nitvam \ nanu " dhdtd yathd purvam akalpayad" ityddi-sruti-lalena 
98 See Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. i. 402 ff., or p. 259 ff. of Williams ind Norgate's ed. 


dnupurvl api sd eva Hi navya-purva-mimdmsd-siddhdntdt sd nityd iti 
ayuktam ata aha " mahdpralayddishv".iti \ dnupurvyds tat-tat-kshana- 
ffhafitatvena anityatvam iti bhdvah iti kechit \ tan na<\ " yadyapy artho 
nityah " ityddi-vdkya-sesfta-virodhdt \ arthasyapi jyotishtom&der anityat- 
vdt | pravdhdvichchhedena nityatvam tu ubhayor api tasmdd manvantara- 
bhedena dnupurvl bhinnd eva " prati-manvantaram chauhd srutir anyd 
ridhlyate" ity ukter ity anye \ pare tu \ u aftlio rtitycfh" ity air a krita- 
katva-virodhy-anityatvasya eva alhyupagamah furva-pakshind tddrisa- 
nityatvasya eva chhandps$u ukteh \ evam cha artha-sabdena atra Isvarah \ 
mulchyatayd tasya eva sarva-veda-tdtparyya-vishayahdt \ "vedais cha 
sarvair aham eva vedyah " iti Gltokter ity dhuh \ varndnupurvydh anit- 
yatve mdnam aha " tad-bheddch cha " iti \ anitytitva-vydpya-lhedena tat- 
siddhih | Ihedo 'tra ndndtvam \ Isvare tu tia ndndtvam \ bhede mdnam 
vyavahdram dha \ " Kdthalca" ityddi \ arthaikye 'py dnupurvl-bheddd 
eva KdtJiaka-lcdldpaTcddi-vyavahdrah iti bhdvah \ atra dnupurvl anityd 
ity ukteh paddni tdny eva iti dhvanitvam \ tad dha " tatas cha Kathd- 
dayah " ityddi \ 

As Professor Goldstiicker has only given (in p. 146 of his Preface) a 
translation of the above extract from Patanjali, and has left the pas- 
sages from Kaiyyata and JSTagojibhatta untranslated, I shall give his 
version of the first, and my own rendering of the two last. 

Patanjali : " Is it not said, however, that ' the Yedas are not made, 
but that they are permanent (i.e. eternal)?' (Quite so); yet though 
their sense is permanent, the order of tneir letters has not always re- 
mained the same ; and it is through the difference in this latter respect 
that we may speak of the versions of the Kathas, Kalapas, Mudakas, 
Pippaladakas, and so on." Kaiyyata on Patanjali: "'Eternal;' by 
this word he means that th'ey are so, because no maker of them is 
remembered. By the words, ' the order of their letters,' etc., it is 
meant that, the order of the letters being destroyed in the great 
dissolutions of the universe, etc., the rishis, when they are again 
created, recollecting, through their eminent scienl'e, the sepse of the 
Veda, arrange the order of the words. By the phrase, ' through the 
difference of this,' is meant the difference of order. Consequently, 
Katha and the other sages [to whom allusion was made] are the authors 
of the order of the Veda." Ndgojibhatta on Patanjali and Ka iyyata : 
"Admitting in part the eternity of the Veda, he, Patanjali, declares in 


the words, 'though the sense is eternal,' etc., that it (the Veda) is also, 
in part not eternal. By this clause it is implied that the character of the 
Veda as such is QpnsHtufcd both by. the words and by the sense." But is 
not the ordef also eternal, since it is a settled doctrine of the modern 
Mlmansakss, on the strength of such Vedic texts as this, ' the creator 
made them as before,' etc., that the order also is the very same ? No ; 
this is incorrect, and in consequence, he (Kaiyyata) says, ' in the great 
dissolution s,' etc. Some s&y th<2 meaning of this is, that the order is not 
eternal, inasmuch as it is formed in particular mcftnents. But this is 
wrong, because it is" opposed to the conclusion of the sentence, ' though 
their sense is eternal,' etc., and because the objects signified also, such 
as the jyotishtoma sacrifice, are not eternal. Others say that both the 
sense and the order of the words are eternal [or permanent], owing to 
the continuity of the tradition ; and that, consequently, it is in different 
manvantaras that the order of the words is different, according to the 
text, ' in every manvantara this sruti (Veda) is made different.' Others 
again think that in the words, ' the sense is eternal,' etc., an admis- 
sion is made by an objector of an eternity opposed to the idea of 
production, since it is only such a [qualified] eternity that is men- 
tioned in the Veda; and that thus the word 'sense,' or ; 'object' 
(arthah], here refers to Isvara, because he is the principal object which 
is had in view in the whole of the Veda, according to the words of the 
Bhagavad-gita (xv. 15), 'It is I whom all the Vedas seek to know.' 
He next states the proo? of the assertion that the order of the letters is 
not eternal, in the wrds, ' through the difference of this,' etc. The 
difference in the order is proved by the difference in the things included 
under the category of non-eternity. Difference here means variety. But 
in Isvara (God), there is no variety. He declares current usage to be 
the proof of difference, in the words ' Kathaka,' etc., which mean that, 
though the sense is the same, we use the distinctions of Kathaka, Kala- 
paka, etc., in consequence of the difference of arrangement. Here by 
saying that tue order is not eternal, it is implied that the words are the 
same. And this is what is asserted in the words [of Kaiyyata], ' con- 
sequently Katha and the other sages,' " etc. 


99 I am indebted to Professor Goldstiicker for a correction of my former rendering 
of this sentence, and of several others in this passage of Nagojibhatta. " 




After quoting these passages at greater length than I have given 
them, Professor Goldstiicker goes on to remark in his note: " I have 
quoted the full gloss of the three principal coffimeotat^rs, on this im- 
portant Sutra [of Panini] and its Varttikas, because it is of*considerable 

interest in many respects ~We see Kaiyyata and Nagojibhatta 

writhing under the difficulty of reconciling the eternity of the Veda 
with the diiferences of its various version?;, whi^h, nevertheless, main- 

C g 

tain an equal claim to infallibility. Patanjali'makes rather short work 
' of this much vexed Question ; and unless it be allowed here to render 
his expression varna (which means 'letter'), 'word,' it is barely pos- 
sible even to understand how he can save consistently the eternity or 
permanence of the ' sense ' of the Yeda. That the modern Mlmansists 
maintain not only the 'eternity of the sense,' but also the ' permanence 
of the text,' which is tantamount to the exclusive right of one single 
version, we learn, amongst others, from Nagojibhatta. But as such a 
doctrine has its obvious dangers, it is not shared in by the old IMiman- 
sists, nor by Nagoji, as he tells us himself. He and Kaiyyata inform 
us therefore that, amongst other theories, there is one, according to 
which the order of the letters (or rather words) in the Vaidik texts got 
lost in the several Pralayas or destructions of the worlds ; and since 
each manvantara had its own revelation, which differed only in the 
expression, not in the sense of, the Vaidik texts, the various versions 
known to these commentators represent these successive revelations, 

which were ' remembered,' through their ' excessive accomplishments,' 
by the Bishis, who in this manner produced, or rather reproduced, the 
texts current in their time, under the name of the versions of the 
Kathas, Kalapas, and so on. In this way each version had an equal 
claim to sanctity. There is a very interesting discussion on the same 
subject by Kumarila, in his Mlmansa-varttika (i. 3, 10)." 

III. The Vedunta. I proceed to adduce the reasonings by which Bada- 
rayana, the reputed author of the Brahma, S'ariraka, or Vedanta Sutras, 
as expounded by S'ankara Acharyya in his S'urlraka-mlmuff^su-hhdshya, 
or commentary on those Sutras, defends the eternity and authority of 
the Veda. His views, as we shall see, are not by any means identical 
with those of Jaimini .and his school. After discussing the question 
whether any persons but men of the three highest tribes are qualified 
for divine knowledge, the author of the Sutras comes to the conclusion 


that S'udras, or persons of the fourth tribe, are incompetent, while 
beings superior to man, the god^, are competent 100 (Colebrooke's Misc: 
Ess. i. 348, or p. 23 .pf Williams and Norgate's ed.) In Sutra, i. 3, 
26, the autior determines that the gods have %, desire for final emanci- 
pation, owing to the transitoriness of their glory, and a capacity for 
attaining it, because they possess the qualities of corporeality, etc. ; 
and that there iff no* obstacle which prevents their acquiring divine 
knowledge. A dffficulty, however, haVing been raised that the gods 
cannot be corporeal, because, if they were so, it'ia necessary to conceive* 
that they would be corporeally present (as priests actually are) at the 
ceremonial of sacrifice, in which they are the objects of worship, a 
supposition which would not consist with the usual course of such cere- 
monies, at which the gods afe not seen to be corporeally present, and 
would, in fact, involve an impossibility, since Indra, for example, being 
but one, could not be corporeally present at numerous sacrifices at 
once; this difficulty is solved (under Sutra i. 3, 27) in two ways, 
either by supposing (1) that the gods assume different forms, and 
are present at many sacrifices at once, although invisible to mortals ; or 
by considering (2) that, as a sacrifice is offered to (and not, by) a deity, 
many persons may present their oblations to that deity at once, just as 
one Brahman may be saluted by many different persons at the same 
time. It is, therefore, concluded that the corporeal nature of the gods 
is not inconsistent with the practice of sacrifice. Having settled these 
points, S'ankara comes to Sutra i? 3, 28 : 

"S'abde iti chet \ na \ atah pralhavdt | pratyaksJidnumdndbhymm" \ 
Ma ndma vigrahavattve devddmdm abhyupagamyamdne karmani kas- 
chid virodhah prasanji \ sabde tu virodhah prasajyeta \ hatham \ Aut- 
pattikam Tii saldasya arthena sambandham dsritya " anapekshatvdd " 
iti vedasya prdmdnyam sthdpitam \ Iddriim tu vigrahavatl devatd 'bhyti- 
pagamyamdnd yadyapy aisvaryya-yogdd yugapad aneka-karma-samban- 
dhlni havlmshi bhunjlta tathup^ vigraha-yogdd asmad-ddi-vaj janana-ma- 
ranavatl sd^iti nityasifa sabdasya anityena arthena n'ttya-sambandhe pra- 
liyamdne yad vaidike sabde prdmdnyam sthitam tasya virodhah sydd iti 
chet | na ay am apy asti virodhah \ kasmdd " atah prabhavdt " | Atah eva 

100 For a discussion of the different question whether the gods can practise the cere- 
monies prescribed in the Vedas, see the First Volume of t^iis work, p. 365, note. 


hi vaidikdt sabddd devddikam jagat prabhavati \ Nanu "janmddi asya 
yatah " (Brahma Sutras i. 1,2) iti brahma-prabhavatvam jagato 'vadhd- 
ritam katham iha sabda-prabhavatvam uchyate \ Ayichq yadi ndma vai- 
dikdt sabddd asya prabhavo 'bhyupagatah katham etdvatd virqdhah sabde 
parihritah \ ydvatd Vasavo Rudrdh Aditydh Visvedevdh Marutah ity ete 
'rthdh anitydh eva utpattimattvdt \ Tad-anityatve cha iad-vdchakdnam 
vaidikdndm Va&v-ddi-sabddndm anityatvam Icena vdr^yaii \ Prasiddham hi 
loke Devadattasya putre utpanne Yajnadattah iti tasya ndma Tcriyate iti \ 
Tasmdd mrodhah eva ifilde iti chet \ na \ Gavddi-sabddrtha-sambandha- 
nityatva-darsandt \ Na hi gavddi-vyaktindm utpattimattve tad-dkritlndm 
apy utpattimattvam sydd dravya-guna-lcarmandm hi vyalctayah eva utpad- 
yante na dlcritayah \ ATcritibhis cha iabddndm sanbandho na vyalctilhih \ 
vyaktindm dnantydt sambandha-grahandnupapatteh \ Vyalctishu utpadya- 
mdndsv apy dlcritlndm nityatvdd na gavddi-sabdeshu Tca^chid mrodho dris- 
yate \ Tathd devddi-vyalcti-prabhavdlhy^agame 'pi ahriti-nityatvdd na 
Icaschid Vasv-ddi-sabdeshu mrodhah iti drashtavyam \ Akriti-viseshas tu de~ 
vddlndm mantrdrthavddddilhyo vigrahavattvddy-avagamdd avagantavyah \ 
Sthdna-msesha-samlandha-nimittds cha Indrddi - Salddh sendpatyddi- 
sabda-vat \ Tatas cha yo yas tat tat sthdnam adhitishthati sa sa Indrddi- 
sabdair abhidhlyate iti na dosho bhavati \ Na cha idam iabda-prabhavat- 
vam Brahma -prabhavatva-vad updddna-kdranatvdbhiprdyena uchyate \ 
katham tarhi sthiti-vdchalcdtmand nitye sabde nitydrtha-sambandhini 
sabda-vyavdhdra-yogydrtha-'vyakti-nishpattir " atah prabhavah" ity uch- 
yate | katham punar avagamyate sabddt prabhavati jagad iti \ "pratya- 
kshdnumdndbhydm " | Pratyaksham srutih \ prdmdnyam prati anape- 
Jcshatvdt | anumdnam smritih \ prdmdnyam prati sdpekshatvdt \ Te hi 
sabda-purvdm srishtim dar say atah \ "Jtte" iti vai prajdpatir devdn 
asrijata " asrigram" iti manushydn "indavah" iti pitrlms "tirahpavi- 
tram" iti grahdn " dsavah" iti stotram " visvtini" iti sastram " abhi 
saubhagd " ity anydh prajdh iti srutih \ Tathd 'nyatrdpi " sa manasd 
vdcham mithunam samabhavad" (S'atapatha Brahmana x. 6, 5, 4, and 
Brihadaranyaka Ujjanishad, p. 50) ityddind tatrt* tatra sabda-purvikd 
srishtih irdvyate \ Smritir api"anddi-nidhand nityd vdg utsrishtd svayam- 
bhuvd | ddau vedamayi divyd yatah sarvdh pravrittayah " ity utsargo 'py 
ayam vdchah sampraddya-pravarttandtmako drashtavyah anddi-nidhand- 
ydh anyddrisasya utsargasya asambhavdt \ Tathd "ndma riipam cha bhu- 
tdndm kanna^dm cha picavarttanam \ Veda-sabdebhya evddau nirmame sa 


mahesvarah n iti\ "sarveshdm chasandmdnikarmdnichaprithakprithak \ 
Veda-sabdebhya evddau prithak famsthds cJia nirmame " iti cha \ Apicha 
chiklrshitam artham a^utishthan tasya vdchakam sabdam piirvam smritvd 
paschdt tarn, artham anittishthati iti sarveshdfii nah pratyaksham etat \ 
Tathd prajdpater api srashtuh srishteh purvam vaidikdh iabddh manasi 
prddurlabhuvuh paschdt tad-anugattin arthdn sasarjja iti gamyate \ Tathd 
cha srutih " sa bhur iti vyajiaran bhumim asrijata " 101 ity-evam-ddikd 
bhiir-ddi-sabdebhy^ah eva manasi prddurbhutebhyo bhur-ddi-lokdn prddur- 
bhutdn'srishtdn darsayati \ kim-titmakam punah iabdam abhipretya idam t 
,sabda-prabhavatvam uchyate \ sphotam ity aha | . . . . Tasmdd nitydt 
sabddt sphota-rupud dbhidhdyakdt kriyd-kdraka-phala-lakshanam jagad 
alhidheya-lhutam pralkavatlti | . . . . Tatas cha nityebhyah Sabdebhyo 
devddi-vyaktlndm prabhavah'ity aviruddham \ 

Sutra i. 3, 29. "Ata eva cha nityatvam " | svatantrasya karttuh sma- 
rantfd eva hi sthite vedasya nityatve devddi-vyakti-prabhavdlhyv/pagamena 
tasya virodham dsankya " atah prabhavdd" iti parihritya iddnlm tad eva 
veda-nityatvam sthitam dradhayati tl ata eva cha nityatvam " iti \ atah 
eva cha niyatdkriter devdder jagato veda-sabda-prabhavatvdd eva veda- 
sabda-nityatvam api pratyetavyam \ Tathd cha mantra-varnah "yajnena 
vdchah padavlyam ay an tarn anvavindann rishishu pravishtdm" iti sthi- 
tdm eva vdcham anuvinndm darsayati \ Vedavydsas cha evam eva smarati 
(Mahabharata, Yanap. 7660) | "yugdnte J ntarhitdn veddn setihdsdn ma- 
harshayah \ lebhire tapasa purvam anujndtdh svayambhuvd " iti \ 

" Sutra i. 3, 28 : ' But it is sSid that there will be a contradiction in 
respect of sound (or the word) ; but this is not so, because the gods are 
produced from it, as is proved by intuition and inference.' 

" Be it so, that though the corporeality of the gods, etc., be admitted, 
no contradiction will arise in respect of tlie ceremonial. Still [it will 
be said that] a contradiction will arise in regard to the word. How ? 
[In this way.] By founding upon the inherent connection of a word 
with the thing signified, the Authority of the Yeda had been established 
by the aphorism ' ahapekshatvdt,' etc. (Mlmansa fcutras i. 2, 21 ; see 
above, p. 75.) But now, while it has been admitted that the deities are 
corporeal, it will follow that (though from their possession of divine 

power they can at one and the same time partake of the oblations 

101 Compare S'atapatha Brahmana, ^i. 1, 6, 3. , 


offered at numerous sacrifices), they will still, owing to their corpo- 
reality, be subject, like ourselves, to birth and death ; and hence, the 
eternal connection of the eternal word with an object which is non- 
eternal being lost, a contradiction will arise in regard to tfce authority 
proved to belong to the word of the Veda ; [for thus the word, not 
having any eternal connection with non-eternal things, could not be au- 
thoritative]. But neither has this supposed, -^ontra'diction any existence. 
How ? ' Because they are produced from if'.' Eence the world of gods, 
etc., is produced from <th'e Vedic word. But according to the aphorism 
(Brahma Sutras i. 1, 2) ' from him comes the production, etc., of all this,' 
it is established that the world has been produced from Brahma. How, 
then, is it said here that it is produced from the word ? And, moreover, 
if it be allowed that the world is produced Yrom the Vedic word, how is 
the contradiction in regard to the word thereby removed, inasmuch as all 
the following classes of objects, viz. the Yasus, Eudras, Adityas,*Yis- 
vedevas, Maruts, are non-eternal, because produced; and when they 
are non-eternal, what is there to bar the non-eternity of the Yedic 
words Yasu, etc., by which they are designated ? For it is a common 
saying, ' It is only when a son is born to Devadatta, that that son 
receives the name of Yajnadatta,' [i.e. no child receives a name before 
it exists]. Hence a contradiction does arise in regard to [the eternity 
of] the word. To this objection we reply with a negative ; for in the 
case of such words as cow we discover an eternal connection between 
the word and the thing. For although individual cows, etc., come 
into existence, the species to which they belong doqs not begin to exist, 
as it is individual substances, qualities, and acts, which begin to exist, 
and not their species. Now it is with species that words are connected, 
and not with individuals, for as the latter are infinite, such a connection 
Avould in their case be impossible. Thus as species are eternal (though 
individuals begin to exist) no contradiction is discoverable in the case 
of such words as cow, etc. In the same -way it is to be remarked that 
though we allow that the individual gods, etc., 'have commenced to 
exist, there is no contradiction [to the eternity of the Yedic word] in 
the [existence of- the] words Yasu, etc. [which denote those individual 
gods], since the species to which they belong are eternal. And the 
fact that the gods, etc., belong to particular species may be learned 
from this, tha(i we discover their corporeality and other attributes in 




the hymns and arthavadas (illustrative remarks in the Vedas), etc. The 
words Indra, etc., are derived from connection with some particular post, 
like the words 'commander of an army' (sendpati}, etc. Hence, who- 
soever occupied any particular post, is designated by the words Indra, 
and so forth ; [and therefore Indra and the other gods belong to the 
species of occupants of particular posts]. Thus there is no difficulty. 
And t'Ais derivation from the word is not, like production from Brah- 
ma, meant in th sense 01 evolution, from a material cause. But 
how, siace language is eterrfal and connected .with eternal objects, is 
it declared in the phrase 'produced from it' tnat the production of* 
individual things, corresponding to the ordinary sense of words, is 
effected by a thing (sound or language), the very nature of which it 
is to denote continuance* [and, not such change as is involved in the idea 
of production ?] 102 How, again, is it known that the world is pro- 
duced from the word ? The answer is, [it is known] ' from intuition 
and inference.' ' Intuition ' means the Yeda, because it is independent 
of any (other authority). ' Inference ' means the smriti, because it is 
dependent on another authority (the Yeda). These two demonstrate 
that the creation was preceded by the word. Thus the Veda says, ' at 
(or with) the word ete (these) Prajapati created the gods; at asrigram 
(they were poured out) he created men ; at indavah (drops of soma) he 
created the pitris ; at tirah pavitram (through the filter) he created the 
libations ; at asavah (swift) he created hymns ; at visvuni (all) he created 
praise ; and at the words abhi scwhhaga (for the sake of blessings) he 
created other creatures.' 103 And in another place it is said ' with his 

102 This sentence is rather obscure. 

103 According to Govinda Ananda's Gloss this passage is derived from a Chhandoga 
Brahmana. It^contains a mystical exposition of the words from Rig-veda, ix. 62, 1 
(=Sttma-veda, ii. 180) which are imbedded in it, viz. ete asrigram indavas tirah 
pavitram asavah \ visvani abhi saubhaga>\ "These hurrying drops of soma have been 
poured through the filter, to procure all blessings." (See Benfey's translation,) It was 
by the help of Dr. Pertsch's alphabetical list of the initial words of the verses of the 
Eig-veda (in^rVeber's Intiische Studien, vol. iii.) that I discovered the verse in ques- 
tion in the Eig-veda. Govinda Ananda gives us a specimen of his powers as Vedic 
exegete in the following remarks on this passage : Ity etan-mantra-sthaih padaih 
smritva Erahma devadin asrijata \ tattra "ete" iti padam sarvanamatvad devanam 
smarakam asrig rudhiraih tat pradhane dehe ramante iti "asrigrah" manushyah [ 
chandra-sthanam pitrlnam incki-sabdah smarakah ityadi \ " Brahmu createdtfhe gods, 
etc., in conformity with the recollections suggested by the various words in this verse. 
The word ete (' these ') as a pronoun suggested the gods. The beiigs who disport 


mind he entered into conjugal connection with Vach (speech).' (S'. P. 
Br. x. 6, 5, 4, Brih. Ar. Up. p. 50.) By these and other such texts 
the Yeda in various places declares that creation was preceded by the 
word. And when the Smriti says, 'In the beginuing a celestial 
voice, eternal, without beginning or end, co-essential with the Yedas, 
was uttered by Svayambhu, from which all activities [proceeded] ' 
(see above, p. 16), the expression 'utterance of a voice' is to be re- 
garded as employed in the sense of the origination of a tradition, 
since it is inconceivable that a voice which was ' without beginning or 
end,' could be uttered in the same sense as other sounds. Again, we 
have this other text, ' In the beginning Mahesvara created from the 
words of the Veda the names and forms of creatures, and the origina- 
tion of actions ; ' and again, ' He created in the beginning the several 
names, functions, and conditions of all creatures from the words of the 
Veda.' (See above, pp. 16 and 6.) And it is a matter of common ob- 
servation to us all, that when any one is occupied with any end which 
he wishes to accomplish, he first calls to mind the word which expresses 
it, and then proceeds to effect his purpose. So, too, in the case of Pra- 
japati the creator, we conclude that before the creation the words of the 
Veda were manifested in his mind, and that afterwards he created the 
objects which resulted from them. Thus the Vedic text which says, 
' uttering Ihuh, he created the earth (bhumi}, etc ,' intimates that the 
different worlds, earth, and the rest, were manifested, i.e. created from 
the words bhuh, etc., manifested in his mind. Of what sort, now, was 
this word which is intended, when it is said that the world was pro- 
duced from the word ? It was sphota, (disclosure or expression), we 
are told." 

I shall not quote the long discussion on which S'ankara here enters, 
regarding this term. (See Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. i. 305 if. ; Ballan- 
tyne's Christianity contrasted with Hindu Philosophy, pp. 192 ff. ; the 
same author's translation of the commencement of the Mahabhashya, 
p. 10 ; and Professor Muller's article on the last-named work in the 
Journal of the German Or. Soc. vii. 170). S'ankara states his conclusion 

themselves in bodies of which blood (asrik] is a predominant element, were asrigrah, 
' men.' The word indu (which means both the soma plant and the moon) suggested 
the fathers who dwell in the moon," etc., etc. The sense of asrigram, as given above 
in the text, is " were poured out." Govinda Ananda, no doubt, understood it correctly, 
though he considered it necessary to draw a mystical sense out of it. 




to be that "from the eternal word, in the form of spJwta, which expresses 
[all things], the object signified by it, viz. the world, under the three 
characters of action, causer, and the results of action, is produced," and 
finishes his^rehmrks on this Sutrk (i. 3, 28) byobserving : " Consequently 
there is no contradiction in saying that the individual gods, etc., are de- 
rive'd from eternal words." Hfe then proceeds to Sutra i. 3, 29 : " 'Hence 
results the eternity o the Vedas,' " On this he observes, " The eternity 
of the Veda had* been, established bythe fact of its being described in 
the Smriti as the work of *a Self-dependent Maker. But a doubt had 
been suggested that this eternity is inconsistent with the admission that 
individual gods, etc., have commenced to exist. This doubt, however, 
having been set aside by the preceding aphorism, ' Since they are pro- 
duced from it,' he noV confirms the eternity of the Veda (which had 
been already proved) by the words of the Sutra before us, which mean 
that as a result of this very fact that the world, consisting of gods and 
' other beings belonging to fixed species, was produced from the words of 
the Vedas, the eternity of these Vedic words themselves also must be 
believed. Accordingly, the words of the hymn, ' by sacrifice they fol- 
lowed the path of Vach, and found her entered into the rishis ' (R. V. 
x. 71, 3 ; see the First Volume of this work p. 254, and Volume Second, 
p. 220) prove that Vach already existed when she was discovered. And 
in the very same way Vedavyasa records that, ' formerly the great rishis, 
empowered by Svayambhu, obtained through devotion the Vedas and 
Itihasas, which had disappeared at the end of the preceding yuga.' " 

Sayana refers to the Sutra just quoted (i. 3, 29), as well as to another 
of the Vedanta aphorisms (i. 1, 3) in p. 20 of the introduction to his 
Commentary on the Big-veda in these words : 

Nanu lhagavatd Bddardyanena Yedasya % Brahma-kdryyatvam sutritam \ 
" sdstra-yonitvdd" iti \ rigvedddi-sdstra-kdranatvdd Brahma sarvajnam 
iti sutrdrthah \ Iddham \ na etdvatd paurusheyatvam lhavati \ manushya- 
nirmitatvdlhdvdt \ Idrisam apaurusheyatvam abhipretya vyavahdra-dasd- 
ydm dkdddi-vad nityatvam Bddardyanenaiva devatfidhikarane sutritam \ 
" ata evacha nityatvam " iti \ 

" But it is objected that the venerable Badarayana has declared in 
the aphorism ' since he is the source of the sastra (Brahma Sutras i. 1, 
3), that the Veda is der>ved from Brahma ; ttte meaning of the* aphorism 
being, that since Brahma is the cause of the Eig-veda and other S'astras, 


he is omniscient. This is true; but it furnishes no proof of the 
human origin of the Veda, since it was not formed by a man. Badara- 
yana had in view such a superhuman origin of tbe Yeda, when in the 
[other] aphorism ' hence <also [its] eternity is to be maintained,' (which 
is contained in the section on the deities), he declared it to be, like 
the sether, etc., eternal, during the period of mundane existence." 104 

The remarks of S'ankara on the Brahma Sutra (i. 1 ( 3) above referred 
to, begin as follows : 

Mahatah rig-vedddeh sfistrasya aneka-vidyd-sthdnopabrimhitasya pra- 
dlpa-vat sarvdrtha-dyotinas sarvajna-kalpasya yonih kdranam Brahma \ na 
-hi idrisasya sdstrasya rigvedddi-ldkshanasya sarvajna-gunanvitasya sar- 
vajndd anyatah samlhaco 'sti \ Yad yad vistardrtham sdstram yasmdt 
purmha-viseshdt samlhavati yathd vydkarcnddi 'Pdniny-dder jneyaika- 
desdrtJiam api sa tato 'py adhikatara-vijndnah iti prasiddham lolce \ kimu 
vaktavyam aneka - sdkhd - Iheda - Ihinnasya deva - tiryan- manushya-varnd- 
sramddi-pravilhdga-hetor rig-vedddy-dkhyasya sarva-jndndkarasya apra- 
yatnena eva lild-nydyena purusha-nisvdsa-vad yasmdd maJiato bhiitdd 
yoneh sambhavah (" asya mahato IJiutasya nisvasitam etad yad rig-vedah " 
ity-ddeh srutes] tasya mahato Ihutasya niraiisayam sarvajnatvam sarva- 
saktitvam clia iti \ 

" Brahma is the source of the great S'astra, consisting of the Eig-veda, 
etc., augmented by numerous branches of science, which, like a lamp, 
illuminates all subjects, and approaches to omniscience. Now such a 
S'astra, distinguished as the Eig-veda, etc., possessed of the qualities of 
an omniscient being, could not have originated from any other than an* 
omniscient being. "When an extensive treatise on' any subject is pro- 
duced by any individual, as the works on Grammar, etc., were by 
Panini and others, even although the treatise in question have for its 
subject only a single department of what is to be known, it is a 

104 See the quotation from the Vedartha-prakaii, at the top of p. 70, above. The 
aether (akasa) is uncreated according to the Vais'eshikas (KOnada's Sutras, ii. 1, 28, 
with S 'ankara Mis'ra's commentary, and S'ankara Acharyya on Vedanta Sutra, ii. 3, 3 : 
Nahy ahasasya utpattih sambhavayituiri s'akya srImat-Kanabhug-abhiprayanusarishu 
jivatsu | " The production of tbe aether cannot be conceived as possible, so long as 
those who follow Kanada's view retain their vitality"). The Vedanta Sutras, ii. 3, 
1-7, on thf other hand, assert its production by Brahma, in conformity with the text 
of the Taittirlyakas which affirms this : Tasmad vai etasmad aimanah akasah sam- 
lihutah | " From ^hat Soul thf, aether was produced." 


matter of notoriety that the author is possessed of still greater know- 
ledge than is contained in his work. 105 What then need we say of the 
transcendent omniscience and omnipotence of that great Being from 
whom issued without effort, as an amusement,*like a man's breathing 
(according to the Yedic text ' the Rig-veda is the breathing of that 
great Being'), tttat mine of universal knowledge called the Big-veda, 
etc., which is divMed'into many sakhas, and which gave rise to the 
classes of .gods, beasts, aad men, with tKeir castes and orders ? " 

It is 'clear from the aphorism last quoted that there is a distinc- . 
tion between the doctrine of the Purva Mimansa, and the TJttara 
Mimansa, or Vedanta, regarding the origin of the Veda, in so far as the 
former is silent on the subject of its derivation from Brahma, which the 
latter asserts. It is also to 'be observed that Sayana understands the 
eternity of the Yeda as laid down in the Brahma Sutras in a qualified 
sense (as limited to the duration of the mundane period) and not as an 
absolute eternity. 

I may remark that in their treatment of the Yedic passages which 
they cite, the practice of Badarayana, the author of the Brahma Sutras, 
and of his commentator, S'ankara Acharyya, corresponds to their theory 
of the infallibility of the sacred text. The doctrines inculcated in 
the Sutras, and expounded and vindicated by the commentator, pro- 
fess to be based on the Yeda ; and numerous texts are cited in their 
support. Such passages as coincide with the* theories maintained in 
the Sutras are understood in tfieir proper or literal (mukhya) sense ; 


105 Dr. Ballantyne (Aphorisms of the Vedanta, p. 8) renders the last words thus : 
. . . . " that man, even in consideration of that, is inferred to be exceedingly knowing." 
Govinda Ananda's note, however, confirms the rendering I have given. Part of it is 
as follows : Yadj/ach chhastram yasmad aptat sambhavati sa tatah sastrad adhikhar- 
tha-jnanah iti prasiddham \ " It is well known that the competent author from whom 
any treatise proceeds has a knowledge of more than that treatise (contains)." The 
idea here is somewhat similar to that in the second of Bishop Butler's Sermons 
" Upon the love of God" : " Effect s4hemselves, if we knew them thoroughly, would 
give us but imperfect notions of wisdom and power ; much les of his Being in whom 
they reside." . . . . " This is no more than saying that the Creator is superior to the 
works of his hands." 

106 An alternative explanation of the aphorism is given by the commentator, 
according to which it would mean : " The body of Scripture, consisting of the Rig- 
veda, etc., is the source, the caase, the proof, whereby ws ascertain exactly tfce nature 
of this Brahma " (athava yathoktam rigvedadi-sastram yonih karanam pramanam 
asya Brahmano yathavat svarupadhigame). , 


whilst other texts which appear to be at variance with the Yedantic dog- 
mas, and to favour those of the other philosophical schools, are explained 
as being merely figurative (gauna or Ihulcta} ; or other interpretations are 
given. See, for examplfe, the Brahma sutras,"i. 1, 6 ; ii. 4, , f., etc., with 
S'ankara's comments. The supposition of any real inconsistency between 
the different statements of the sacred volume is never for a moment 
entertained. 107 As, however, the different authers cf the Yedic hymns, 
of the Brahmanas, and even ox the Upanishads, gave free expression to 
their own vague and unsystematic ideas and speculations on ttie origin 
of all things, and the relation of the Deity to the universe, and re- 
cognized no fixed standard of orthodox doctrine to which they were 
bound to conform, it was inevitable that they should propound a 
great variety of opinions which were mutually irreconcilable. But as, 
in later times, the Vedas came to be regarded as supernatural and in- 
fallible books, it was necessary that those systematic theologians who 
sought to deduce from their contents any consistent theory of being and 
of creation, should attempt to shew that the discrepancies between the 
different texts were only apparent. 

SECT. IX. Arguments of the followers of the Nydya, Vaiseshika, and 
Sdnkhya Systems in support of the authority of the Vedas, but 

against the eternity of sound. 

I. The Nydya. The eternity of sound is, as we have already dis- 
covered from the allusions of the Mimansaka commentator, (above p. 73), 
denied by the followers of the Nyaya school. The consideration of this 
subject is begun in the following way in the Nyaya aphorisms of Go- 
tama, as explained by Visvanatha Bhattacharya in the, Nyaya-sutra- 
vritti, ii. 81 : 

107 See S'ankara on the Br. Sutras, iii. 31 (p 4 844 of Bibl. Indica), where he says, 
yadi punar ekasmin Brahmani bahuni vijnariani vedantantweshupratipipadayishitani 
tesham ekam abhrantam bhrantani itarani ity anasvasa-prasango vedanteshu tasiriad na 
tavat prativedantam Brahma-vijnana-bhedah asankitum sakyate \ " If, again, in the 
different Vedantas (i.e. Upanishads) a variety of conceptions regarding the one Brahma 
be sought to be established, one of these (conceptions) will be correct, and the others 
erroneous, and thus the objection of being untrustworthy will attach to the Upani- 
shads. It must not, therefore, be suspected that there is in each of the Upanishads 
a different conception of Brahma." 



Tedasya prdmdnyam dpta-prdmdnydt siddham \ na cha idam yujyate 
redasya nityatvdd ity dsankdydm varndndm anityatvdt katham tat-samu- 
ddya-rupasya vedasya nityatvam ity dsayena sabddnityatva-prakaranam 
drabhate \ tatfa'siddhdnta-utram'\ "Adimattvad aindriyakatvdt krita- 
katvdd upachdrdch cha" \ 81. S'aldo 'nityah ityddih \ ddimattvdt sakd- 
ranakalvdt' '\ nanu na sakdrantikatvam kantha-tdlv-ddy -abhighdtdder 
vyanjakdtvendpy u/papatfer atah aha aindriyakatvdd iti sdmdnyavattve 
sati vahir-indriya-jnya-laukikika-pratyalcsha-vishayatvdd ity arthah \ 
.... Aprayojakatvam dsanfcya aha kritaketi \ Jcritake ghatddau yathd 
upachdro jndnam tathaiva kdryyatva-prakdraka-pratyaksha-vishayatvdd 
ity arthah \ tathd cha kdryatvena andhdryya-sdrvalaukika-pratyaksha- 
laldd anityatvam eva siddhati \ 

" It has been proved (In the.,68th Sutra, see below) that ' the authority 
of the Veda follows from the authority of the competent person who made 
it.' But it may be objected that this is not a proper ground on which 
to base the authority of the Veda, since it is eternal. With the view 
of proving, in opposition to this, that since letters are not eternal, the 
Veda, which is a collection of letters, cannot be so either, the author of 
the Sutras commences the section on the non-eternity of sound. The 
Sutra laying down the established doctrine, is as follows : ' Sound can- 
not be eternal, as (1) it had an origin, as (2) it is cognizable by sense, 
and (3) it is spoken of as factitious.' Sound is non-eternal, etc., because 
(1) it had a beginning, i.e. because it had a cause. But it may be said 
that it had no cause, as, agreeably to the doctrine of the Mlmansakas 
(see above, p. 74), the action of the throat and palate in pronunciation 
may merely occasion a manifestation of sound [without creating it]. In 
reply to this it is said (2) that sound is cognizable by sense, i.e. that 
though it belongs to a genus, it is an ol?ject of ordinary perception 
through an external sense." [A different explanation given by other 
interpreters is next quoted, which I omit.] ..." Then surmising that 
the preceding definition may be regarded as not to the point, the 
author addg the wor<? ' since it is spoken of as facetious,' i.e. as jars 
and other such objects are spoken of as are known to be products, so, 
too, sound is distinguishable by sense as being in the nature of a pro- 
duct. And in consequence of this incontrovertible and universal per- 
ception of its being produced, it is proved that it cannot be eternal." 
[Two other explanations of this last clause of the Sutra arej;hen added.] 


Leaving the reader to study the details of the discussion in Dr. Bal- 
lantyne's aphorisms of the JSTyaya (Part Second, pp. 77 ff.), I will pass 
over most of the Sutras, and merely quote the principal conclusions of 
the Nyaya aphorist. lu Sutra 86 he says in opposition, to the 13th 
Sutra of the Mimansa (above, p. 74) : 

86. " Prug uchchdrandd anupalambhdd avaranady ~ anupalabdeh" \ 
S'abdo yadi nityah syud uchchdrandt prdg apy upalafihyeta srotra-sanni- 
karsha-sattvdt \ na cha atra praiilandhaliam a$ti ity* aha uvaraneti dva- 
randdeh pratilandhakasya anupalabdhyd abhdva-nirnaydt \ dtsdntara- 
gamanam tu saldasya amurttatvdd na sambhdvyate \ atlndriydnanta- 
pratilandhakatva-lcalpanam apekshya salddnityatva-kalpand eva laghl- 
yasl iti bhdvah \ u 

" ^ Sound is not eternal, because it is not perceived before it is 
uttered, and because we do not perceive anything which should inter- 
cept it.' If sound were eternal, it would be perceived even before it was 
uttered, from its being in contact with the ear. [Sound, as Dr. Ballan- 
tyne explains, is ' admitted to be a quality of the all-pervading aBther.'] 
And in the next words the aphorist says that there is no obstacle to its 
being so heard, since the non-existence of any hindrance, such as an 
intercepting medium, is ascertained by our not perceiving anything of 
that sort. And it is not conceivable that sound should have gone to 
another place [and for that reason be inaudible], since it has no denned 
form. The supposition that sound is non-eternal, is simpler than the 
supposition that there are an infinity of imperceptible obstacles to its 

The 89th and 90th Sutras, with part of the comments on them, are 
as follows : 

89. "Asparsatvdt" \ sabdd nityah \ asparsatvad gagana-vad iti lhavah \ 
90. "JVa Jcarmunityatvat " asparsvatvaiii na sabda-nityatva-sudhakafii kar- 
mani ryalhicharut \ 

89. " It may be said that sound is eternal, from its being, like the 
sky, intangible. 90. But this is no proof, for the <dii tangibility of sound 
does not establish its eternity, since these two qualities do not always 
go together ; for intangibility, though.predicable, e.g. of action, fails to 
prove its eternity." 

The '100th and following Sutras are as follows : 

100. " Vinjlsa-kdrandnupala'bdheh" \ 101. "Asravana-kdranunupalal- 


dheh satata-iravana-prasangah" \ Yady apratyakshdd abhdva-siddhis 
tadd ' sravana-kdranasya apratyakshatvdd asravanam na sydd iti satata- 

sravana-prasanqah*iti 'phdvah I 102. " Upalalhyamdne cha anupalabdher 

' t 

asattvdd awpadesah" j* Anumdnddind upalhlhyamdne vindsa-kdrane 

anupalabdher abhdvdt tvadlyo hetur anapadesah asddhakah asiddhatvdt \ 
janya-lhdvatvencl vindsa-kalpanam iti bhdvah \ 

"It is said (10ft) that 'sjund must be eternal, because we perceive 
no cause .why it should ease f ' The answer is (101), first, c that if the 
non-existence of any such cause of cessation "were established by the. 
mere fact of its not being perceived, such non-perception would occasion 
our hearing continually, which is an absurdity.' And (102), secondly, 
' since such non -perception is not a fact, inasmuch as [a cause of the 
cessation of sound] is perceived, this argument falls to the ground.' 
Since a cause for the cessation of sound is discovered by inference, etc., 
and thus the non-perception of any cause is seen to be untrue, this 
argument of yours proves nothing, because its correctness is not estab- 
lished. The purport is that we suppose, from sound being produced, 
that it must also be liable to perish." 

Sutras 106-122 are occupied with a consideration of the question 
(above treated, pp. 73, 74, in Sutras 10 and 16 of the Mimansa) whether 
letters can change or not. The conclusion at which Gotama arrives is, 
that the substance of letters cannot undergo any alteration, though they 
may be said to change when they are modified in quality by being 
lengthened, shortened, etc. 

In a preceding part of the Second Book (Sutras 57-68) Gotama treats 
of the Yeda, and repels certain charges which are alleged against its 
authority. I shall quote most of these aphorisms, and cite the com- 
mentary more fully than Dr. Ballantyne has done. (See Ballantyne's 
Nyaya Aphorisms, Part ii. pp. 56 if.) 

S'aldasya drishtddrishttirtJiakatvena dvaividhyam uktam tatra cha, 
adrisktdrthaka-sabdasya vedas^a prdmdnyam parlkshitum purva-paksha- 
yati | 57.*"Tad-aprtimtinyam anrita-vydghdta-punarulda-doshelhyah " \ 
Tasya drishtdrthaka-vyatirikta-sabdasya vedasya aprdmdnyam \ kutah \ 
anritahddi-doshdt \ tatra cha putreshti-kdryddau kvachit phaldnutpatti- 
darsandd anritatvam \ vydghdiah purvdpara-virodhah \ yathd "udite 
juhoti anudite juhoti samayddhyushite juhoti \ sydvo'sya dhutim^ilJiyava- 
harati ya udite juhoti savalo 'sya ahutim alhyavaJiarati yojnudite juhoti 


tydva-savaldv asya dhutim alhyavaharato yah samayddhyushite juhoti " 
atra cha uditddi-vdkydndm ninddnumitdnishta-sddhanatd-lodhaka-vdkya- 
virodhah \ paunaruktydd aprdmdnyam \ Yathd " trih prithamdm anvdha \ 
trir uttamdm anvdha" \ iPy atra uttamatvasyaprathamatva-pwyavasdndt 
trih Icathanena cha paunaruktyam \ eteshdm aprdmdnye tad-drishtdntena 
tad-eka-karttrikatvena tad-elca-jdtlyatvena vd sarva-veddprdmdnyam sddha- 
nlyam iti Ihdvah \ siddhdnta-sutram \ 58. "JV0 k^rmA'-karttri-sddhana- 
vaigunydt" \ Na veddprdmdnyaffl lcarma-lcarttri-*ddhana-vaigunudt pha- 
Idbhdvopapatteh \ karmandh Icriydydh vaigunyam ayathdvidhitvddi\ kart- 
tur vaigunyam avidvattvddi \ sddhanasya havir-dder vaigunyam dprokshi- 
tatvddi | Yathokta-karmanah phaldlhdve hy anritatuam \ na cha evam 
asti iti bhdvah \ vydghdtam pariharati \ 59. " Abhyupetya kdla-lhede 
dosha-vachandt n \ na vydghdtah iti seshah 1 \ Agny-ddhdna-kdle udita- 
homddikam alhyupetya smkritya anudita-homddi-karane ptirvokta-dosha- 
kathandd na vydghdtah ity arthah \ paunaruktyam pariharati \ 60. 
"Anuvddopapattes cha" \ chah punar-arthe \ anuvddopapatteh punar na 
paunaruktyam \ nishprayojanatve hi paunaruktyam doshah \ ukta-sthale 
tv anuvddasya upapatteh prayojanasya sanibhavdt \ ekddasa-sdmidhenlndm 
prathamottamayos trir alhidhdne hi panchadaiatvam samlhavati \ tathd- 
cha panchadaiatvam Sruyate \ "Imam aham Hhrdtrivyam panchadasdva- 
rena vdg-vajrena cha Iddhe yo 'smdn dveshti yam cha vayam dvishmah" 
iti \ Anuvddasya sdrthakatvam loka-prasiddham iti dha \ 61. "Vdkya- 
vilhdgasya cha artha-grahandt" \ Vdkya-vibhdgasya \ anuvddatvena 
vibhakta-vdkyasya artha - grahandt prayojana - svlkdrdt \ sishtair iti 
seshah \ &ishtdh hi vidhdyakdnuvddakddi-bhedena vdkydm vilhajya anu- 
vddakasydpi saprayojanatvam manyante \ Vede 'py evam iti Ihdvah \ . . . 
Evam aprdmdnya-sddhalcam nirasya prdmdnyam sddhayati \ 68. " Man- 
trdyurveda-vach cha tat-prdmdnyam dpta-prdmdnydt " | Aptasya veda- 
karttuh prdmdnydd yathdrthopadesakatvdd vedasya tad-uktatvam arthdl 
labdham \ tena hetund vedasya prdmdnyam anumeyam \ tatra drishtdntam 
dha mantrdyurveda-vad iti \ mantro vishGdi-ndsaJcah \ dyurveda-lhdgas 
cha veda-sthah eva \ tatra samvddena prdmdnya-grdndt tad-drishtdntena 
vedatvdvachhedena prdmdnyam anumeyam \ dptam grihltam prdmdnyam 
yatra sa vedas tddrisena vedatvena prdmdnyam anumeyam iti kechit \ 

" It had been declared (Nyaya Sutras, i. 8) that verbal evidence is of 
two kind's, (1) that of which the subject-matter is seen, and (2) that of 
which the subject-matter is unseen. "With the view, now, of testing 


the authority of that verbal evidence which refers to unseen things, 
viz. the Veda, Gotama states the first side of the question. Sutra 57. 
' The Veda has nq, authority, since it has the defects of falsehood, self- 
con tradictloy, and tautology.' T*hat verbal evidence, which is distinct 
from such as relates to visible objects, i.e. the Veda, has no authority. 
Why'? Because it has the defects of falsehood, etc. Of these defects, 
that of ' falsehood 5 is established by the fact that we sometimes observe 
that no fruit results frorp. performing tlfe sacrifice for a son, or the like. 
' Self-contradiction ' is a discrepancy between a former and a later . 
declaration. Thus the Veda says, ' he sacrifices when the sun is risen; 
he sacrifices when the sun is not yet risen ; he sacrifices ' [I cannot ex- 
plain the next words]. , ' A tawny [dog?] carries away the oblation of 
him who sacrifices after the- sun has risen ; a brindled [dog ?] carries 
off the oblation of him who sacrifices before the sun has risen ; and 
both of these two carry off the oblation of him who sacrifices.' .... 
Now here there is a contradiction between the words which enjoin 
sacrifices, and the words which intimate by censure that those sacrifices 
will occasion disastrous results. Again, the Veda has no authority, 
owing to its 'tautology,' as where it is said, 'he repeats the first 
thrice, he repeats the last thrice.' For as the lastness ultimately coin- 
cides with [?] the firstness, and as there is a triple repetition of the 
words, this sentence is tautological. Now since these particular sen- 
tences have no authority, the entire Veda will be proved by these 
specimens to stand in the samf predicament, since all its other parts 
have the same author, or are of the same character, as these portions." 

Here follows the Sutra which conveys the established doctrine. "58. 
' The Veda is not false ; it is owing to some fault in the ceremonial, or 
the performer, or the instrument he employs, that any sacrifice is not 
followed by the promised results.' Faults in the ceremonial are such 
as its not being according to rule. Faults in the performer are such as 
ignorance. Faults in the instrument, i.e. in the clarified butter, etc., 
are such as, its not btfing duly sprinkled, etc. For falsehood might be 
charged on the Veda, if no fruit resulted from a sacrifice when duly 
performed as prescribed ; but such failure never occurs." 

Gotama next repels the charge of self-contradiction in the Vedas. 
"59. ' There is no self-contradiction, for the fault is only imp*uted in 
case the sacrifice should be performed at a different time from that 


at first intended.' The fault imputed to these sacrifices in the text in 
question would [only] be imputed if^ after agreeing, at the time of 
placing the sacrificial fire, to perform the sacrifice after sunrise, one 
were to change it to a sacrifice before sunriso ; there is, therefore, no 
self-contradiction in the passage referred to." 

He next rebuts the charge of tautology. " 60. ' The Yeda is not tau- 
tological because repetition may be proper.' TJie particle cha means 
' again.' ' Again, since repetition may be proper^ theio is no tautology.' 
.For repetition is only & 'fault when it is useless. But in the 'passage 
referred to, since repetition is proper, its utility is apparent. For when 
the first and the last of the eleven samidhems (forms of prayer used on 
throwing fuel into the fire) are each repeated thrice, the whole number 
of verses will be made up to fifteen. 108 Accordingly, this number of 
fifteen is mentioned in these words of the Veda, ' I smite this enemy 
who hates us, and whom we hate, with the last of the fifteen verses > 
and with the thunderbolt of my words.' " 

He next observes that the advantage of repetition is commonly re- 
cognised. "61. ' And the Veda is not tautological, because the utility 
of this division of discourse is admitted,' i.e. because the necessity for 
such a division of language, that is, of a description of language charac- 
terized as reiterative, is acknowledged, viz. by the learned. For by 
dividing language into the different classes of injunctive, reiterative* 
etc., learned men recognise the uses of the reiterative also. And this 
applies to the Veda." v 

The author of the aphorisms then proceeds to state and to define (in 
Sutras 62-67) the different sorts of discourse employed in the Veda, 
and to defend the propriety of reiteration. " Having thus refuted the 
arguments which aim at showing that the Veda is of no authority, he 
goes on to prove its authority. 68. ' The authority of the Veda, like 
that of the formulas, and the Ayur-veda (treatise on medicine) follows 
from the authority of the competent [^persons from whom they pro- 
ceeded].' Since the competent maker of the Vecla possesse^ authority, 
i.e. inculcates truth, it results from the force of the terms that the Veda 
was uttered by a person of this character ; and by this reasoning the au- 

108 If,*here are in all elevin formulas, and two of these are each repeated thrice, we 
have (2 x 3 =) six to add to the nine (which remain of the original eleveii), making 
(6 + 9 =) fifteen. See Mailer's Anc. Sansk. Lit. pp. 89 and 393. 



thority of the Veda is to be inferred. He illustrates this by the case of 
the formulas and the Ayur-veda. By formulas (mantra] are meant the 
sentences which '"neutralize poispn, etc., and the section containing the 
Ayur-veda' J forms part of* the Veda. Now as the authority of these two 
classes <}f writings is admitted by general consent, the authority of 
everything which possesses the characteristics of the Veda must be 
inferred from this ekampte. Some, however, explain the aphorism 
thus : ?, Veda is that rii which authority is found or recognised. From 
such vedicity (or possession of the character of a Veda) the authority 
of any work is to be inferred." 

I add the greater part of the more detailed and distinct exposition 
of this aphorism given by the commentator Vatsyayana (Bibliotheca 
Indica, p. 91) : 109 

Kim punar dyurvedasya prdmdnyam \ yad dyurvedena upadisyate 
idam kritvd ishtam adhigachchhati idam varjjayitvd 'nishtam jahdti 
tasya anushthiyamdnasya tathd - bhdvah satydrthatd - 'viparyyayah \ 
mantra - paddndm cha visha - bhutdsani - pratishedhdrthdndm prayoge 
'rthasya tathd-bhdvah etat prdmdnyam \ kim-kritam etat \ dpta-prd- 
mdnya-kritam \ kim punar dptdndm prdmdnyam \ sdkshdt-krita-dhar- 
matd bhiita-dayd yathd-bhutdrtha-chikhydpayishd iti \ dptdh khalu sdk- 
shdt-krita-dharmdnah idam hdtavyam ayam asya hdni-hetur idam asya 
adhigantavyam ayam asya adhigamana-hetur iti bhutdny anukampante \ 
teshdfh khalu vai prtina-bhritdm svayam anavaludhyamdndndm na anyad 
upadesdd avalodha-ktiranam asti \ na cha anavabodhe sarnlhd varjjanam vd \ 
na vd alritvd svasti^bhuvah \ nd 'py asya anyah upakdraho 'py asti \ hanta 
vayam ebhyo yathd-darsanam yathd-bhutam upadisdmah \ te ime srutvd 
pratipadyamdndh heyam hdsyanty adhigantavyam eva adhigamishyanti 
iti \ evam qptopadesah etena tri-vidhena dpta-prdmdnyena parigrihlto 
'nushthlyamdno 'rthasya sddhako bhavati \ evam dptopadesah pramdnam 
evam dptdh pramdnam \ drishtdrthena dptopadesena ayurvedena adrish- 
tdrtho veda-bhdgo 'numdtavyah pramdnam iti \ dpta-prdmdnyasya hetoh 
samdnatvifd iti \ asya api cha eka-deso " grdma-Mmo yaj'ela" ity evam-ddi- 
drishtdrthas tena anumdtavyam iti \ loke cha bhuydn upadesdsrayo vya- 
vahdrah \ laukikasya apy upadeshtur upadestavydrtha-jndnena pardnuji- 
ghrikshayd yathd-bhutdrtha-chikhydpayishayd c,ha prdmdnyam \ ^at-pari- 

109 A small portion of this comment, borrowed from Professor Banerjea's Dialogues 
on Hindu philosophy, was given in the 1st edition of this vol. p. 210. 


grahdd dptopadesah pramdnam iti \ drashtri-pravalctri-sdmdnydch cha 
anumdnam ye eva dptdh veddrthdndm dmshtdrah pravakttiras cha te eva 
dyurveda-prabhritlndm \ ity dyurveda-prdmdnyc-vad veda-prdmdnyam 
anumdtavyam iti \ nityafvad veda-vdkhydndm' pramdnatve fat-prdmdn- 
yam dpta-prdmdnydd ity ayuldam \ saldasya vdchakatvtid artha-prati- 
pattau pramdnatvam na nityatvdt \ nityatve hi sarvasya s'arvena vachandch 
chhalddrtha-vyavasthd 'nupapattih \ na anifyatve *cdcltakatvam iti chet \ 
no, \ laukikeshv adarsandt \ te 'pi nitydh {ti chst \ na \ andptopadesdd 
wrtha-visamvado 'nupapahnah | . . . . Manvantara-yugdntareshu cha atl- 
tdndgateshu sampraddydlhydsa-prayogdvichhedo veddndm nityatvam dpta- 
prdmdnydch cha prdmdnyam \ laukikeshu saldeshu cha etat samdnam \ 

" On what then does the authority of the Ayur-veda depend? The 
Ayur-veda instructs us that to do so and so, is the means of attaining 
what is desirable, and to avoid so and so is the means of escaping what 
is undesirable : and the fact of such action having been followed by the 
promised result coincides with the supposition that the book declares 
what is true. So, too, the authority of the formulae for neutralizing 
poison, repelling demons, and arresting lightning, is shewn by their 
application fulfilling its object. How is this result obtained ? By 
the authoritativeness of competent persons. But what is meant by the 
authoritativeness of competent persons ? It means their intuitive per- 
ception of duty, their benevolence to all creatures, and their desire to 
declare the truth of things. Competent persons are those who have an 
intuitive perception of duty ; and they shew their betfevolence to all 
creatures by pointing out that so and so is to be avoided, and that such 
and such are the means of avoiding it, and that so and so is to be 
attained, and that such and such are the means of attaining it. ' For 
these creatures,' they reflect, ' being themselves unaware of such things, 
have no other means of learning them except such instruction ; and 
in the absence of information they can make no effort either to attain 
or avoid anything; whilst without su."h action their welfare is not 
secured ; and there is no one else who can help iti this casr : come let 
us instruct them according to the intuition we possess, and in con- 
formity with the reality ; and they hearing, and comprehending, will 
avoid what should be avoided, and obtain what should be obtained.' 
Thus the instruction afforded by competent persons according to this 
threefold character of their authoritativeness [viz. (1) intuition, (2) 


benevolence, and (3) desire to teach], being received, and acted upon, 
effects the object desired. And so the instruction given by competent 
persons is authority,, and these competent persons are authorities. 
From the Ayur-veda, which conveys instruction given by competent 
persons in reference to objects perceptible by the senses, it is to be 
inferred that that part also o'f the Yeda which is concerned with im- 
perceptible objects 110 * is authoritative, since the cause, the authori- 
tativeness of competent persons, is tile same in both cases ; and the 
same inference is to be drawn from the fact ,that a portion of the 
injunctions of the last mentioned part of the Yeda also have reference 
to perceptible objects, as in the case of the precept, ' Let the man who 
desires landed property sacrifice,' etc., etc. In common life, too, men 
usually rely upon instruction. And the authority of an ordinary in- 
structor depends (1) upon his knowledge of the matter to be taught, 
(2) upon his disposition to shew kindness to others, and (3) upon his 
desire to declare the truth. From its being accepted, the instruction 
imparted by competent persons constitutes proof. And from the fact that 
the seers and declarers are the same in both cases, viz. that the com- 
petent seers and declarers of the contents of the (rest of the) Yeda are 
the very same as those of the Ayur-veda, etc., we must infer that the 
authoritativeness of the former is like that of the latter. But on the 
hypothesis that the authority of the Yedic injunctions is derived from 
their eternity, it will be improper to say that it arises from the autho- 
ritativeness of competent persons, since the authority of words as ex- 
ponents of meanings springs from their declarative character, and not 
from their eternity. For on the supposition of the eternity of words, 
every (word) would express every (thing), which would be contrary to 
the fixity of their signification. If it be 'objected that unless words are 
eternal, they cannot be declarative, we deny this, as it is not witnessed 
in the case of secular words. If it be urged again that secular words 
also are eternal, we must again demur, since the discrepancy of purport 
arising fr<vn the injunctions of incompetent personswould be at variance 
with this." After some further argumentation Yatsyayana concludes : 
" The eternity of the Yedas [really] consists in the unbroken continuity 
of their tradition, study, and application, both in the Manvantaras and 

110 Compare the commentator's remarks introductory to the Nyaya aphorism ii. 57, 
quoted above, p. 112. 


Yugas which are past, and those which are to come ; whilst their au- 
thority arises from the authoritativeness of the competent persons (who 
uttered them). And this is common to them with secular words." 

The phrase sdkshat-knta-dharmdnah, "possessing an intuitive per- 
ception of duty," which is employed by Vatsyayana in the preceding 
extract as a definition of dptdh, "competent persons," is- one which had 
previously been applied by Yaska (Nirukta, i. 20) to .describe the character 
of the rishis : Sdkshdt-krita-dha.'mdnah ri&hayo Jbabhwjuh \ te 'varebhyo 
' sakshat-krita-dharmabhy&h upadesena mantrdn samprtiduh \ upadesdya 
gldyanto 'vare lilma-grahanaya imam grantham samdmndsishur vedam 
cha veddngdni cha \ " The rishis, who had an intuitive perception of 
duty, handed down the hymns by (oral) instruction to men of later 
ages, who had not that intuitive perception. These, declining in their 
power of giving instruction, compiled this work (the Nirukta), the 
Veda, and the Vedangas, in order to facilitate the comprehension of 

The Vaiseshika. Among the aphorisms of this system also there are 
some which, in opposition to the Mlmansakas, assert, 1st, that the Vedas 
are the product of an intelligent mind ; and 2nd (if the interpretation 
of the commentator is to be received) that they have been uttered by 
God. 111 

The second aphorism of the first section of the first book is as follows : 

Yato 'Ihyudaya-nissreyasa-siddhih sa dharmah \ 

"Righteousness is that through which happiness and future per- 
fection 113 are attained." 

After explaining this the commentator proceeds to introduce the next 
aphorism by the following remarks : 

Narva, nivritti-lakshano dharmas tattva-jndna-dvdrd nissreyasa-hetur ity 

111 Of the aphorisms, which I am about to quote, the first has heen translated by 
Dr. Ballantyne (who published a small portion of these Sutras with an English version 
in 1851) ; and it, as well as the others, is briefly commented upon by the Rev. Prof. 
Banerjea, in his Dialogues on Hindu Philosophy, pp. 474 ff., and Pref. p. ix., note. 
See my article in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. xx. for 18o2, entitled 
"Does the Vais'eshika philosophy acknowledge a Deity or not?" from which the 
translations now given have been transferred with but little alteration and a few ad- 
ditions. And compare Dr. Roer's German translation of the Vais'eshika aphorisms in 
the Journal of the German Oriental Society for 1867, pp. 309 ff. 

112 The Commentator explains abhyudaya as tattva-jnanam, "a knowledge of the 
reality," and nissreyasa as atyantikl duhkha-nivrittih, "the complete cessation of 


attra srutih pramdnam \ sruter eva prdmdnye vayam vipratipadydmahe 
" anrita-vydghdta-punarukta-dosjielhyah" \ . . . . na cha dmndya-pra- 
tipddakam kinchid asti nityatve viprattipattau \ nitya-nirdoshatvam api 
sandigdhamt \ paurusheydtve tu bhrama-pramdda-vipratipatti-karandpd- 
tavddi-sambhdvanayd dptoktatvam api sandigdham eva iti no, nissreyasam 
na vd tattra tattva-jndnam dvdram na vd dharmah iti sarvam etad dku- 
lam \ atah aha *' tad-vachyndd dmndyasya prdmdnyam " | " tad" ity 
anupakrantam ap*i prasiddhi-siddhatafld Isvaram pardmrisati \ yathd 
" tad-dprdmdnyam anrita-vydghdta-punarukttf-dqshebhyah" iti Gauta-, 
mlya-sutre tach-chhaldena anupakrdnto ''pi vedah pardmrisyate \ tathd 
cha tad-vachandt tena isvarena pranayandd dmndydsya vedasya prdmdn- 
yam | yadvd "tad" iti*sannihitam dharmam eva pardmrisati \ tathd cha 
dJiarmasya " vachandt pratipddandd "dmndyasya" vedasya prdmdn- 
yam | yad hi vakyam prdmdnikam artham pratipddayati tat pramdnam 
eva yatah ity arthah \ Isvaras tad-dptatvam cha sddhayishyate \ 

"But may it not be objected here that it is the Veda which proves 
that righteousness, in the form of abstinence from action, is, by means 
of the knowledge of absolute truth, the cause of future perfection ; but 
that we dispute the authority of the Yeda because it is chargeable 
with the faults of falsehood, contradiction, and tautology 113 . . . . 
And further, there is nothing to prove the authority of the Veda, for 
its eternity is disputed, its eternal faultlessness is doubted, and if it 
have a personal author, the fact of this person being a competent utterer 
is questioned, since there is ffti apprehension of error, inadvertence, 
contradiction, and want of skill in composition attaching to him. Thus 
there is neither any such thing as future perfection, nor is either a 
knowledge of absolute truth the instrument thereof, or righteousness. 
Thus everything is perplexed." 

In answer to all this the author of the aphorism says : 

"The authority of the sacred record arises from its being uttered 
by Him." 

" Here?" says the 'commentator, " the word tad {His) refers to Isvara 
(God) ; as, though no' mention of Him has yet been introduced, He is 
proved by common notoriety to be meant; just as in the aphorism of 
Gautama : ' Its want of authority is shown by the faults of falsehood, 

113 Here the same illustrations are given as in the commentary on the Nyaya 
aphorisms, quoted above, pp. 113 ff. 


contradiction, and tautology,' the Veda, though not previously intro- 
duced, is intended by the word tad. ui And so [the meaning of the 
aphorism is that] the authority of the sacred record, i.e. the Veda, is 
proved by its being spokfen by Him, composed"by Him, by 7svara. Or, 
tad (its) 1U may denote dharma (duty) which immediately precedes ; 
and then [the sense will be that] the authority of thfe sacred record, 
i.e. the Veda, arises from its declaring, i.e. establishing, duty, for the 
text which establishes any authoritative matter must be itself an au- 
r thority. The proof pf"Isvara and his competence will be hereafter 
stated." The commentator then goes on to answer the charges of false- 
hood, contradiction, and tautology alleged against the Veda. 

The next aphorism which I shall quote (vi. A, 1) is thus introduced 
by the commentator : 

Buddhi-purvd i-dkya-lcritir vede \ sainsdra-mula-kdranayor dharmddhar- 
mayoh parlkshd shashthddhydydrthah \ dharmddharmau cha " svarga- 
Tcdmo yajeta" " na kalanjam lhakshayed" ityddi-vidhi-nishedha-lala- 
kalpamyau vidhi-nishedha-vdkyayoh prdmdnye sati sydtdm \ tat-prdmdn- 
yam cha vaktur yathdrtha-vdlcydrtha-jndna-lakshana-guna-purvakatvdd 
upapadyate \ svatah prdmdnyasya nishedhdt \ atah prathamam veda-prd- 
mdnya-prayojalia-guna-sddhanam upakramate \ " vdkya-kritir " vdkya- 
rachand \ sd luddhi-purvd vaktri-yathdrtha-vdkydrtha-jndna-piirvd \ 
vdkya-rachandtvdt \ " nadl-tlre pancha phaldni santi" ity asmad-ddi- 
vdkya-rachand-vat \ " vede " Hi vdkya-samuddye ity arthah \ tattra samu- 
ddyindm vdkydndm kritih pakshah \ n& cha asmad-tidi-luddhi-purvaka- 

114 For the sake of the reader who does not know Sanskrit, it may be mentioned 
that tad being in the crude, or uninflected form, may denote any of the three genders, 
and may be rendered either ' his,' \ hers,' or ' its.' I may observe that the alternative 
explanation which the commentator gives of the Aphorism, i. 1, 3, vi/. that the au- 
thority of the Veda arises from its being declarative of duty, is a much less probable 
one than the other, that its authority is derived from its being the utterance of God ; 
for it does not clearly appear how the subject of a book can establish its authority ; 
and, in fact, the commentator, when he states thir interpretation, is obliged, in order 
to give it the least appearance of plausibility, to assume the Cuthoritative^cliaracter of 
the precepts in the Veda, and from this assumption to infer the authority of the book 
which delivers them. I may also observe that Jayanarayana Tarkapanchanana, the 
author of the Gloss on S'ankara Mis'ra's Commentary, takes no notice of this alter- 
native interpretation ; and that in his comment on the same aphorism when repeated 
at the clos/^ of the work (x. 2, 9) S'ankara Mis'ra himself does not put it forward a 
second time. Dr. Eoer (Journ. Germ. Or. Soc. for 1867, p. 310) argues in favour of 
the former of the two interpretations as the true one. 


tvena anyathd-siddhih \ " svarga-lcdmo yajeta" itydddv ishta-sddhana- 
tdydh kuryyatdydh vd asmad-ddi-luddhy-agocharatvdt \ tena svatantra- 
purusha-purvalfattam ^ede si&dhyati \ vedatvarh cha sabda-tad-upajwi- 
pramdndtiilkta -pramdna-janya-pramity-avishaydrthalcatve sati sabda- 
janya-vd tydrtha-jnanajanya-p^amana-saldatvam \ 

" An examination of righteousness and unrighteousness, which are 
the original causes of 'the -world, 115 forms the subject of the 6th section. 
Now, righteousness and! unrighteousness are to be constituted by virtue 

* "9 

of such injunctions and prohibitions as these : ' The man who desires 
paradise should sacrifice/ ' Let no one eat garlic,' etc., provided these 
injunctions and prohibitions be authoritative. And this authoritative- 
ness depends upon the, fact of the utterer [of these injunctions or pro- 
hibitions] possessing the quality of understanding the correct meaning 
of sentences, for the supposition of inherent authoritativeness is un- 
tenable. The author, therefore, first of all enters upon the proof of 
that quality which gives rise to the authoritativeness of the Veda. 

"Aphorism vi. 1. 1. 'There is in the Yeda a construction of sen- 
tences which is produced (lit. preceded) by intelligence.' " 

"The 'construction of sentences,' the composition of sentences, 'is 
produced by intelligence,' i.e. by a knowledge of the correct meaning 
of sentences on the part of the utterer [of them] ; [and this is proved] 
by the fact of these sentences possessing an arrangement like the 
arrangement of such sentences as ' There are five fruits on the river 
side,' composed by such persons as ourselves. 'In the Veda,' i.e. in 
the collection of sentences (so called). Here the construction of the 
sentences composing the collection is the subject of the proposition 
which is asserted. And this construction must not be ascribed to a 
wrong causj by assuming that it was the work of a [limited] intelli- 
gence such as ours. [Because it was not a limited intelligence which 
produced these sentences]. For it is not an object of apprehension to 
the understandings of persons' like ourselves that such injunctions as, 
'He who* desires paradise should sacrifice,' are 'the instruments of 
obtaining what we desire, or that t'wJ'y are obligatory in themselves. 
Hence in the case of the Veda the agency of a self-dependent person is 

115 This, I suppose, means that the existence of the world in its present ov*leveloped 
form, is necessary in order to furnish the means of rewarding righteousness and 
punishing unrighteousness. 


established [since these matters could be known by such a person alone.] 
And while the contents of the Yeda are not the subjects of a knowledge 
produced by any proof distinct from verbal proof, and the proofs 
dependent thereon, Vedicity, or the characteristic nature of> the Veda, 
consists in its being composed of (authoritative) words, whose authority 
does not spring from a knowledge of the meaning of sentences arising 
from words [but depends on the underived omniscience of its author]." 
" Or, Vedicity consists in being one or other of the" four collections, 
the Rich, Yajush, San?an', or Atharvan." 116 

I will introduce the next aphorism (x. 2, 9) which I propose to cite 
(and which is a repetition of aphorism i. 1, 3), by adducing some 
remarks of the commentator on the one which immediately precedes it, 
viz. x. 2, 8 : 

Nanu sruti-prdmdnye sati sydd evam \ tad eva tu durlabham \ na hi 
mlmdmsakdndm iva nitya-nirdoshatvena ruti-prdmdnyam tvayd isliyate 
paurusJwyatvendlhyv/pagamdt purushasya cha hhrama-pramdda-vipfalip- 
sddi-sambhavdt \ atah aha " dnshtdbhdve " iti \ drishtam purushdntare 
'smad-adau Ihrama-pramdda- [viprati^~\ lipsddikam purmha-dushanaih 
tad-abhdve sati ity arthah \ kshiti-karttritvena veda-vaktritvena vd 'numi- 
tasya purmha-dhaureyasya nirdoshatvena eva upasthiteh \ tatlid cha tad- 
vachasdm na nirabhidheyatd na viparltdWiidheyatd na nishprayojandbhi- 
dheyatd \ bhutendriya-manasdm dosJidd hhrama-pramdda-lctirandpdtavddi- 
prayuldal} eva vachasdm avisuddhayah sambliuvyante \ na cha Isvara-va- 
cTiasi tdsdm sambhavah \ tad uktam " rdgdjndnddilhir vaktd grastatvdd 
anritam vadet \ te chesvare na vidyante sa bruydt katham anyathd " | ' 
nanu tena Isvarena vedah pramtah ity atra eva viprapattir atah aha \ 
"tad-vachandt dmndyasya prdmdnyam" \ iti sdstra-parisamtiptau "tad- 
vachandt" tena Isvarena vachandt pranayandd " dmndyasya" vedasya 
prdmdnyam \ tathd hi \ vedds tdvat paurusheydh vdkyatvdd iti sddhitam \ 
na cha asmad-ddayas teshdm sahasra - sdkhdvachchhinndndm vaktdrah 
samlhdvyante atindriydrthatvdt \ na cha atlndriydrtha-darsino 'smad- 
ddayah \ kincha dptoktdh veddh mahdjana-parigrihtlatvdt \ yad- na tiptok- 
taih na tad mahdjana-parigrihltam \ mahdjana-parigrihitam cha idam \ 
tasmdd dptoktam \ sva-tantra-purmha-pranitatvam cha dptoktatvam \ 
mahdjana-parigrihltat'cam cha sarva-darsandntahpdti-purushdnushthlya- 
mdndrthatvam \ kvachit phaldbhdvah, karma-karttri-sddhana-vaigunydd 

116 The last 'Words are a translation of the conclusion of Jayanarayana's gloss. 


ity uJctam \ karttri-smarandlltavdd na evam iti chef \ na \ Jearttri-smara- 
nasya purvam eva sddhitatvdt \ tat-pranltatvaih cha sva-tantra-purusha- 
pranltatvdd eva sid^han^ \ na tv asmad-ddindm sahasra-sdkha-veda-pra- 
nayane svdta^tryam sambJtavati ity uktatvdt \ Jcincha pramdydh guna- 
janyatvena vaidika-pramdydh api guna-janyatvani dvasyakam \ tattra cha 
guno valctri-yath&rtha-vdkydrtKa-jndnam eva vtichyah \ tathd cha tdd- 
risah 'eva vede vakta yvh svargdpurvddi- vishayaka - sdkshdtkdravdn \ 
tddrisas cha na lsv<frdd apyah iti sushthvt \ 

"Now* all this will be so, provided the Veda is authoritative : but 
this condition is the very one which is difficult to attain ; for you do 
not hold, like the Mlmansakas, that the authority of the Veda arises 
from its eternal faultlessness ; since you admit that it has a personal 
author, and error, inadvertence, and a desire to deceive are incident to 
such a person. It is with a view to this objection that the writer says 
in his aphorism, ' In the absence of what is seen,' i.e. in the absence of 
those personal faults which are seen in other persons like ourselves, 117 
such as error, inadvertence, and a desire to deceive : for the Supreme 
Person who is inferred from the creation of the world, or the author- 
ship of the Veda, can only exist in a state of freedom from fault ; and, 
consequently, neither want of meaning, nor contradiction of meaning, 
nor uselessness of meaning, can be predicated of his words. Incorrect- 
nesses in words are to be apprehended as the results of error, inad- 
vertence, or unskilfulness in composition, arising from some defect in 
the elements, the senses, or the mind. But none of these things is to 
be imagined in the word of Isvara (the Lord). And this has been 
expressed in the following verse : ' A speaker may utter falsehood, 
from being possessed by affection, ignorance, and the like ; but these 
[defects] do not exist in God ; how then can he speak what is other- 
wise [than true] ? ' 

" But may not the fact that the Veda is composed by God be dis- 
puted ? In consequence of this, jthe author says (in the next aphorism) : 

x. 2, 9. 'J'he authority of the Vedic record arises from its being ut- 
tered by Him.' 

117 A different interpretation is givep by the commentator to this phrase drishta- 
bhave, in an earlier aphorism in which it occurs, viz. vi. 2, 1. He there understands 
it to mean that where there is no visible motive for a prescribed action, an Jnvisible 
one must be presumed (yattra drishtam prayojanam nopalabhyate tattra adrishtam 
prayojanam kalpariiyam). , * 


" Thus at the end of his treatise [the writer lays it down, that] the 
authority of the Veda is derived from,, its being His word, viz. from its 
being spoken, i.e. composed by Him, i.e. by Isvari. As thus : The 
Vedas are derived from 'a person, because they are formed of sentences. 
This has been proved. And persons like ourselves cannot be conceived 
as the uttorers of these Vedas, which are distinguished by having 
thousands of S'akhas (recensions), because.. their< objects are such as lie 
beyond the reach of the senses'; and pers.ons like US' have nq intuition 
, into anything beyond, tlie reach of the senses. Further, the Vedas [are 
not only derived from a personal author, but they] have been uttered 
by a competent author (dpta), because they have been embraced by 
great men. Whatever has not been uttered by a competent person is 
not embraced by great men : but this (book) is embraced by great men : 
therefore it has been uttered by a competent person. Now, composition 
by a self-dependent person is utterance by a competent person ; and the 
reception (of the Veda) by great men is the observance of its contents 
by persons who are adherents of all the different philosophical schools : 
and (the infallibility of the Veda is defended by that which) has been 
already said, viz. that any occasional failure in the results (of cere- 
monies prescribed in the Veda) is owing to some defect in the rite, or 
in the performer, or in the instruments employed [and not to any falli- 
bility in the Veda]. 

"If it be objected to this reasoning, that no author (of the Veda) is 
recollected, we rejoin, that this is not -irue, because it has been formerly 
proved that the author is remembered. And that it was composed by 
Him is proved by the simple fact of its being composed by a self- 
dependent person ; and because it has been said that the self-depend- 
ence [or unassisted ability] of people like us in the composition of the 
Veda, consisting, as it does, of a thousand S'akhas, is inconceivable. 
And since authority (in a writing in general) springs from a quality [in 
its author], it necessarily follows that the authority of the Veda also 
springs from a quality. And there the quality- in question must be 
declared to be the speaker's knowledge of the correct meaning of sen- 
tences. And thus (we have shewn that) there is such an utterer of 
the Veda, who possesses an intuitive knowledge of paradise, and of 
the yet unseen consequences of actions, etc., and such an utterer is no 
other than Isvara. Thus all is satisfactory." 


The ultimate proofs, then, of the binding authority of the Veda are, 
according to the commentator, 1st, its extent and subject-matter, and 
2ndly, its unanimpus Deception by great men, adherents of all the 
different orthodox systems. Of course these arguments have no vali- 
dity except for those who see something supernatural in the Veda, and 
on the assumption that the great men who embraced it wer^ infallible ; 
and therefore as agaimst the Bauddhas and other heretics who saw 
nothing miraculous in tjie Vedas, and consequently regarded all their 
adherents as in error, they were utterly worthless. But possibly it. 
was not the object of the commentator (for the greater part of the argu- 
mentation is his, not that of the author of the Aphorisms) to state the 
ultimate reasons on whioh the authority of the Vedas would have to be 
vindicated against heretics, but merely to explain the proper grounds 
on which the orthodox schools who already acknowledged that au- 
thority ought to regard it as resting; i.e. not, as the Himansakas held 
their eternal faultlessness, but the fact of their being uttered by an intel- 
ligent and omniscient author ; whose authorship, again, was proved by 
the contents of the Vedas having reference to unseen and future matters 
of which only an omniscient Being could have any knowledge ; while 
the fact of these revelations in regard to unseen things having actually 
proceeded from such a Being, and being therefore true, was guaranteed 
by the unanimous authority of the wisest men among the faithful. 

As it is a matter of some interest to know what is the nature of 
inspiration, or supernatural knowledge, as conceived by the Vaiseshikas, 
I shall quote some passages bearing on this subject from the aphorisms, 
or from their expounder, S'ankara Misra. In his remarks on Aphorism 
viii. 1, 2 (p. 357), the commentator states that opinion (jndna) is of 
two kinds, true (vidya) and false (avidya) * and that the former (vidya] 
is of two descriptions, arising from perception, inference, re'collection, 
and the infallible intuition "peculiar to rishis " (Tack cha jndnam 
dvividham vidya cha avidyd ch<\ \ vidya chaturvidhd pratyaksha-laingilca- 
smrity-drska-lakshanti}. Perception or intuition, again, is of different 
kinds or degrees (Aphorism ix. 1, 11-15, pp. 385 ff.). Aphorism ix. 
1, 11 (p. 386), is as follows: 

Tad evam bhtivtilhdva-vishayaJcam laukiJca-pratyaksham nirupya yogi- 
pratyaksham nirupayitum prakarandntaram drabhate \ ix. 1, M. " At- 
many dtma-manasoh samyoga-viseshdd dtma-pratyaksham " | jndnam ut- 


padyate iti seshah \ dvividhds tdvad yoginah samdhitdntahkarandh ye 
" yuktuh" ity abhidhlyante asamdhitdntahkarands cha ye " viyuktdh" 
ity abhidhlyante \ tattra yuktdh sdkshdtkartavy*, vaituny ddarena memo 
nidhdya nididhydsanavantah \ teshdm dtmani svdtmani pardtmani cha 
jndnam utpadyate \ " dtma-pratyaksham " iti \ dtmd sukshdtkflra-vishayo 
yattra jndne tat tathd \ yadyapy asmad-ddlndm afii kaddchid dtma- 
jndnam asti tathdpy avidyd-tiraskritatvdt tad (tsat-Kalpam ity uktam \ 
" dtma-manasos sannikarsha-vtieshdd" iti ifoga-ja-dharmdnugrohah dtma- 
manasoh sannikarsha-viieshas tasmdd ity arthah \ 

" Having thus defined ordinary perception which has for its objects 
existence and non-existence, the author, with the view of determining 
the character of the intuition of yogins, says : ' From a particular con- 
centration of both the soul and the mind 118 on the soul, arises the per- 
ception (or intuition) of soul.' On this the commentator remarks : 
' There are two kinds of yogins (intent, or contemplative, persons), (1) 
those whose inner sense is fixed samdhitdntahkarandh}, who are called 
(yuktdh} united (i.e. with the object of contemplation), and (2) those 
whose inner sense is no longer fixed, and who are called disunited (viyuk- 
tdh). 119 Of these the first class, who are called ' united,' fix their minds 
with reverence on the thing which is to be the object of intuition, and 
contemplate it intently. In this way knowledge arises in their souls 
regarding their own souls, and the souls of others. ' Intuition of soul/ 
that is, a knowledge in which soul is the perceptible object of intuition. 
Now, although persons like ourselves have sometimes a knowledge of 
soul, yet from this knowledge being affected by ignorance, it has been 
said to be like what is unreal. ' From a particular concentration of the 
soul and the mind;' that is, from a particular conjunction of the soul 
and the mind which is effected by means of the virtue derived from 
yoga." See also Aphorism xv. p. 390. 

At the conclusion of his remarks (Bibl. Ind. p. 408) on the third sort 
of true knowledge (referred to in p. 357, Bibl. Ind.), viz. recollection, 
the commentator remarks that the author of tile aphorisms does not 
make any separate mention of the fourth kind of knowlege, viz. in- 
fallible intuition : 

118 The " mind " (manas) is regarded by the Indian philosophers as distinct from 
the souV,-and as being merely an internal organ. 

119 This cla|s is the more perfect of the two, as appears from the gloss of Jayana- 
rayana : ayam api msishta'-yogavativad viyuktah ity uchyate. 



ix. 2, 6 Arshafh j'ndnam sutra-kritd prithan na lalcshitam \ 

yogi-pratyakshdntarbhdvitam \ paddrtha-pradesdkhye tu prakarane tad 
uktam | tad yathd I " dmndya-vidhutrlndm rishlndm atltdndgata-vartta- 
mdneshv atlnflnydrtheshv artheshu dharmddishuigranthopaniladdheshu vd 
Ungddy-anapekshdd dtma-manasoh samyogdd dharma-viseshach cha prd- 
tibhaih jndnam i/ad utpadyate fad, drsham iti \ tach cha kaddchil lauki~ 
kdndm 'api bhavati, yatjid kanyakd vadati " svo me bhrdtd gantd iti hri- 
dayam me kathayati " iti t \ 

"Rishis' (arsha) knowledge," he says, " is not separately defined t 
by the author of the aphorisms, bu is included in the intuition of 
yogins. But the following statement has been made (in reference to 
it) in the section on the categories: 'Rishis' (drsha] knowledge is 
that which, owing to & conjunction of the soul and the mind, inde- 
pendent of inference, etc., and owing to a particular species of virtue, 
illuminates those rishis who have composed the record of the Yedas 
(dmndya-vidhdtrlntim), in reference to such matters, whether past, 
future, or present, as are beyond the reach of the senses, or in refer- 
ence to matters of duty, etc., recoi'ded in books,' etc. And this sort of 
knowledge is also sometimes manifested by ordinary persons, as when a 
girl says, ' my heart tells me that my brother will go to-morrow.' " 
See also Aphorism ix. 2, 13 (Bibl. Ind. pp. 414, 415). 

The Tarka-sangraha, another Vaiseshika work, also affirms the divine 
authorship of the Veda in these words : m Vdkyam dvividham laukikam 
vaidikam cha \ vaidikam Isvaroktaivdt sarvam eva pramdnam laukikam tu 
dptoktatn pramdnam any ad apramdnam \ "Sentences are of two kinds, 
Vedic and secular. Vedic sentences, from being uttered by Isvara, are 
all proof [or authoritative]. Of secular sentences, those only which 
are uttered by competent persons (dpta) are proof; the rest are not 

In this text, the authority of the Veda is founded on its being uttered 
by Isvara ; and this characteristic is regarded as limited to the Veda. 

. * 

120 It had been already noticed by Professor Max Miiller in the Journal of the 

German ()rient;il Society, vii. p. 311, that " the Vais'eshikas, like Kapila, include the 
intuition of enlightened rishis under the head of pratyaksha (intuition), and thus sepa- 
rate it decidedly from aitihya, ' tradition.' " He also quotes the commentator's 
remark about a similar intuition being discoverable amosg ordinary persons^which he 
thinks is not " without a certain irony." 

121 See Dr. Ballantyne's ed. with Hindi and English Versions, p. 40 5f the Sanskrit. 


On the other hand, such secular works as proceed from competent 
persons (upta) are also declared to possess authority. Here, therefore, 
a distinction is drawn between the authority of the Veda and that of 
all other writings, however authoritative, inasmuch as the former was 
uttered by Isvara, while the latter have only been uttered by some 
competent person (upta). But in the liTyaya aphorism, ii. 68. quoted 
and commented upon above (p. 114), the authority of the Yeda itself is 
made to rest on the authority o.f the wise, or competent persons (dpta\ 
from whom it proceeded. 122 In this aphorism, therefore, either +he word 
"apta" must mean "Isvara," or we must suppose a difference of view 
between the author of the aphorism on the one hand, and the writers 
of the Vaiseshika aphorisms and the Tarka-sangraha on the other. 
"We shall see from the next extract that the-Kusumanjali coincides 
with the latter. 

I quote from the work just named (of which TJdayana Acharya is the 
author), and its commentary, 123 some statements of the doctrine main- 
tained by the author regarding the origin and authority of the Veda. 
Mr. Colebrooke (Misc. Ess. i. 263, or p. 166 of Williams andNorgate's ed.) 
speaks of this treatise as being accompanied by a commentary of Nara- 
yana Tirtha ; but the one which is printed in the Calcutta edition, as 
well as in Professor Cowell's, is by Haridasa Bhattacharya. The object 
of the work is to prove the existence of a personal god (Isvara), in 
opposition to various other antagonistic theories. 

I. Kusumanjali, 2nd Stavaka, at the commencement : Anyatlid 'pi 
paralolia-sddhandnushthdna-samlhavtid iti dvitiya-vipratipattih \ Anyatlid 
Isvaram vino, 'pi paraloka-sudhana-ydgddy-anushtJiunam samlhavati ydgd- 
deh svarga-sddhanatvasya veda-gamyatvdt \ nitya-nirdoshatayd cha veda- 
sya pramdnyam \ mahdjanc-parigrahdch cha prdmdnyasya grahah iti 
veda-kdranatayd na Isvara-siddhih \ yogardhi-sampddita-sd.-vajnya-Kapi- 

122 The following words are put by the author of the Vishnu Parana (iii. ch. 18 ; 
"Wilson, vol. iii. p. 212) into the mouth of the deluder who promulgated the Bauddha 
and other heresies : Na hy apta-vadcih nabliaso nipatanti mahasurah \ yuktimad 
vachanam grahyam inaya 'nyais cha bhavad-vidhaih \ "Words of the 1 ' competent do 
not, great Asuras, fall from the sky. It is only words supported by reasons that 
should be admitted by me and others like yourselves." 

123 This book was published at the Sanskrit Press, Calcutta, in the S'aka year, 1769. 
A new edition was published by Professor Cowell in 1864, accompanied by an English 
translation. I have availed myself of this excellent version to correct a good many 
mistakes in my own. 


Iddi-purvakah eva vd vedo 'stv ity atra aha \ " pramdydh paratantratvdt 

sarga-pralaya-samlhavdt \ tad-anyasminn avisvdsdd na vidhdnta/ra-sam- 
bhavah" \ S'ubdl p^amd^vaktri-yathdrtha-vakydrtha-dhl-lupa-guna-janya 
iti gunddhdr^atdyd Isvara-tsiddhih \ nanu sakartrike 'stu yathdrtha-vdk- 
ydrtha-dhlr gunah \ akartrike cha vede nirdoshatvam eva prdmdnya-pra- 
yojalihm astu mcJidjana-parigrahena cha prdmdnya-graliah ity ata aha \ 
"sarga-pmlaya-sambhcwdd" iti \ pralayottaram purva-veda-ndsdd uttara- 
vedasya katham pmmdnyam mahdjana-parigrahasydpi tadd abhdvdt \ 
Sabdasya anityatvam utpanno ga-kdrah iti pratlti-siddJiam \ pravdhdvich- 
chheda-rupa-nityatvam api pralaya-samlhavdd ndsti iti bhdvah \ Kapild- 
dayah eva sargddau purva-sargdbhyasta-yoga-janya- dharmdnulhavdt 
sdkshdt-krita-sakaldrthdfy karttdrah santu \ ity ata alia \ " tad-anyas- 
minn" iti \ visva-nirtiidna-samarthdh animddi-sakti-sampanndh yadi 
sarvajnds tadd Idghavdd eka eva tddrisah svlkriyatdm \ sa eva lhagavdn 
Isvarah \ anitydsarva-vuhayaka-jnanavati cha visvdsah eva ndsti \ iti 
vaidika-vyavahdra-vilopah \ iti na vidhdntara-samlhavah Isvardnangi- 
kartri-naye iti sesliah \ 

" The second objection is that [there is no proof of an Isvara], since 
the means of attaining paradise can be practised independently of any 
such Being. That is to say, the celebration of sacrifices, etc., which 
are the instruments of obtaining paradise, can take place otherwise, i.e. 
even without an Isvara (God). For the fact that sacrifices, etc., are the 
instruments of obtaining paradise is to be learned from the Veda, while 
the authority of the Veda rests upon its eternal faultlessness ; and the 
[immemorial] admission of that authority results from its Deception by 
illustrious men. No'v in this way there is no proof of the existence of 
a God to be derived from the idea that he is the cause of the Veda. Or 
let it be supposed that the Veda was preceded [composed] by Kapila 
and other sages, who by their wealth in devotion had acquired omni- 

" In answer to all this the author says : [verse] 'Since truth depends 
on an external source) since creation and dissolution occur, and since 
there is no confidence in any other than God, therefore no other manner 
can be conceived [in which the Veda originated, except from God].' 
[Comment] Verbal truth [or authoritativeness] is derived from the 
attribute, possessed by its promulgator, of comprehending tie true 
sense of words [i.e. in order to constitute the Veda an authoritative 


rule of duty, it must have proceeded from an intelligent being who 
understood the sense of what he tittered] ; and since God is the sub- 
stratum of this attribute [of intelligence], there is proof of his existence. 

" But it may be said- that if the Veda h&d a maker, then, indeed, 
such comprehension of the true sense of words as you insist upon may 
be a quality belonging to him ; but if the Yeda had nc^maker, let' it be 
its faultlessness which imparts to it its authority, Awhile the '[imme- 
morial] admission of that authority results from its Deception by illus- 
t trious men. l 

" In answer to this the author says: 'Since creation and dissolu- 
tion occur.' Since the previous Veda [the one which existed during 
the former mundane period] perished after thp dissolution of the uni- 
verse, how can the subsequent Veda [i.e. the' one supposed by our 
opponents to have existed during the dissolution] be authoritative, since 
there was not then even any reception of it by illustrious men [who 
also had all become extinct at the dissolution]. And further, the non- 
eternity of sound is proved by the conviction we have that letters such 
as G are produced, [and not eternal] : and even that eternity (or per- 
petuity) of the Veda which consists in unbroken continuity of tradition, 
does not exist, as there is probable proof of a dissolution. 121 But, again, 
it is urged that Tvapila and other saints who, from their perception of 
duty, springing from the practice of devotion during the former mun- 
dane period, had acquired an intuitive knowledge of every subject 
may at the creation have been the cuthors of the Veda. This is an- 
swered in the words, ' since there is no confidence in any other but 
God.' If persons capable of creating the universe and possessing the 
faculty of minuteness be omniscient, then, for the sake of simplicity, 
let one such person only be admitted, namely, the divine Isvara. 123 
And no confidence can be reposed in any person who is not eternal, and 
who is not possessed of a knowledge which extends to all objects. 
Thus the Vedic tradition disappears. And so he concludes that no 
other manner [of the origination of the Veda] cau be conceived [except 

124 The writers on the other side seem to reply to this Naiyayika objection about 
the interruption of Ihe tradition of the Veda through the dissolution of the universe, 
by saying that the Veda was retained in the memory of Brahma or the Rishis during 
the interval while the dissolution lasted. See Kulluka on Manu, i. 23, above, p. 6 ; 
and the7>;issage of Kaiyyata on the Mahabhashya, above, p. 96. 

125 " The l?w of parsimony bids us assume only one such," etc. Cowell. 


from Isvara] ; that is, in the system of those who deny an Isvara [no 
way is pointed out]." , 

II. Kusumanjali,iii. J/>. "Napramdnam andptoktir nddrishte hvachid 
dptatd | adrif-ya-drishtati sitrvajno na cha nitydgafaah kshamah " | ay am hi 
sarva-JcartritvdbhdvdvedaJcah sabdah andptoldas ched na pramdnam \ dp- 
toktas 'died etad-dfrtha-gochara-jndnavato nitya-sarva-vishayalca-jndnavat- 
tvam indriyddy-abhuvdb \ dgamasya cha nityatvam dushitam eva prdg iti 
veda-Mro nityah satvajnafi siddhyati \ 

[Versd] " The word of an incompetent person js not authoritative ; , 
nor can there be any competency in regard to a thing unseen [by the 
speaker]. To perceive invisible things, a person must be omniscient; 
and an eternal scripture is impossible. [Comment] This [supposed] 
scriptural testimony, denying the fact of there being a creator of all 
things, if uttered by an incompetent person, would be no proof. If it 
was uttered by a competent person, then the person who possessed an 
acquaintance with this circumstance [that there was no creator] would 
be master of a knowledge which was eternal, and universal in its range, 
since he Would not be limited by any bodily organs. And we have 
previously disproved the eternity of any scripture (see the first extract 
from the Kusumanjali, above). Consequently an omniscient and eternal 
author of the Yeda is established." 

III. Kaisumanjali, v. 1. "Kdryydyojana-dhrityddehpaddt pratyaya- 
tahsruteh \ vdlcyat sanlcliyd-viseshdch cha sddhyo visvavid avyayah " \ ... 
Pratyayatah prdmdnydt \ veda-jcfni/a-jnunam kdrana-guna-janyam pra- 
mdtvdt \ pratyaltshddi-pramti-vat \ sniter veddt \ vedah paurusheyo veda- 
tvad dyurveda-vat \ kincha vedah paurusheyo udkyatvdd Ihdratddi-vat \ 
veda-vdkydni paurusheydni vakyatvdd asmad-ddi-vdkya-vat \ 

[Verse] " An omniscient and indestructible Being is to be proved 
from [the existence of] eifects, from the conjunction of [atoms], from 
the support [of the earth in the sky], etc., from ordinary usages, from 
belief [in revelation], from the, Veda, from sentences, and from parti- 
cular numbers." * 

The following is so much of the comment as refers to the words 
pratyaya, sruti, and vdkya : "From belief, i.e. from authoritativeness. 
The knowledge derived from the Veda is derived from the attributes of 
its Cause; since it is true knowledge, like the true knowledge Derived 
from perception. From the sruti, -i.e. the Yeda v The Veda is [shewn 


to be] derived from a person, by its having the characters of a Veda, 
like the Ayur-veda. It is also [shewn to be] derived from a person, 
by having the character of sentences, like the H.ahabharata. The 
words of the Veda are [shewn to be] derived from a person, by their 
having the character of sentences, like the sentences of persons such as 
ourselves." > 

IV. Kusumanjali, v. 16. "Sydtn." "abhuvam"i"bhavishydmi"''tyad'att 
sankhya pravaklri-gd \ samdkhyd ''pi cJia sdkliandm*>,nddya-pravachandd 
rite | Vaidikottama-pwushena svatantrochchdrayituh sankhya vdchya \ 
"tad aikshata eko 'ham bahu sydm" ityddi-lahushu uttama-purusha-sru- 
teh | sankhyd-paddrtham any am alia "samdkhyd" ityddi \ sarvdsdfit, 
sdkhdnam hi Kdthaka-Kdldpakddydh samdkhudh sanjnd-viseshah sru- 
yante \ te cha na adhyayana-mdtra-nilandhandh \ adhyetrlndm dnantydt \ 
dddv any air api tad-adhyayandt \ tasmdd atlndriyartha-darsl lhagavdn 
eva Isvarah kdrunikah sargdddv asmad-ady-adrishtdkrishta-kdthakddi- 
sarlra-visesham adhishthdya yum sdkhdm uktavdms tasydh sdkhdyds tan- 
ndmnd vyapadesah iti siddham Isvara-mananam moksha-hetuh \ 

[Verse] "In the phrases 'let me be,' 'I was,' *I shall be,' [which 
occur in the Veda], personal designations have reference to a speaker ; 
and the names of the S'akhas could only have been derived from a 
primeval utterance. [Comment] The first person (I), when it occurs 
in the Veda, must be employed to denote a self-dependent utterer. 
Now there are many instances there of such a use of the first person, 
as in the words, ' It reflected, I am --one, let me become many.' The 
author then specifies another signification of the term sankhya in the 
clause, ' and the designations,' etc. For all the S'akhas of the Veda tradi- 
tionally bear the names, the special names, of Kathaka, Kalapaka, etc. 
And these names cannot be connected with the mere study [of these S'ak- 
has by Katha, Kalapa, etc.] from the infinite multitude of students, since 
they must have been studied before by others besides the persons just 
mentioned. Wherefore the particular S'akhas which Isvara, the be- 
holder of objects obey ond the reach of the senses, the C9mpassionate 
Lord, himself uttered at the beginning of the creation, when he assumed 
the bodies of Katha, etc., which were drawn on by the destiny (adrishta) 
of beings like ourselves these S'akhds, I say, were designated by the 
names' of the particular sages [in whose persons they were promul- 
gated]. Aud so it is proved that the contemplation of Isvara is the 
cause of final liberation." 


T am unable to say if the ancient doctrine of the Nyaya was theistic, 
as that of the Yaiseshika Sutras (at least as interpreted by S'ankara 
Misra) appears tobe, smd as that of the Kusumanjali, the Tarka-san- 
graha, 126 and., the Siddhanta Huktavali undoubtedly is (p. 6 of Dr. Bal- 
lantyne's ed., or p. 12 of his " Christianity contrasted with Hindu Phi- 
losophy," and p.* 13 of Dr. Ko'er's Bhasha-parichchheda, in Bibl. Ind.). 
The remarks of Du Rcjer on^the subject, in pp. xv., xvi., of the intro- 
duction to the last 'named work, may be* consulted. The subject is also 
discussed by Professor Banerjea in his work on* Hindu philosophy, pp.. 
144-153. The solution of the question may depend much on the inter- 
pretation to be given to the aphorisms of Gotama, 19-21 of the fourth 

III. The Sdnkhya. The opinions of the author of the Sankhya aphor- 
isms in regard to the authority of the Veda and the principles on which 
that authority depends, are contained in the 45th to the 51st aphorisms 
of the Fifth Book, which I extract with the comments of Vijnana 
Bhikshu : 127 

45. " Na nityatvam Veddndm Jcdryatva-sruteh" \ " Sa tapo'tapyata 
tasmdt tapas tepdndt trayo vedd ajdyanta" ity ddi-sruter veddndm na 
nityatvam ity arthah \ veda-nityatd-vdlcydni cha sajatlydnupurvl-pravd- 
hdmtchchheda-pardni \ Tarhi kim paurusheydh veddh \ na ity aha \ 46. 
" Na paurusheyatvam tat-kartuh purushasya abhdvdt " \ isvara-pratishe- 
ddd iti seshah \ sugamam \ aparah learttd bhavatv ity dkdnJcshdydm aha \ 
47. " Muktdmuktayor ayogyatvdt v \Jlvan-mukta-dhurmo VisJinur visud- 
dha-sattvatayd niratisaya-sarvajno ''pi vlta-rtigatvdt sahasra-sdkha-veda- 
nirmdndyogyah \ amuktas tv asarvajnatvdd eva ayogyah ity arthah j nanv 
evam apaurusheyatvdd nityatvam eva dgatam \ tatrdha \ 48. " Na apau- 
rusheyatvdd nityatvam ankurddi-vat " \ Spashtam \ nanv ankurddishv api 
Icdryatvena ghatddi-vat purusheyatvam anumeyam \ tatrdha \ 49. "Teshdm 
api tad-yoge drislita-lddhadi-prasaktiji" \ Yat paurusheyam tach chha- 

126 Jnanadhikaranam a+ma \ sa dvividho jlvatma paramatta cha \ tatra Isvarah 
sarvajnah paramatma eka eva, \ jivatma prati sarlram bhinno vibhur nityascha \ 
" The substratum of knowledge is soul. It is of two kinds, the embodied soul, and the 
supreme soul. Of these the supreme soul is the omniscient Is'vara, one only. The 
embodied soul is distinct in each body, all-pervading, and eternal." 

127 Compare Dr. Ballantyne's translation of the Sankhya Aphorisms, boo^s v. and 
vi., published at Mirzapore in 1856, pp. 26 ff., as well as that which subsequently 
appeared in the Bibliotheca Indica (in 1865), pp. 127 ff. % 


rlra-janyam iti vydptir loke drishtd tasydh bddhddir evam sati sydd Hi 
arthah \ nanv Adi-purushochcharitatvdd Veddh api, paurmheydh eva ity 
aha \ 50. "Yasmin adrishte'pi krita-luddhir ^apajuyate tat paurmhe- 
yam " | Drishte iva adrishte 'pi yasmin vastuni krita-luHdhir buddhi- 
purvakatva - buddhir jdyate tad eva paurusheyam iti vyavahriyate ity 
arthah \ etad uktam lhavati I nc, purushochcharitatd-mdtrena paurmhe- 
yatvam svdsa-prasvdsayoh sushupti-kdlinaroh paurusheyatva-vyavahdrd- 
bhdvdt kintu luddhi-purvakatvena \ Veddc tu 'nihsvd'sa-vad eve. adrishta- 
vasdd abuddhi-purvatM'h eva Svaypmlhuvah sakdsdt svayam lhavanti \ ato 
na te paurusheydh \ tathd cha srutih " tasyaitasya mahato Ihutasya ni- 
svasitam etad yad rigvedo ity ddir " iti \ nanv evam yathdrtha-vtilcydrtha- 
jndndpurvakatvdt suka - vdkyasyeva veddndm 'api prdmdnyam na sydt 
tatrdha \ 51. "Nija-sakty-abhvyakteh svatah prdmdnyam" \ Veddndm 
nijd svdlhdvikl yd yathdrtha-jndna-janana^aktis tasydh mantrdyurvedd- 
dav abhivyakter wpalamlhdd akhila-veddndm eva svatah eva prdmdnyam 
siddhyati na vaktri-yathdrtha-jndna-mulakatvddind ity arthah \ tathd 
cha Nydya-sutram \ "mantrdyurveda-prdmdnya-vach cha tat-prdmdnyam" 
iti | 

" Sutra 45. 'Eternity cannot be predicated of the Vedas, since 
various texts in these hooks themselves declare them to have heen pro- 
duced.' The sense is this, that the Yedas are proved not to be eternal 
by such texts as the following: 'He performed austerity; from him, 
when he had thus performed austerity, the three Vedas were produced.' 
[See above, p. 4.] Those other texts which assert the eternity [or 
perpetuity] of the Vedas refer merely to the unbroken continuity of 
the stream of homogeneous succession [or tradition]. Are the Veda?, 
then, derived from any personal author ? ' No,' he replies in Sutra 46. 
' The Vedas are not derived from any personal author. (paurusheya\ 
since there is no person to make them.' We must supply the words, 
'since an Isvara (God) is denied.' The sense is easy. In answer to 
the supposition that there may be Some other maker, he remarks, 
Sutra 47, ' No ; for there could be no fit maker, either liberated or un- 
liberated.' Vishnu, the chief of all those beings who are liberated even 
while they live, 123 although, from the. pure goodness of his nature, he is 
possessed of perfect omniscience, would, owing to his impassiveness, be 

unfit to compose the Veda consisting of a thousand sakhas (branches), 

128 See Colebrooke's Essays, i. 369, or p. 241 of "Williams and Norgate's ed. 


while any unliberated person would be unfit for the task from want of 
omniscience. (See Ankara's conjment on Brahma Sutras i. 1, 3 ; above, 
p. 106.) But do*s n^t, then, the eternity of the Vedas follow from 
their having no personal Author ? He replies ('48), ' Their eternity does 
not result from their having no personal author, as in the case of sprouts, 
etc.' This is cltfar. But is it not to he inferred that sprouts, etc., since 
they are products,* ha?e, lik^ jars, etc., some personal maker? He re- 
plies (49J, ' If sufth a supposition he applied to these (sprouts, etc!) it 
must tllere also be exposed to the objection tftat,it is contrary to what> 
we see, etc.' Whatever is derived from a personal author is produced 
from a body ; this is a rule which is seen to hold invariably. But if 
we assert that sprouts -are derived from a personal author, we contra- 
dict the rule in question, [since they evidently did not spring from any 
embodied person].' But are not the Vedas, too, derived from a person, 
seeing that they were uttered by the primeval Purusha ? He answers 
(50), ' That object only (even though it be an invisible one), which its 
maker is conscious of having made, can be said to be derived from [or 
made by] such a person.' It is only those objects, be they seen or un- 
seen, in regard to which a consciousness of design arises, that are ordi- 
narily spoken of as made by a person. The sense is, that it is not mere 
utterance by a person which constitutes formation by that person (since 
we do not ordinarily speak of the inspirations and expirations of any 
person during the time of sleep, as heing formed by that person), but 
only utterance with conscious dtJsign. But the Vedas proceed of their 
own accord from Svayambhii (the self-existent), like an expiration, by 
the force of adrishta (destiny), without any consciousness on his part. 
Hence they are not formed by any person. Thus the Veda says, ' This 
Rig-veda, etc., is the breath of this great Being, etc.' [See above, 
p. 8.] But will not the Vedas, also, be in this way destitute of au- 
thority, like the chatter of a parrot,, since they did not result from any 
knowledge of the correct meaning of the words of which they are made 
up ? In r<*ference to T;his, he says (51), ' The Vedashave a self -proving 
authority, since they reveal their own inherent power.' The self- 
evidencing authority of the entire Vedas is established by the per- 
ception of a manifestation in certain portions of them, viz. in the for- 
mulas and the Ayur-veda, etc., of that inherent power which tney (the 
Vedas) possess of generating correct knowledge^ and does riot depend on 


its being shown that they (the Vedas) are founded on Correct knowledge 

in their utterer, 129 or on any other ground of that 'sort. And to this 
effect is the Nyaya Sutra, that ' their authority t is like the authority of 
the formulas and the Ayur-veda.' (See abova, p. 114.)* c 

In reference to the 46th Sutra I add here the 98th aphorism of the 
1st book, with the. remarks by -which it is introduced a*nd followed : 

Nanu diet sadd sarvajnah Isvarondsti tarhivedK.nt&mahd'Kdkyarthasya 
vivckasya upadese 'ndha -param'pardsankayd aprdm&nyam prasajyeta \ 
,tattra aha \ 98. Siddhcf-rupa-loddhritvd,d vdkydrthopadesah \ Hiranya- 
garbhddlndm siddha-rupdndfii yathdrthdrthasya boddhritvat tad-vak- 
trikdyurvedddi- prdmdnyena avadhritdch cha eshdm vdkydrthopadesah 
pramdnam Hi seshah \ . 

"But may it not be said that if there be no eternally omniscient 
Isvara, the charge of want of authority will attach to 'the inculcation 
of discriminative knowledge which is the subject of the great texts of 
the Upanishads, from the doubt lest these texts may have been handed 
down by a blind tradition. To this he replies : 8'6. ' From the fact that 
beings perfect in their nature understood them, it results that we have 
an (authoritative) inculcation of the sense.' As Hiranyagarbha (Brah- 
ma) and other beings who were perfect in their nature understood the 
true sense, and are ascertained to have done so by the authoritativeness 
of the Ayur-veda, etc., which they uttered, their inculcation of the 
sense of the texts is authority ; such is the complete meaning of the 

In the 57th and following Sutras of the fifth book, Kapila denies 
that sound has the character of sphota, or that letters are eternal : 

57. " Pratlty-apratltilhydm na sphotdtmakah sabdah" \ Pratyeka- 
varnebhyo 'tiriJctam kalasah ityddi-rupam akhandam eka-padam sphotah 
Hi yogair abhyupagamyate \ kambu-grlvddy-avayavelhyo'tirilcto ghatddy- 
avayavlva \ sa cha salda-visesho pqddkhyo 'rtha-sphutlkarandt sphotah ity 
uchyate \ sa sabdo 'prdmdnikah \ kutah | " pratlty-apratltilhydm " | sa 
sabdah kirn pratlyate na vd \ ddye yena varna-s'amuddyenat tinupurn- 

129 This directly contradicts the doctrine enunciated in the Vais'eshika Sutras and 
the KusumSnjali. See above, pp. 121, 123, an'd 129 f. 

130 This is a various reading given by Dr. Hall in the appendix to his edition of 
the Sankn'ya-pravachana-bhashya ; and I have adopted it in preference to siddha- 
rupasya which the gives in his text, as the former seems to afford a better sense. 


visesha-vmshtena\o 'Ihivyajyate tasya eva artha-pratydyakatvam astu | 
Icim antargadund tew{ | antye tv ajndta-sphotasya nasty artha-pratydyana- 
saktir iti vyarthd^spho^a-kalpand ity arthah | Purvam veddndm nitya- 
tvam pratistyddham | id&nlm varna - nityatvam api pratishedati | 58. 
"JVa salda-nityatvaiti kdryatd-pratiteh" | Sa eva ayam ga-kdrah ityddi- 
pratyalhijnd - biddd varna -mlyatv am na yuktam \.utpanno ga-kdrah 
ityddi-pratyayena.ani^yatva-siddher ity arthah \ pratyabhijnd taj-jdtl- 
yatd-mshayinl \ anyathd^ghatdder api pmtyabhijndydh nityatdpatter iti \ 
sankate\ 59. "Purva-siddha-sattvasya dbhivyaHir dlpeneva gliatasya," \ 
Nanu purva-siddha-sattdkasyaiva saldasya dhvany-ddilhir yd 'Ihivyalctis 
tan-mdtram utpattih pratlter vishayah \ abhivyaktau drishtdnto dipeneva 
ghatasya iti \ Pariharati^ 60. "Sat-kdryya-siddhdntas chet siddha-sddha- 
nam " j Abhivyaldir 'yady andgatdvasthd - tydgena varttamdndvasthd- 
Idbhah ity uchyate tadd sat-ltdryya-siddhdntah \ tddrisa-nityatvam cha 
sarva-kdrydndm eva iti siddha-sddhanam ity arthah \ yadi cha varttamd- 
natayd satah eva jndna-mdtra-rupiny ablmyaktir uchyate tadd ghatddl- 
ndm api nityatvdpattir ityddi \ 

" ' Sound has not the character of sphota, from the dilemma that the 
latter must be either apparent or not apparent.' A modification of sound 
called sphota, single, indivisible, distinct from individual letters, exist- 
ing in the form of words like kalasa (jar), distinguished also from parts 
of words like kambu-grlva (striped-neck) and forming a whole like the 
word ghata (jar), is assumed by the Yogas. And this species of sound 
called a word (pada} is designated sphota from its manifesting a mean- 
ing. But the existence of this form of sound is destitute of proof. 
Why ? ' Erom the dilemma that it must be either apparent or not ap- 
parent.' Does this form of sound appear or not ? If it appears, then 
let the power of disclosing a meaning [which is ascribed by our op- 
ponents to sphota] be regarded as belonging to that collection of letters^ 
arranged in a particular order, by which the supposed sphota is mani- 
fested. What necessity is thei;e then for that superfluous sphota ? If, on 
the contrary, it does ftot appear, then that unknown sphota can have no 
power of disclosing a meaning, and consequently it is useless to suppose 
that any such thing as sphota exists. 

" The eternity of the Yedas has been already denied. He now denies 
the eternity of letters also. 58. ' Sound is not eternal, since it is clear 
that it is a production.' The meaning is, that it is not reasonable to 


infer on the strength of the recognition of the letter G as the same 

that we knew before (see Mimansa Aphorisms /.' 13 ; above, p. 74), 
that letters are eternal ; since it is clear that pr anfl other letters are 
produced, and therefore cannot be eternal. ^The recognition of these 
letters has reference to their being of the same species as we have per- 
ceived before; since otherwise we are 'landed in th0' absurdity 'that, 
because we recognize a jar or any other such object" to be the same, it 
must therefore be eternal. < * 

p. c 

" He expresses a doubt : 59. ' What we hear may be merely the 
manifestation of a previously existing thing, as a jar is manifested (not 
created) by the light of a lamp.' (See Mimansa Aphorisms i. 12, 13 ; 
above, p. 74.) Is it not the fact that it is merely the manifestation of 
previously existing language by sounds, etc., which we perceive as 
originating ? An illustration of such manifestation is that of a jar by 
means of a lamp. 

" He repels this doubt : 60. ' If the axiom that an effect exists in its 
cause be here intended, this is merely proving what is already admitted.' 
If by manifestation is meant the relinquishment by any substance of its 
past (?) condition, and the attainment of its present state, then we have 
merely the recognized principle of an effect virtually existing in its 
cause (see Sankhya Karika Aph. ix.) ; and as such eternity is truly 
predicable of all effects whatever, it is proving a thing already proved 
to assert it here. If, on the other hand, by manifestation be merely 
meant the perception of a thing actually existing, then we shall be in- 
volved in the absurdity of admitting that jars, etc., also are eternal, etc." 


SECT. X. On the use which the authors of the different Darsanas make 
of Vedic texts, and the mode of interpretation which they adopt. 

I have already (in p. 107) touched on the mode of interpretation ap- 
plied by the author of the Brahma Sutras, or his commentator S'ankara 
Acharyya, to the Vf.dic texts, derived chiefly from 1 the Brah/nanas and 
Upanishads, on which the Vedantic doctrines are based, or by which they 
are defended, or with which, at least, they are asserted to be consistent. 
It will, however, be interesting to enquire a little more in detail into the 
extent te which the Indian scriptures are appealed to, and the manner 
in which they are treated by the authors or expounders of the different 


Darsanas. Theefy'ect proposed by the Purva-mimansa is an enquiry 
into duty (dharma-ftjnasa Aph. i.). Duty is defined as something en- 
joined by the ^feda\chodand-^ahhano 'rtho dharmah Aph. ii.); and 
which canjiot be ascertained to be duty except through such injunc- 
tion. 131 , The first six lectures of the Mimansa, according to Mr. Cole- 
brooke, "treat 'of positive injunction.; " the remaining six concern "in- 
direct command/" * The Authority of enjoined duty is the topic of the 
first leciure : its 'differences, and varieties, its parts, .... and the pur- 
pose of performance, are successively considered, in the three next. . .> . 
The order of performance occupies the fifth lecture ; and qualification 
for its performance is treated in the sixth. The subject of indirect 
precept is opened in >he seventh lecture generally, and in the eighth 
particularly. Inferable changes, adapting to the variation or copy 
what was designed for the type or model, are discussed in the ninth, 
and bars or exceptions in the tenth. Concurrent efficacy is considered 
in the eleventh lecture; and co-ordinate effect in the twelfth." .... 
" Other matters are introduced by the way, being suggested by the 
main topic or its exceptions" (Misc. Essays, i. 304 f.). It appears, 
therefore, that the general aim of the Purva-mimansa is (1) to prove 
the authority of the Yeda, and then to (2) deduce from it the duties, 
whether enjoined directly or indirectly, which are to be performed, the 
manner and conditions of their performance, and their results. It is 
also termed the Karma-mimansa, "as relating to works or religious ob- 
servances to be undertaken for*specific ends" (ColeJ)rooke, i. 296, 325). 
The Brahma-mimansa, or Vedanta, is, according to the same author, 
the complement of the Karma- mimansa, and "is termed tittara, later, 
contrasted with purva, prior, being the investigation of proof deducible 
from the V t edas in regard to theology, as the other is in regard to works 
and their merit. The two together, then, comprise the complete system 
of interpretation of the precepts and doctrine of the Vedas, both prac- 
tical and theological. They -are parts of one whole. The later Mimansa 
is supplementary to the prior, and is expressly affirmed to be so : but 
differing on many important points, though agreeing on others, they 
are essentially distinct in a religious as well as a philosophical view" 
(Misc. Ess. i. 325). In fact the Brahma-mimansa proceeds upon a de- 
preciation of the value of the objects aimed at by the Karma-mimansa, 
131 See Ballantyne's Mimansa aphorisms, p. 7. 


since the rewards which the latter holds out even in .-A future state are 
but of temporary duration ; and according to S'anVara it is not even 
necessary that the seeker after a knowledge ofy Bra.hma should first 
have studied the Karma-mimansa before hei conceives 1 rt^e desire to 
enter upon the higher enquiry (nanv ilia karmdvalodhanantaryyam vise- 
shah | na | dharma-fijndsdya h prdg apy ad*>iita-teddntasy& Brahma-jynd. 
sopapatteTi). (S'ankara on Brahma Sutra, i. 1, l f p. .25 of Bibl.' Ind.) 
This is distinctly expressed in the following passage, p. 28 : 

Tasmdt kirn api vaktavyam yad-anantaram Brahma-jijndsd upadisyate 
. Hi | uchyate \ nityanitya-vastu-vivekah ihdmutrdrtha-phala-lhoga-vira- 
gah sama-damddi-sddhana-sampad mumukshatvam cha \ tesJiu hi satsu 
prdg api dharma-jijndstiydh urddhvam cha sakyatf Brahma jijndsayitum 
jndtum cha na viparyyaye \ tasmad " atha" sabdvna yathokta-sddhana- 
sampatty-dnantaryyam upadisyate \ " atah" sabdo hetv-arthah \ yasmdd 
vedah eva agnihotrddinum sreyas-sadhananam anitya-phalatam darsayati 
" tad yathd ilia karma-chito lokah kshlyate evam eva amuttra punya-chito 
lokah kshlyate" ity-adi \ tathu Brahma-vijnanad api par am purushdr- 
thaffi darsayati Brahma-vid dpnoti param " ity-adi \ tasmad yathokta- 
sadhana-sampatty-anantaram Brahma-jijndsd kartavyd \ 

The author is explaining the word atha ' now,' or ' next,' with 
which the first Sutra begins ; and is enquiring what it is that is re- 
ferred to as a preliminary to the enquiry regarding Brahma : " What, 
then, are we to say that that is after which the desire to know Brahma 
is enjoined? ' The answer is, 'it is ther discrimination between eternal 
and non-eternal substance, indifference to the enjoyment of rewards 
either in this world or the next, the acquisition of 'the means of tran- 
quillity and self-restraint, and the desire for final liberation. For if 
these requisites be present, a knowledge of Brahma can be desired, and 
Brahma can be known, even before, as well as after, an enquiry has 
been instituted into duty. But the converse does not hold good (i.e. 
without the requisites referred to, though a man may have a know- 
ledge of duty, i.e. of, ceremonial observances, he possesses no,, prepara- 
tion for desiring to know Brahma). Hence by the word atha it is 
enjoined that the desire in question should follow the possession of 
those requisites.' The next word ata~h, 'hence,' denotes the reason. 
Because the Yeda itself, by employing such words as these, ' Where- 
fore just as in this life the world which has been gained by works 


perishes, so too 'l.n. a future life the world gained by merit perishes ' 
points out that ti^ rewards of the agnihotra sacrifice and other in- 
struments of attinir% happiness are but temporary. And by such 
texts as th^s, ^He who knows Brahma attains the highest exaltation,' 
the Veda further shews that the highest end of man is acquired by the 
knowledge of Brahma. Hence the. desire to know Brahma is to be 
entertained after the acquisition of the means which have been already 
referred, to." , 

In the Mintansa Sutras, i. 1, 5, as we have seen above (p. 71), Bada r 
rayana, the reputed author of the Brahma Sutras, is referred to as con- 
curring in the doctrine there laid down. But in many parts of the 
Brahma Sutras, the opviions of Jaimini are expressly controverted, both 
on grounds of reason and scripture, as a\ variance with those of Bada- 
rayana. 132 

I adduce some instances of this difference of opinion between the 
two schools : 

"We have seen above, p. 99, that according to the Brahma Sutrasthe 
gods possess the prerogative (adhikura) of acquiring divine science. 
This, however, is contested by Jaimini (see Brahma Sutras, i. 3, 31), 
who objects (1) that in that case (as all divine sciences possess the 
characteristic of being science) the gods would also have the prerogative 
of becoming adepts in the science called Madhuvidya, etc., which would 
be absurd, because the sun (Aditya), being the virtual object of worship 
in the ritual connected with tlftxt science, could not be worshipped by 
another sun, who, according to the supposition, would be one of the 
deities skilled in it, and one of the worshippers. Similar difficulties 
are furnished by other cases, as, for instance, that on the hypothesis 
referred to, the Vasus, Ruclras, and three other classes of gods, would 
be at once the objects to be known and the knowers. In the next 
Sutra the further objection is made (2) that the celestial luminaries, 
commonly called gods, are io reality destitute of sensation and desire ; 
and on this ground also the prerogative in questio&is denied to the sup- 
posed deities. Badarayana replies in the 33rd Sutra (1) that although 

132 Dr. Ballantyne refers to the Mlmiinsakas as being the objectors alluded to by 
S'ankara in his remarks which introduce and follow Brahma Sutra, i. 1, 4; but as 
Jaimini is not expressly mentioned there, I shall not quote this text in proof of my 
assertion. See Ballantyne's Aphorisms of the Vedanta, p. 12. 


the gods cannot concern, themselves with, such branched of knowledge as 
the Madhuvidya, with which they themselves are mi&ed up, yet they do 
possess the prerogative of acquiring pure divine sc[ .enc*, as that depends 
on the desire and capacity for it, and the non-existence of a^ny obstacle 
to its acquisition (tathdpy asti hi suddJidydm Irahma-vidydydm samlJiavo 
'rthitva-sdmarthydp'i-atishedhddy-apelcsliatvtid adhikdrasyti). An excep- 
tion in regard to a particular class of cases cannot) heurges, set aside a 
rule which otherwise holds good ; for if it did,, the Circumstance that 
the generality of men belonging to the three highest castes are excluded 
from the performance of particular rites, such as the Rajasuya, would 
have the effect of rendering them incapable of performing any sacrifice 
whatever. And he goes on to cite several Ye/lic texts which prove 
that the gods have both the capacity and the desire for divine know- 
ledge. Thus : Tad yo yo devundm pratyabudhyata sa eva tad abliavat 
tathd rishlndih tathd manushydndm \ " Whosoever, whether of gods, 
rishis, or men, perceived That, he became That." Again : Te ha uchur 
" Jt^nta tarn dtmdnam anvichhumo yam dtmdnam anvishya sarvdn lolcdn 
dpnoti sarvdms cha Mmdn " iti \ Indro ha vai devundm abhi pravavrdja 
Virochano ' surdnum iti \ "They said, 'come, we shall enquire after 
that Soul, after investigating which, one obtains all worlds, and all ob- 
jects of desire.' Accordingly Indra among the gods, and Virochana 
among the Asuras, set out " ("to go to Prajapati the bestower of divine 
knowledge," according to Govinda Ananda). And in reply to the second 
objection, S'ankara maintains that the sum and other celestial luminaries 
are each of them embodied deities possessed of intelligence and power; 
an assertion which he proceeds to prove from texts both of the Veda and 
the Smriti. He then replies to a remark of the Mlmansakas, referred to 
under Sutra 32, that allusions in the Yedic mantras and arthavadas (illus- 
trative passages) cannot prove the corporeality of the gods, as these texts 
have another object in view : and his reply is that it is the evidence, 
or the want of evidence, derivable from any texts which occasions us to 
believe or disbelieve, in the existence of anything ^and not the circum- 
stance that such a text was or was not primarily intended to prove that 
particular point. The Mimansaka is represented as still unsatisfied : but 
I need not carry my summary further than to say that S'ankara concludes 
by pointing out that the' precepts which enjoin the offerings to certain 
gods imply that these gods have a particular form which the wor- 


shipper can contemplate ; and that in fact such contemplation is en- 
joined in the text,' .XV Let the worshipper when about to repeat the 
Vashatkara meditate o^ the deity to whom the oblation is presented " 
(yasyai devaffiyai havir grihltam sydt tarn dhydyed vashatkarishyan}. 133 

In Brahma Sutras, iii. 4, 1, it is laid down* as the principle of Bada- 
rayan'a that the knowledge of Soul, described in the 4Jpanishads, is the 
sole means of attaining the highest end of man, i.e. final liberation; 
that it is not to lie sought with a view to, and that its operation is 
altogether independent of, ceremonial observances^ <^#/ | asmdt veddnta- t 
vihitdd dtma-jndndt svatantrdt purusJidrtJiah siddhyati iti Bddardyanah 
dcJiaryyo jnanyate}. This he proves by various texts (ity-evam-jdtlyaTcd 
srutir vidydydh Icevaldydh purushdrtha - hetutvam srdvayati], such as 
Tarati so/cam dtma-vit \ sa yo ha vai tqf param Bfahma veda Brahma eva 
Ihavati \ Brahma-vid tipnoti param \ "He who knows soul overpasses 
grief" (Chhandogya Up. see above, p. 33) ; " He who knows that Brah- 
ma becomes Brahma ;" " He who knows Brahma obtains the highest 
(exaltation) ; " etc. In the following Sutra (2) Jaimini is introduced 
as contesting this principle, and as affirming that the knowledge of soul 
is to be acquired with a view to the performance of ceremonial works. 
The Sutra in question, as explained by S'ankara, means that " as the 
fact that soul is an agent in works implies an ultimate regard to works, 
the knowledge of soul must also be connected with works by means of 
its object" (karttritvena dtmanah Jcarma-seshatvdt tad-vijndnam api . . . 
visliaya-dvdrena, karma-samlandhfi eva iti}. The same view is further 
stated in the following Sutras 3-7, where it is enforced by the example 
of sages who possessed the knowledge of Brahma and yet sacrificed 
(Sutra 3), by a text which conjoins knowledge and works (Sutra 5), by 
a second which intimates that a person who knows all the contents of 
the Yeda has a capacity for ceremonial rites (Sutra 6), and by others (7). 
S'ankara replies under Sutra 8 to the view set forth in Sutra 2, which he 
declares to be founded on a mistake, as "the soul which is proposed in 
the Upanishads as thS object of knowledge is not .the embodied soul, 
but the supreme Spirit, of which agency in regard to rites is not pre- 
dicable. That knowledge, he affirms, does not promote, but on the 

133 The passage in which S'ankara goes on to answer the objection that in cases 
like this the Itihasas and Puranus afford no independent evidence, will fce quoted 
below. ' 


contrary, puts an end to all works " (na cha tad-n&ndnam karmandm 
pravarttakam lhavati pratyuta tat karmdny uclichhity-tti], and under Sutra 
16 he explains how this takes place, viz. by th^ fackthat " knowledge 
annihilates the illusory conceptions of work, V orker, and regard, which 
are caused by ignorance, and are necessary conditions of capacity for 
ceremonial observances" (Api cha karmddhikdra-hetfrh kriyd-kdraka- 
phala-lakshanasya samastasya prapanchasya avidyik-krvtasya vidya-samar- 
thydt svarupopamarddatn dmanarM). To Sutra 3 Badsi'ayana replies that 
,the ceremonial practice of sages is the same whether they do oV do not 
acquire knowledge with a view to works ; to Sutra 5, by saying that in 
the text in question works and knowledge are not referable to one and 
the same person, but works to one and knowledge to another ; and to 
Sutra 6, by declaring that it is merely the reading 1 of the Veda, and not a 
knowledge of all its contents that is referred to in the text in question. 
Another reason assigned in Sutra 17 to shew that divine knowledge is 
not dependent on, 'or subservient to works, is that ascetics who practise 
no Vedic ceremonies are yet recognized in the Veda as competent to 
acquire it (urdhhvaretassu cha usrameshu vidyd sruyate na cha tattra kar- 
mangatvam vidyaydh upapadyate karmdbhdvtit \ na hy agnihottrddlni vai- 
dikdni karmdni teshdm santi}. In the following Sutra (18) Jaimini is 
introduced as questioning the validity of this argument on the ground 
that the Vedic texts, which are adduced in support of it, merely allude to 
the existence of ascetics, and do not recognize such an order as consistent 
with Vedic usage, or that they have another object, or are ambiguous ; 
while another text actually reprehends the practice of asceticism. To 
this Badarayana rejoins in Sutra 19, that the texts in question prove 
the recognized existence of the ascetic order as much as that of any 
other ; and that the alleged ambiguity of one of the passages is removed 
by the consideration that as two of the three orders referred to, viz. 
those of the householder and brahmacharin, are clearly indicated, the 
third can be no other than that of the ascetic. The subject is further 
pursued in the nex* Sutra 20, where the author r and his commentator 
(who adduces additional texts) arrive at the conclusion that the prac- 
tice of asceticism is not only alluded to, but enjoined in the Veda, and 
that consequently knowledge, as being inculcated on those who practise 
it, is altogether independent of works (tasmdt siddhd urddhvaretasah 
asramdh sidftham cha urddhvaretassu vidhdndd vidyaydh svutantryam}. 


Again in Brahn,^. Sutras, iv. 3, 7-14, the question is discussed whether 
the words sa etdn A, ;tihma gamayati, "He conducts them to Brahman," 
refer to the supreme Brahma, or to the created Brahma. Bildari 
(Sutra 7) holds 'that the latter is meant, whilst Jaimini (in Sutra 12) 
maintains that the former is intended. The conclusion to which the 
comm'entaior comes at the closfe of his remarks on Sitra H is that the 
view ta"ken by right, whilst Jaimini's opinion is merely ad- 
vanced to display ^s own ability (tasmtit " kdryyam Bddarir" ity esha 
eva pahfiah sthitah \ " param Jaiminir" iti cka pakshdntara-pratipd-% 
dana-mdttra-pradarsanam prajnd-vikdsandya iti drashtavyam}. 

Further, in Brahma Sutras, iv. 4, 10, it is stated to be the doctrine 
of Badari that the sage, who has attained liberation no longer retains 
his body or bodily organs, but his mind (manas) alone, whilst in the 
following Sutra (11) it is declared to be Jaimini's opinion that he re- 
tains his body and senses also. In the 12th Sutra it is laid do\^p as 
the decision of Badarayana that either of the two supposed states may 
be assumed at will by the liberated spirit. 

Jaimini and his opinions are also mentioned in Brahma Sutras i. 2, 
28, and 31 ; i. 4, 18 ; and iv. 4, 5. 

I shall now adduce some illustrations of the claims which the 
founders of the other philosophical schools put forward on behalf of 
their own principles as being in conformity with the Vedas. I begin 
with a passage on this subject from S'ankara's note introductory to 
Brahma Sutras i. 1, 5 ff. : * 

Brahma cha t>arvajnam sarvasaktijagad-utpatti-sthiti-ndsa-kdranam ity 
uktam | Sdnkhyddayal tu parinishthitam vastu pramdndntara-gamyam eva 
iti manyamdndh pradhdnddmi kdrandntardni anumimdnds tat-paratayd 
eva veddnta-vdkydni yojayanti \ sarveshv evd tu veddnta-vdkyeshu srishti- 
vishayeshu anumdnena eva kdryyena kdranam lilakxliayiahitam \ Pra- 
dhdna-purusha-samyogdh nitydnumeydh iti Sdnkhydh manyante \ Kdnd- 
dds tc etebhyah eva vdkyebhyah Isvaram nimttta-kdranam anumimate 
anums cha samavai/i-k.iranam \ evam anye ' 'pi tdikikdfy vdhydbhdsa-yukty- 
dbhdsdvashtumbhdh purca-paksha-vddinah ilia uttishthante \ tattra pada- 
vdkya-pramuna-jnena dchdryyena veddnta-vuki/dnum Brahmdvagati-para- 
tva-pradarsandya vdkydbhdsa -yukty-dbhdxa-i>ratipattayah purvapakshl- 
Icritya nirdkriyante \ tattra Sdnkhydh pradhditam triyunam affretanam 
jayatah kdranam iti manyamdndh dhur " ydni veddnta-vdkyini sarvajna' 




sya sarvasakter Brahmano jagat-kdranatvam pratiwfttayanti ity avochas 
tdni pradhdna-kdrana-pakshe 'pi yojayitum sakutnte \ sarvasaktitvam 
tdvat pradhdnasydpi sva-vikdra-vishayam upapridyade \ evam sarvajna- 
tvam upapadyate \ katham \ yat tvam jndnam f manyase sa saftva-dharmah 
" sattvdt sanjdy ate jndnam" Hi smriteh \ tena cha sattva-dharmena 
jndnena kdryya-kflranavantah purushdh sarvajndh yogtnah prasiddhdh \ 
sattvasya hi niratisayotkarshe sarvajnatvam prasiddham \ na cha kevalasya 
akdryya-kdranasya purushasya" upalabdhi-mdtfc'asycf'sarva-jnatvam kin- 
'chij-jnatvam vd kalpqyitum Sakyam \ trigunatvdt tu pradhdnasya sarva- 
jndna-kdrana-bhutam sattvam pradhdndvasthdydm apividyate iti pradhd- 
nasya achetanasya eva satah sarvajnatvam upachcCryyate veddnta-vdkyeshu \ 
avasyam cha tvayd ''pi sarvajnam Brahma alhyupagachhatd sarva-jndna- 
saktimattvena eva sarvajnatvam abhyupagantavyam \ na hi sarva-vishayam 
jndnam kurvad eva Brahma varttate \ tathd hijndnasya nityatve jndna- 
kr^dm prati svdtantryam hlyeta \ atha anityam tad iti jndna-kriydydh 
uparame uparameta api Brahma \ tadd sarva-jndna-iaktimattvena eva 
sarvajnatvam dpatati \ api cha prdg utpatteh sarva-kdraka-sunyam Brah- 
ma ishyate tvayd \ na cha jndna-sddhandndm sarirendriyddlndm alhdve 
jndnotpattih kasyachid upapannd \ api cha pradhdnasya anekdtmakasya 
parindma-sambhavdt kdranatvopapattir mrid-ddi-vat \ na asamhatasya 
ekdtmakasyaBrahmanah \ ity evam prdpte idam sutram dralhyate \ 5. "Ik- 
shater na \ asabdam" \ na Sdnkhya-parikalpitamachetanampradhdnamja- 
gatah kdranam sakyam veddnteshv dsrayitum \ asabdam hi tat \ katham 
asaldam \ " ikshiteh" \ ikshitritva-srdvandt kdranasya \ katham \ evam hi 
sruyate "Sad eva saumya idam agre dsld ekam eva qdvitiyam " ity upakra- 
mya" tad aikshata ' bahu sydm prajdyeya 1 iti tat tejo 'srijata" iti \ tattra 
idam-sabda-vdchyam ndma-rupa-vydkritam jagat prdg utpatteh sad-dt- 
mand 'vadhdryya tasya eva prakritasya sach-chhabda-vdch?iasya ikshana- 
purvakam tejah-prabhriteh srashtritvam darsayati \ tathd cha anyatra 
" dtmd vai idam ekah eva agre dslt \ na any at kinchana mishat \ sa aik- 
shata 'lokdn nu srijai' iti sa imdn lokdn"asrijata " iti ikshd-purvikdm eva 
srishtim dchashte f . . . . ity-evam-ddlny api sarvajnesvara-kfcrana-pardni 
vdkydny uddharttavydni \ yat tu uktam " sattva-dharmena jndnena sar- 
vajnam pradhdnam bhavishyati " iti tad na upapadyate \ na hi pradhd- 
ndvasthdydm guna-sdmydt sattva-dharmo jndnam sambhavati \ nanu 
uktam* " sarva-jndna-saktimattvena sarvajnam bhavishyati" iti tad api na 
upapadyate \ yadi grna-sdmye sati sattva-vyapdsraydih jndna-iaktim 


dsritya sarvajnam ^radhdnam uchyeta kdmam rajas-tamo-vyapdsraydm 
api jndna-pratilandh^fli-saktim dsritya kinchij-jnatvam uchyeta \ api cha 
na asdkshikd sattvh-vrntir j'dndti, na abhidhiyate \ na cha achetanasya 
pradhdnasya \sakshitvam aiti \ tasmdd anupannam pradhdnasya sarvaj'na- 
tvam | yofffndm tu chetanatvdt sarvotkarsha-nimittam sarvaj'natvam upa- 
pannam ity amitldharanam \ atha punah sdkshi-nimittam ikshitritvam 
pradhdnasya kalpfeta *yathd t agni-nimittam ayah-pinddder dagdhritvam 
tathd sati,yan-nimitiam ihshitritvam pradhdnasya tad eva sarvajnam mukh- 
yam Brahma jagatah kdranam iti yuktam \ yat 'punar uktam Brahmano 
J pi na mukhyam sarvajnatvam upapadyate nitya-jndna-kriyatve j'ndna- 
kriytim prati svdtantryasambhavdd ity attra uchyate \ idaih tdvad bhavtin 
prashtavyah " Icatham nitya-jndna-kriyatve sarvajnatva-hdnir" iti\ yasya 
hi sarva-vishayduabhusana-kshamam j'ndnam nityam asti so 'sarvajnah iti 
vipratishiddham \ anityatve hi jndnasyaJtaddchij jdndti kaddchidna jdndti 
ity asarvaj'natvam api sydt \ na asau jndna-nityatve dosho 'sti \ jndna- 
nityatve jndna-vishayah svdtantrya-vyapade&o na upapadyate iti chet \ 
na \ pratataushna-prahdse 'pi savitari dahati prakdsayati iti svdtantrya- 
vyapadesa-darsandt \ nanu savitur ddhya-praMsya-samyoge sati dahati 
prakdsayati iti vyapadesak sydt \ na tu Brahmanah prdg utpatter jndna- 
karma-samyogo 'sti iti vishamo drishldntah \ na \ asaty api karmani savitu 
prakdsate iti karttritva-vyapadesa-darsandt \ evam asaty api jndna-kar- 
mani Brahmanas " tad aikshata" iti karttritva-vyapadesopapatter na vai- 
shamyam \ karmdpekshdydm tu Brah,mani ikshitritva-srutayah sutardm 
upapanndh \ kim punas tat karma yat prdg utpatter Isvara-j'ndnasya 
vishayllhavati iti \ tattvdnyatvdbhydm anirvachanlye ndma-rupe avyti- 
krite vydchiklrshite iti Irumah \ yat-prasdddd hi yogindm apy atitdnd- 
gata-vishayam pratyaksham jndnam ichhant\ yoga-sdstra-vidah kimu vak- 
tavyam tasya^nitya-suddhasya isvarasya srishti-sthiti-samhriti-vishayam 
nitya-jndnam lhavati iti \ yad Spy uktam prdg utpatter Brahmanah sarl- 
rddi-samlandham antarena ikshitritvam anupapannam iti na'tach chodyam 
avatarati savitri-prakdsa-vad Brahmano jndna-svarupa-nityatrena jndna- 
sddhandpekjhdnupapatteh | . . . . yad apy uktam " pradhdnasya anekdt- 
makatvdd mrid-ddi-vat kdranatvopapattir na asamhatasya Brahmanah " 
iti tat pradhdnasya asaldatvenaev^pratyuktam \ yathd tu tarkendpi Brah- 
manah eva kdranatvam nirvodhum sakyate na pradhdnddmdih tathd pra- 
panchayishyate " na vilakshanatvdd asya" ity-evam-ddind (Brahma Su- 
tras ii. 1, 4) | -, 


Attra aha yad uktam " na achetanam pradhdnamjUgat-kuranam ikshi- 
tritva-sravandd " iti tad anyathd'py ,upapadyate,^ achetane 'pi chetana- 
vad upachdra-darsandt \ pratydsanna-pdtanatdni.kulaxya dlakshi/a kulam 
pipatishati ity achetane 'pi kule chetana-vad upachdro drishta?,tad-vad ache- 
fane 'pi pradhdne pratydsanna-sarge chetana-vad upachdro bhavishyati 
"tad aikshata" tti \ yathd lake kaschich chetanah sridtvd bhuktvd cha 
" apardhnegrdmam rathena gamishydmi" if.i IksMtvfr anantaram tathaiva 
niyamena pravarttate tathd pradhunam api makad-d&y-ukdrena* niyamena 
pravarttate \ ta&mdck, chetana-vad upacharyyate \ kasmdt punaK Jcarttnad 
vihuya mukhyam ikshitritvam aupachdrikam kalpyate \ " tat tejah aik- 
shata " " tdh dpah aikshanta" iti cha achetanayor apy ap-tejasos chetana- 
vad upachdra-darsanat | tasmdt sat-karltrikam' api ikshanam aupachuri- 
kam iti gamyate upaehdra-prdye vachandd ity evam prdpte idam sutram 
drabhyate \ 6. "Gaunas chet \ na \ dtma-sabddt" \ yad uktam pradhunam 
achetanam sach-chhabda-vdchyam tasminn aupachdrikl ikshitir ap-tejasor 
iva iti tad asat \ kasmdt \ dtma-sabddt \ " sad eva saumya idam agre 
asld" ity upakramya "tad aikshata tat tejo 'srijata " iti cha tejo 'b-annd- 
ndm srishtim uktvd tad eva prakritam sad ikshitri tuni cha tejo-b-anndni 
devatd-sabdena pardmrisya aha " su iyam devatd aikshata hanta aham 
imds tisro devatdh anena jivena dtmand 'nupravisya ndma-rupe vydkara- 
vdni" iti | tattra yadi pradhunam achetanam guna-vrittyu ikshitri kal- 
pyeta tad eva prakritatvdt sd iyam devatd pardmrisyeta \ na tadd devatd 
jlvam dtma-sabdena abhidadhydt \ jlvo hi ndma chetanah sarlrddhyakshah 
prdnandm dhdrayitu prasiddher nirvdchandch cha \ sa katham achetanasya 
pradhdnasya dtmd bhavet \ dtmd hi ndmd svarupam \ na achetanasya 
pradhdnasya chetano jlvah svdrupam bhavitum arhati \ attra tu che- 
tanam Brahma mukhyam ikshitri parigrihyate \ tasya jlva-vishayah 
atma-sabda-prayogah upapadyate \ tathd " sa yah esho f 'mmd etaddt- 
myam idam sarvam tat satyam sa dtfkd tat tvam asi S'vetaketo " ity 
attra " sa dtmd " iti prakritam sad-anirndnam dtmunam dtma-sabdena 
upadisya "tat tvam asi S'vetaketo" iti'-chetanasya S'vetaketor dtmatvena 
upadisati \ ap - tkjasos tu vishayatvdd achetanatvam ntimtf- rupa - vyd- 
karanudau cha prayojyatvena eva nirdesut \ na cha dtma - sabda - vat 
kinchid mukhyatve kdranam asti iti y.uktam kula-vad gaunatvam ikshi- 
tritvasya \ tayor api cha sad-adhishfhitatvdpeksham eva tks/n'tritvam \ 
satas iv dtma-sabddd na gaunam ikshitritvam ity uktam \ atha uchyate \ 
achetane' pi pradhune bhavaty dtma-sabdah \ dtmanah sarvdrtha-kdritvdt \ 


yathd rdjnah sarvd.- f ha-7cdrini bhritye bhavaty dtma-sabdo "mama utmd 
Bhadrasenah " iti \ prndhdnam hi yurushdtmano m bhogdpavargau kurvad 
upakaroti rdjnah ufe bhfytyah sandhi-vigrahddishu varttamdnah \ athavd 
ekah eva dtr^a-sabdas chelandchetana-vishayo bhavishyati "bhutdtmd" 
" indriydtmd " iti cha prayoga-darsandd yathd ekah eva jyotih-sabdah 
kratu-jvalana-visJtayah \ tattra kutah etad dtma-sabdddlkshiter agaunatvam 
ity attra uttaram p&thati \ 7. " Tan-nishthasya mokshopadesat " | na pra- 
dhanam afhetanam &tma-$abdalambanam 'bhavitum arhati "sa utmd" iti 
prakritafh, sad animunam uddya " tat tvam asi S^vetaketo " iti chetanasya 
S'vetaketor mokshayitavyasya tan-nishthdm upadisya " Acharyyavan pu- 
rusho veda tasya tdvad eva chiram ydvad na vimokshye atha sampatsye" 
iti mokshopadesdt \ yadiJiy achetanam pradhdnam saeh-chhabda-vdchyam 
"tad asi" iti grdhayeU mumukshum chetanam santam " achetano 'si" 
iti tadd viparlta-vddi sdstram purushasya anarthdya ity apramdnam 
sydt | na tu nirdosham sdstram apramdnam kalpayitum yuktam \ yadt 
cha ajnasya sato mumukshor achetanam andtmdnam " utmd " ity upadiset 
pramdna-bhutam sdstram sa sraddadhdnatayd 'ndha-go-langula-nydyena 
tad-dtma-drishtim na parityajet tad-vyatiriktam cha dtmdnam na prati- 
padyeta \ tathd sati purushdrthdd vihanyeta anartham cha richhet \ tas- 
mdd yathd svargddy-arthino ' ' gnihotrddi-sddhanam yathd-bhutam upadi- 
sati tathd mumukshor api " sa atmd \ tat tvam asi S'vetaketo" iti 
yathd - bhutam eva dtmdnam upadisati iti yuktam \ evam cha sati 
tapta -parasu -grahana -moksha-drishtdntena satydbhisandhasya moksho- 
padesah upapadyate | . . . . ta&mdd na sad - animany dtma - sabdasya 
gaunatvam \ bhritye tu svdmi - bhritya - bhedasya pratyakshatvdd upa- 
panno gaunah dtma-sabdo " mama dtma, Bhadrasenah " iti \ api cha 
kvachid gaunah sabdo drishtah iti na etdvatd sabda-pramdnake 'rthe 
gaum kalpand nydyyd sarvattra andsvdsa -prasangdt \ yat tu uktafn 
chetandchetanayoh sddhdranah dtma-sabdah kratu-jvalanayor iva jyotih- 
sabdah iti \ tad na \ anekdrthatvasya anydyyatvdt \ tasmdch chetana- 
vishayah eva mukhyah dtma-saMas chetanatvopachdrdd bhutddishu pra- 
yujyate " blvitdtmd " '*" indriydtmd " iti cha \ sddhtiranatve J py dtma- 
sabdasya na prakaranam upapadam vd kinchid niichdyakam antarena an- 
yatara-vrittitd nirdhdrayitum sakyate I na cha atra achetanasyanischd- 
yakam kinchit kdranam asti prakritam tu sad ikshitri sanmliitas cha 
chvtanah S'vetaketuh \ na hi chetanasya S'vetakeCor achetanah dtmd sam- 
114 The edition printed in Bengali characters reads purushasya afmanah. 


bhavati ity avochama \ tasmdch chetana-vishayah iha dtma-6abdah iti 
nischlyate \ , 

" And it has been declared that Brahma, omnfsciett-t and omnipotent, 
is the cause of the creation, continuance, and' destruction qf the world. 
But the Sankhyas and others, holding that an ultimate (parinishthita) 5 
substance is discoverable by other proofs, and inferring' the existence of 
Pradhana or other causes, apply the texts of the>Upunishads as having 
reference to these. For (they assert that) all the texfe of the Upauishads 
which relate to the crpation, design inferentially to indicate the 'cause by 
the effect. The Sankhyas think that the conjunctions of Pradhana and 
Purusha (Soul) are to be inferred as eternal. From the very same texts 
the followers of Kanada (the Yaiseshikas) deduce that Isvara is the in- 
strumental cause and atoms the material cause 136 (of the world). So, too, 
other rationalizing objectors rise up who rely on fallacies founded on texts 
or reasoning. Here then our teacher (achdryya), who understood both 
words and sentences and evidence, with the view of pointing out that 
the texts of the Upanishads have for their object the revelation of 
Brahma, first puts forward and then refutes the fallacies founded by 
those persons on texts or reasoning. The Sankhyas regarding Pradhana, 
consisting of the three qualities (gunas, viz. sattva, rajas, and tamas, or 
" Goodness," " Passion," and " Darkness "), and inanimate, as the cause 
of the world, tell us : (a) ' Those texts in the Upanishads which, as you 
say, declare that an omniscient and omnipotent Brahma is the cause of 
the world, can be applied to support' the view that Pradhana is the 
cause. For omnipotence in regard to its own developments is properly 
predicable of Pradhana also ; and omniscience too may be rightly 
ascribed to it. You will ask, how ? "We answer (5), "What you call know- 
ledge is a characteristic of ' Goodness ' (sattva), according to the text of 
the Smriti, 'From Goodness springs knowledge.' And (c) through this 
knowledge, which is a characteristic of Goodness, Yogins, who are men 


135 Compare Sankhya Sutras, i. 69; paramparyye 'p& ekatra parinishtha, etc., 
which Dr. Ballantyne renders, " Even if there be a succession, there is a halt (pari- 
tiishtha) at some one point,*" etc. 

1 . 36 The^phrase so translated is samavayi-karanam. The word samavaya is rendered 
by Dr. Ballantyne, in his translation of the fihashaparichheda (published January, 
1851), p. 22, by "intimate Delation" (the same phrase as Dr. Roer had previously 
employed in 1850) ; and in the translation of the Tarka-sangraha (published in 
September of frie same year^, pp. 2 and 4, by " co-inherence." 


with bodily organs, 137 are reputed to be omniscient; for owing to the 
transcendent excellence of Goodness its omniscience is matter of notoriety. 
Nor it is only of ia person (purmha) whose essence is mere perception, 
and who is dev6id of corporeal organs, that either omniscience or partial 
knowledge can be predicated : but from Pradhana being composed of 
the three qualities, Goodness, which is the cause of omniscience, belongs 
to it tdo in the condition of Pradhana. And so in the texts of the Upa- 
nishads pmnisciene is figuratively ascribed to it, although it is uncon- 
scious. " And (d] you also, who recognize an omniscient Brahma, must 
of necessity acknowledge that His omniscience consists in His possessing 
the power of omniscience. For He does not continually exercise know- 
ledge in regard to all objects. For (e} if His knowledge were continual. 
His self-dependence (or voluntary action) in reference to the act of know- 
ledge would be lost. But if knowledge be not continual, then when 
the act of knowledge ceases Brahma must cease (to know). And so 
omniscience results from the possession of the power of omniscience. 
Further (/) you, too, hold that before the creation Brahma was devoid 
of any impulse to action. Nor can knowledge be conceived to arise in 
anyone who has no bodily organs or other instruments of knowledge. 
Moreover (g} causality can properly be ascribed to Pradhana (as it can 
to earth, etc.) owing to the variety in its nature, 138 and the consequent 
possibility of its development, but not to Brahma whose essence is simple 
and uniform.' These arguments having been urged, the following Sutra 
is introduced : 5. 'No; for in coasequence of the word 'beholding' being 
employed, your view is contrary to the Veda.' (a) The unconscious Pra- 
dhana, imagined by the Sankhyas as the cause of the world, can find no 
support in the TJpanishads. For it is unscriptural. How so ? From its 
beholding, i.e. because the act of 'beholding' (or 'reflecting') is in scrip- 
ture ascribed to the cause. How? Because the Yeda contains a text which 
begins thus : ' This, o fair youth, was in the beginning' ' Existent, one 
without a second' (Chh. Tip. yi. 2, 1); and proceeds: 'It beheld, let 

137 The epithet Jcaryyd-Jiaranavantah is rendered dehendrrya-yukta in the Bengali 
translation of S'ankara's comment, which forms part of ( the edition of the S'arlraka- 
sutras, with comment and gloss, published at Calcutta in 1784 of the S'aka sera. This 
translation is useful for ascertaining ttie general sense, but it does not explain all the 
difficult phrases which occur in the original. 

138 The meaning of this is that Praclhana, as cause, possesses in its natur,j a variety 
corresponding to that exhibited by the different kinds of objects which constitute the 
visible creation ; whilst Brahma is one and uniform. , , 


me multiply, and be propagated.' ' It created light ' (3). By these 
words the scripture, having first determined that the world, denoted by 
the word ' this ' and now developed as Name ad E,prm, subsisted be- 
fore the creation in the form of the l Existent,' then goes on to shew 
that this very subject of the text, denoted by the word ' Existent,' 
became, after 'beholding,' the creator of 'light and other objects. And 
accordingly another text (Ait. Up. i. 1) declares jn th,e following words 
that the creation was preceded,, by ' beholaing : ' ' T^his was in the be- 
ginning Soul, one only ; there was nothing else which saw. 139 . It be- 
held, Let me create worlds; it created these worlds.' " After quoting 
two other texts S'ankara proceeds : "These and other passages may also 
be adduced which shew that an omniscient Isvara was the cause (of all 
things). And (5) the opinion which has been < referred to, that Pra- 
dhana will be omniscient in virtue of the knowledge which is an attri- 
bute of Goodness, is groundless. Eor since the three qualities are in a 
state of equilibrium as long as the state of Pradhana lasts, knowledge 
as an attribute of Goodness cannot then belong to it. And the assertion 
(<?) that Pradhana will be omniscient from possessing the power of 
omniscience is equally untenable. If (#) in reliance on the power of 
knowledge residing in Goodness during the state of equilibrium, it be 
maintained that Pradhana is then omniscient, a merely partial know- 
ledge may with equal reason be ascribed to it on the strength of the 
power to obstruct knowledge which resides in Passion and Darkness 
(the other two qualities which constitute it). Besides, no function of 
Goodness can either be, or be called, knowledge, unless it be accom- 
panied by the power of observing (or witnessing). 'But Pradhana, being 
unconscious, possesses no such power. Consequently the omniscience of 
Pradhana is untenable. And the omniscience of Yogins, (<?) springing 
from their eminence in every attribute, becomes possible inconsequence 
of their being conscious creatures ; and therefore cannot be adduced as 
an illustrative argument in the case before us. If, again, you ascribe to 
Pradhana a power of reflection derived from an obcerver (like the power 
of burning possessed by iron balls, etc., which is derived from fire) 
then it will be right to say that the source from which that power of 
reflection comes to Pradhana, viz. the omniscient Brahma in the proper 
sense, apd nothing else, is the cause of the world. Once more, (e) it is 

139 This is the sense assigned in Bohtlingk and Roth's Lexicon to the word mishat. 
The commentators render it '" moving " (chalet)* 



urged that omniscience cannot in the literal sense be properly attri- 
buted even to Brahma himself, because if the cognitive acts were con- 
tinual, His self-cJepen^ence (or spontaneity), in regard to the act of 
cognition, w^uid be no longer conceivable : we reply, that we must ask 
you how the supposition that cognitive acts are continual, interferes 
with 'the existence of omniscience. Because it is a zontradiction to say 
that he who possesses a perpetual knowledge which can throw light 
upon al^ subjects *an b,e otherwise than omniscient. For although on 
the hypothesis that knowledge is not continual, a negation of omni- 
science would result, as in that case ithe person in question would some- 
times know and sometimes not know, the same objection does not 
attach to the supposition of a perpetuity of knowledge. If you reply 
that on that supposition, self-dependence (or spontaneity), in regard to 
knowledge can no longer be attributed, we deny this, because we ob- 
serve that spontaneity, in regard to burning and illuminating, is attri- 
buted to the sun, although he continually burns and shines. If you 
again object that this illustration does not hold good, because the 
power in question is ascribed to the sun only when his rays are in 
contact with the objects to be burnt or illuminated, whereas before 
the creation, Brahma has no contact with the object of knowledge ; 
we reply that the parallel is -exact, because we observe that agency in 
shining is attributed to the sun even when there is no object [for his 
beams] ; and in the same way agency in regard to 'beholding,' is justly 
ascribed to Brahma, even when there is no object of knowlege. But 
the texts which record the fact of ' beholding ' will be applicable to 
Brahma with still greater propriety if that ' beholding ' have had refer- 
ence to a positive object. What then is the object which is contem- 
plated by Brahma before the* creation ? 'We reply, the undeveloped 
Name and 1'orm which were not describable either in their essence or 
differences, and which He wished to develope. For what need we say 
to prove the perpetual knowledge, relating to the creation, continuance, 
and destruction of ttfe world, which belongs to Isv^ra, the perpetually 
pure, from whose grace it is that the intuitive knowledge of things past 
and future, which men learned in the Yoga doctrine attribute to Yogins, 
is derived ? And as regards the farther objection (/) that Brahma, who 
before the creation was without body or organs of sense, could not be 
conceived to 'behold,' that argument cannot be sustained, as from 


Brahma's existence in the form of knowledge being, like the sun's lustre, 
perpetual, he cannot be supposed dependent upon any (bodily organs 
as) instruments of knowledge." . . . . " Then a^3 regards the assertion 
(#) that Pradhana, from its multiformity of character 'can ( (like earth 
etc.,) be readily conceived as the cause (of the manifold products which 
we see around us); whilst such causality cannot be -ascribed to the 
simple and uniform Brahma, that has been answered by the remark 
that the existence of Pradhana is not established ly scripture. And 
that the causality of Brahma, but not that of Pradhana, etc. 1 , can be 
established by reasoning will hereafter be shewn in the Sutras, * Brah- 
ma, you say, cannot be the material cause of this world, because it 
differs from him in its nature,' etc. (Brahma Sqtras, ii. 1, 4ff.). Here 
the Sankhyas remark : ' As regards your objection that the unconscious 
Pradhana cannot be the cause of the world, because the Veda describes 
that cause as ' beholding,' we observe (7i) that that text, if otherwise 
explained, will be consistent with our view. For we find that even 
unconscious objects are figuratively spoken of as conscious. Thus we 
notice that any one who perceives that the bank of a river is on the 
point of falling, speaks in a figurative way of that unconscious bank as 
intending to fall. 140 In the same way when Pradhana is on the point of 
creating, it can be figuratively said of it/although unconscious, as of a 
conscious being, that it ' beheld.' 141 Just as any conscious person, after 
bathing and eating, resolves that on the following day he will proceed 
to his village in a car, and afterwards a?ts according to that plan, so too 
Pradhana (becoming developed) in the form of Mahat (intellect), etc., 
acts according to a law, and therefore is figuratively spoken of as con- 
scious.. If you ask us, why we abandon the proper sense of ' beholding,' 
and adopt a figurative one, we answer that we do so because we find the 
term figuratively applied to "Water and to Light, though unconscious ob- 
jects, in the Yedic texts, 'The Light beheld,' ' the Waters beheld' (Chh. 
Up. vi. 2, 3f.). Hence from the fact tha,t the expression is for the most 

140 E/ulam pipatishati, litrrally, "The bank wishes to fall;" but, as is well known, 
a verb, or verbal noun, or adjective, in the desiderative form, often indicates nothing 
more than that something is about to happen". Here, however, the Sankhyas are 
introduced as founding a serious argument on this equivocal form of speech. 

141 See' Vijniina Bhikshu's remarks on the Sankhya Sutra, i. 96, where the same 
illustration is given. 


part figuratively employed, we conclude that the act of beholding,' per- 
formed by the ' Existent ' also Tras a figurative one." These objections 
having been brought forward, the following Sutra is introduced : 6. " If 
you say that the act of '^beholding' is figuratively ascribed to Pradhana, 
it is not so, because the word Soul also is applied to the cause." (7t) "The 
assertion that the unconscious Pradhana is designated by the word ' Ex- 
istent,' and that 'behblding' is figuratively ascribed to it, as to Water and 
Lightens incorrect. Why ? Because the word Soul also is employed. The 
text which begins with the words, _ ' This, o fab; youth, was in the be- 
ginning Existent,' and goes on 'It beheld, it created light,' after relating 
the creation of Light, Water, and Food, refers to that 'Existent,' the 
'beholder,' which is the subject of the text, and to Light, Water, and 
Food, under the appellation of deities, thus : ' This deity beheld (or re- 
solved), come let me enter into these three deities with this living Soul, 
and make manifest Name and Form ' (vi. 3, 2). Here if the unconscious 
Pradhana were regarded as being, through the function of the quality (of 
Goodness), the ' beholder,' it would from the context be referred to in 
the phrase ' that deity ;' and then the deity in question could not denote 
a ' living being ' by the term, ' Soul.' For the principle of life is both 
according to common usage, and interpretation, the conscious ruler of the 
body, and the sustainer of the vital breaths. How could such a prin- 
ciple of life be the Soul of the unconscious Pradhana ? For Soul means 
the essential nature, and a conscious principle of life cannot be the es- 
sence of the unconscious Pradnana. But in reality the conscious Brah- 
ma is understood in this text as the 'beholder' in the proper sense of the 
term ; and the word Soul, as relating to the principle of life, is rightly 
applied to Him. And thus in the sentence ' This entire universe is iden- 
tical with^this subtile particle ; it is true; it is Soul : Thou art it, o SVe- 
taketu,' (Chh. Up. vi. 8, 6 f.) the author by employing the words ' it is 
Soul ' designates the subtile particle, the Existent, which is the subject 
of the text, as Soul, by the fterm Soul, and so in the words ' thou art it, 
o S'vetaietu,' describes the conscious S'vetaketu 1 as being Soul. But 
Water and Fire are unconscious things, because they are objects of 
sense, 1 " and because it is pointed out that they were employed in the 
manifestation of Name and Form ; and so there is no reason, as in the 

142 Vishayatvat = driff-rtshayatvat, "from their being objects of'the sense of 
sisrht." Govinda Aiuuida. 


case of Soul, to describe them as ' beholders ' in the proper sense : that 
term must be applied to them by a figure, as iu the case of the ' river 
bank.' And their act of 'beholding' was depended on their being 


governed by the ' Existent.' But, as we have'said, the actof ' behold- 
ing ' is not figurative in the case of the ' Existent,' because the word 
Soul is applied to ife But it is now urged ('), that the c term Soul does 
apply to Pradhana, though unconscious, because ifc'fulfils all the objects 
of soul; just as it is applied by a king to his servant'who accomplishes 
all his designs, when he 'feays ' Bhadrasena is my soul.' For Pradhana 
renders aid to a man's soul by obtaining for it both celestial enjoyment, 
and final liberation, as a king's servant assists him by acting in peace 
and war, etc. Or (j ) the one word Soul may apply both to conscious 
and unconscious objects, as we see it employed in the phrases ' soul of 
the elements,' ' soul of the bodily organs ; ' just as the same wor(ijyotis 
means both sacrifice and light. Why then, the Sankhyas conclude, 
should you infer from the word ' Soul ' that the term ' beholding ' can- 
not be figuratively used ? 

" This is answered in the 7th Sutra ('Soul cannot denote Pradhana), 
because it is declared that the man who fixes his thoughts upon it 
obtains final emancipation.' Unconscious Pradhana must not be under- 
stood to derive any support from the word ' Soul ; ' for after referring 
in the words 'it is Soul' to the 'Existent,' the 'very subtile thing,' 
which is the subject of the passage, and indicating in the words ' thou 
art it, o S'vetaketu,' that the conscious^" S'vetaketu, who was about to 
obtain emancipation, was intent upon it, the text above adduced de- 
clares his emancipation in the words ' the man who has an instructor 
knows, "this will only last until I am liberated; I shall then be per- 
fected." ' (Chh. Up. vi. 14, 6) Por if the unconscious Pradhana were 
denoted by the term 'Existent,' the words 'thou art it/ would cause 
the conscious person, who was seeking after emancipation, to under- 
stand (of himself) ' Thou art unconscious ^' and in that case the S'astra 
which declared what' was contradictory would be unauthoritdive, be- 
cause injurious to the person in question. But we cannot conceive a 
faultless S'astra to be unauthoritative. And if a S'astra esteemed au- 
thoritative should inform an ignorant seeker after emancipation, that a 
thing which was not sou! was soul, he (the ignorant seeker) would in 
consequence oi" his faith, persist in regarding it as soul, as in the case of 


the blind man and the bull's tail, 143 and would fail of attaining to soul 
which was quite different from it ; and would in consequence lose the 
object of its efforts, end suffer jnjury. It is therefore proper to con- 
clude that >>ust as the Yedic precept, that he who desires paradise should 
perform the agnihotra sacrifice is conformable to truth, so, too, the text 
which says to the man seeking after emancipation, ' this is soul, thou art 
that, o S'vetakettf,' declares, to him soul in conformity with the reality. 
And so,-. as in th^case of the man (changed with theft) who takes into his 
hand the red-hot axe, and (in consequence of 'the truth of his protesta- 
tion of innocence) is delivered (Chh. Up. vi. 16, 2), the promise of final 
emancipation will hold good in the case of the man whose thoughts are 
fixed on the true Brahma. . . . Consequently the application of the word 
' soul ' to the ' existent subtile thing ' is not figurative. ' Whereas (') 
the use of the same word when applied to a servant (as when it is said 
'Bhadrasena is my soul'), is shown to be figurative by the manifest 
distinctness of a servant.from his master. And the fact that a word is 
sometimes observed to be employed figuratively does not justify the 
supposition that it is so used in cases where the (proper) sense is estab- 
lished by the words ; because that would give rise to doubt in every 
instance. Again, (j) it is incorrect to say that the word soul is common to 
things conscious and unconscious, (as the term jyotis means both sacri- 
fice and flame), because the assertion that it has a variety of significa- 

113 The story or fable here alluded^ to is told at length by Ananda Giri, and more 
briefly by Govinda Ananda as follows : Kaschit kila dushtatma maharanya-marge 
patitam andhaih sva-bqndhu-nagaraih jigamishum babhashe " kim attra uyushmata 
duhkhitena sthiyate " iti \ sa cha andhah sukha-van>m akarnya tarn Tiptam matva 
uvacha " aho mad-bhagadheyam yad attra bhavan mam dtnam svabhishta-nagara- 
prapty-asamartham bhashate" iti \ sa cha vipr^lipsur dushta-go-yuvTmam anlya to,- 
diya-langulaqn andhaih grahayumasa upadidesa cha enam andham ^ esha go-yuva 
tvam nagaram neshyati ma tyaja langulam" iti sa cha andhah sraddhalutaya tad 
atyajan svabhfshtam aprapya anartha-paramparam praptas tena nyayena ity arthah \ 
" A certain malicious person said to a blind man who was lying on the road through 
a forest, and wishing to proceed tcTthe city of his friends, ' Why, distressed old man, 
do you stay here ? ' Tl?e blind nifin hearing the agreeable ^voice of the speaker, and 
regarding him as trustworthy, replied : ' < ) how great is my good fortune that you 
have iiccosted me who am helpless, and unable to gi? to the city which I desire to 
reach!' The other, wishing to deceive him, brought a vicious young bull, and made 
the blind man lay hold of his tail, and told him that the young bull would conduct 
him to the city, enjoining him not to let go the tail., Trusting to the speaker, the 
blind kept his hold, but did not attain the object of his desire, and encountered a 
series of mishaps ; such is the illustration." ^ 


tions is unreasonable. Hence the word soul, which properly refers to con- 
scious things, is applied to the elements, etc., by a figurative ascription to 
them of consciousness, as when we say, ' the sovil ofHhe elements,' or 
' the soul of the bodily organs.' And even if it were admitted that the 
word soul was common to different things, it could not be ascertained 
whether it had reference to one thing or another unles^ the context or 
some auxiliary word determined the point. < But' in the case before us 
there is nothing to determine that it denotes anything unconscious ; on 
the contrary, the subject *bf the sentence is the ' Existent, the beholder,' 
and in immediate connection with it is the conscious S'vetaketu ; for as 
we have already said an unconscious thing cannot be conceived as the 
soul of the conscious S'vetaketu. Thus it is settled that the word 
' soul ' refers to a conscious being," etc. 

In the fourth section ( pdda) of the 1st Book, the author of the Sutras 
returns to his controversy with the Sankhyas, and S'ankara, after allud- 
ing to the aphorisms in which they had previously been combated, pro- 
ceeds as follows (p. 334) : 

Idam tv iddriim avasishtam dsankyate \ yad uktam pradhdnasya asab- 
datvarn tad asiddham Jcdsuchit sdkhdsu pradhdna-samarpandlhdsdndm 
sabddnam sruyamdnatvdt \ atah pradhdnasya kdranatvam veda-prasid. 
dham eta mahadbhih paramarshibhih Kapilddilhih parigrihltam iti pra- 
sajyate \ tad ydvat teshdm sabddnam anya-paratvafh na pratipddyate 
tdvat sarvajnam Brahma jagatah kdranam iti pratipdditam apy dkull- 
Ihavet | atas teshdm anya-paratvam daHayitum parah sandarlhah pra- 
varttate \ " dnumdnikam api" (Br. Sutra i. 4, 1) anumdna-nirupitam 
api pradhdnam " eJceshdm" sdkhindm saldavad upalalhyate \ Kdthake hi 
pathyate " mahatalf param avyaktam avyaktdt purushah parah 1 ' iti \ 
tattra ye eva yan-ndmdno yat-kramakds cha mahad-avyatya-purushdh 
smriti-prasiddhds te eva iha pratyalhijndyante \ tattra " avyaktam " iti 
smriti-prasiddheh saldddi-hmatvdch cha na vyaktam avyaktam iti vyut- 
patti-samlhavdt smriti-prasiddham pradhanam abhidhlyate \ atas tasya 
sabdavattvdd asabdat'am anupapannam M * | tad eva cha jagatah kdranam 
iruti-smriti-prasiddhilhgah iti chet \ na etad evam \ na hy etat Kdthaka- 
vdkyam smriti-prasiddhayor mahad-avyaktayor astitva-param \ na hy attra 

yddrisam smriti-prasiddham svatantraih kdranam trigunam pradhdnam 


14 The text eiven in the Bibl. Indica has upapannam, but I follow the old edition 
in Bengali characters in reading anupapannam, which seems required by the sense. 


tddrisam pratyabhijndyate \ sabda-mdttram hy attra avyaktam iti pra- 
tyabhijndyate \ sa cha sabdo na vyaldam avyaktam iti yaugikatvdd an- 
yasminn api sutishme- durlakshye cha prayujyate na cha ay am kas- 
minschid r&dhah \ yd $u pradhdna - vddindm rudhih sa teshdm eva 
pdribhdshikl sail na veddrtha-nirupane Tcdrana-bhdvam pratipadyate \ 
na cha krama-mdttra-sdmarthydt samdndrtha-prattpattir bhavaty asati 
tad-rupa-pratyafohijn,dne L, na hy asva-sthdne gam pasyann asvo 'yam 
ity amv-dho 'dhya'fazsyati \ prakarana-rtirupandydm cha attra na para- 
parikalpitam pradhdnam pratlyate sarira - rupaka - vinyasta - grihiteh \ 
sarlram hy attra ratha-riipaka-vinyastam avyakta-saldena, parigrihyate \ 
Tcutah | prakarandt pariseshdch cha \ tathd hy anantardtlto granthah 
dtma-ianrddlndm ratki-rathddi-rupalta-klriptim darsayati \ (Katha 
TJpanishad, i. 3, 3 f.) '*' dtmdnam rathinam viddhi Sarlram ratham eva 
cha | buddhim cha sdrathim viddhi manah pragraham eva cha \ 4. Indri- 
ydni haydn dhur vishaydms teshu gochardn \ dtmendriya-mano-yuktam 
bhoktety 'dhur manlshinah " | tais chaindriyddilhir asamyataih samsdram 
adhigachchhati \ samyatais tv adhvanah pdram tad Vishnoh paramam 
padam dpnoti iti darsayitvd kim tad adhvanah pdram Vishnoh paramam 
padam ity asya dkdnkshdydm telhyah eva prakritebhyah indriyddibhyah 
paratvena paramdtmdnam adhvanah pdram tad Vishnoh paramam padam 
darsayati \ Katha Up. i. 3, 10 f.) " indriyebhyah pardh hy arthdh arthe- 
bhyas cha param manah \ manasas tu para buddhir buddher dtmd mahdn 
parah | 11. Mahatah param avyaktam avyaktdt purushah parah*\ puru- 
shdd na param kinchit sd kdshtM sa pard gatir" iti | . . . . " Buddher 
dtmd mahdn parah" yah_ sa "dtmdnam rathinam viddhi" iti rathitvena 
upakshiptah \ kutah \ dtma-abddd bhoktus cha bhogopakarandt paratvopa- 
patteh | mahattvam cha asya svdmitvdd upapannam \ .... yd pratha- 
majasya Hiranyagarbhasya buddhih sd sarvdsdm buddhlndm paramd pra- 
tishthd sd iha "mahdn dtmd" ity uchyate \ sd cha purvattra buddhi- 
grahanena eva grihltd satl hirug iha upadisyate tasydh apy asmadlyd- 
bhyo buddhibhyah paratvoupapatteh | . . . . tad evam sarlram eva ekam 
parisishyrfe \ teshu u " itardni indriyddlni prakritfciy eva parama-pada- 
didarsatjishayd samanukrdman parisishyamdnenn iha anena avyakta-sab- 
dena parisishyamdnam prakritam sarlram darsayati iti gamy ate | . . . . 
tad evam purvdpardlochandydm nasty attra para-pankalpitasya pradhd- 
nasya avakdsah \ 2. "Stifoham tu tad-arhatvdf " \ uktam etat ptakarana- 
145 The earlier edition above referred to omits teshu. 


pariseshdbhydm sarlram avyakta - sabdam na pradhdnam iti \ idam 
iddnlm dsankyate katham avyaJcta - sabdurhatvaih sarlrasya ydvatd sthu- 
latvdt spashtataram idam sarlram vyakta-salddrjiam'-aspashtarvachanas 
tv avyakta - sabdah iti \ atah uttaram uchyat6 \ suksham iff ilia kdra- 
ndtmand sarlram vivakshyate sukshmasya avyakta -salctdrhatvdt \ yady- 
api sthulam idam Sarlram na svayam avyakta-sahdanl arhati tathdpi 
tasya tv drambhakam bhuta - suksham avyakta- sabdam arhati j 1 ". . . . 
attra alia yadi jagad idam hnalhivyakta - najna -< upam vljatmakam 
prdg - avastham avyakta^- sabddrham alhyupagamyeta tad-dtmUnd cha 
sarlrasydpy avyakta-sabddrhatvam pratijndyeta sa eva tarlii pradhdna- 
kdrana-vddah evam saty dpadyeta asya eva jagatah prdg -avasthdydh 
pradhdnalvena abhyupagamdd iti \ attra uchyate,\ yadi vayam svatantrdm 
ktinchit prdg-avasthdm jagatah kdranatvena abhy'upagachchema prasanja- 
yema tadd pradhdna-kdrana-vddam \ Parmesvarddhlnd tv iyam asmu- 
bhih prdg-avasthd jagato 'bhyupagamyate na svatantrd \ sd cha avasyam 
alhyupagantavyd \ arthavatl hi sd \ na hi tayd vind Paramesvarasya 
srashtritvam siddhyati sakti-rahitasya tasya pravritty-anupapatteh muk- 
tdndm cha punar-utpattir vidyayd tasydh mja-sakter ddhdt \ avidydtmikd 
hi sd vlja-saktir avyakta - sabda-nirdesyd Paramesvardsrayd mdydmayl 
mahdsushuptir yasydm svarupa - pratibodha - rahitdh serate samsarmo 
jlvdh | tad etad avyaktarn kvachid dkdsa-salda-nirdishtam \ " etasmin 
nu khalv akshare Gdrgi dkdsah otas cha protas cha " iti sruteh \ kvachid 
akshar%-saldoditam " dkshardt paratah parah " iti sruteh \ kvachid rndyd 
iti suchitam "mdydm tu prakritim* vidyHd mdyinam tu mahescaram" iti 
mantra-varndt \ acyaktd hi sd mdyd tattvdnyatva-nirupanasya asakyat- 
vdt | tad idam " mahatah param avyaktam" ity uktam avyakta-prabha- 
vatvdd mahato yadd Hairanyagarbhl buddhir malidn \ yadd tu jlvo ma- 
hdms tadd 'py avyaktddhlnatvdj jlva-bhdvasya mahatah param avyaktam 
ity uktam \ atidyd hy avyaktam avidydvattve cha jlvasya sarvah sam- 
vyavahdrah santato varttate \ tach cha avyakta-gatam mahatah paratvam 
alhedopachdrdt tad-vikdre sarlre parikal/yate \ 

" But now this d/oubt still remains. The assertion that ttye existence 
of Pradhana is not supported by the Veda is, say the Sankhyas, desti- 
tute of proof, as certain Vt-dic S'akhas contain passages which have the 
appearance of affirming Pradhana. Consequently the causality of Pra- 
dhana has been received' by Kapila and other great rishis on the ground 
that it is established by the Veda; and this is an objection to the state- 


ment which you make to the contrary. Until, therefore, it be estab- 
lished that these passages have. a different object, the doctrine that an 
omniscient Brahma is, the cause, of the world, even though it has been 
proved, will be again unsettled ; and consequently you bring forward a 
great array of arguments to shew that these texts apply to something 
else. In the words ' it may be deduced also,' i.e. it is determined by 
inference, it is shewn that in the opinion of certain schools the doc- 
trine of Pradhantt-ns scriptural, for in the Katha Upanishad (i. 3, 11) we 
read th'e words ' Above the Great one is Avyakta (tie Unmanifested one), 
and above the Unmanifested one is Purusha (Soul).' Here we recognize 
' the Great one,' ' the Unmanifested one,' and Purusha, with the same 
names and in the saiae order in which they are known to occur in 
the Smriti (i.e. the system of Kapila). Here that which is called Pra- 
dhana in the Smriti is denoted by the word ' the Unmanifested one,' as 
we learn both from its being so called in the Smriti, and from the epi- 
thet ' Unmanifested ' (which is derived from the words ' not ' and ' ma- 
nifested') being properly applicable to it in consequence of its being 
devoid of sound, and the other objects of sense : wherefore, from its hav- 
ing this Vedic authority to support it, its (i.e. Pradhana's) unscriptural 
character is refuted ; and it is proved both by the Yeda, the Smriti, 
and common notoriety to be the cause of the world. If the Sankhyas 
argue thus, we reply that the case is not so j for this text of the Katha 
Upanishad does not refer to the existence of the ' Great one ' and the 
'Unmanifested one,' which are defined in the Smriti (of Kapila) ; for here 
we do not recognize such a self-dependent cause, viz. Pradhana, composed 
of the three qualities, as is declared in that Smriti, but the mere epithet 
'unmanifested.' And this word ' Unmanifested, ' owing to its sense as 
a derivative from the words 'not' and 'manifested,' is also applied to 
anything else which is subtile or indistinguishable^ and has not pro- 
perly a conventional meaning in reference to any particular thing. 
As for the conventional use which the assertors of Pradhana make of it, 
that is a, technical "application peculiar to themselves, and does not 
afford any means for determining the sense of 4,he Vedas. Nor does the 
mere identity of the order (of the three words) furnish any proof of 
identity of meaning unless we can recognise the essential character 
of the things to be the same. For no man but a fool, i? he saw 
a cow in the place where he expected to sep a horse, would falsely 



ascribe to it the character of a horse. And if we determine the sense 
of the context, it will be found that ,the Pradhana imagined by our 
opponents finds no place here, since ji is the Vbody ' which is indi- 
cated in the preceding simile. For here the body as represented under 
the figure of a chariot, etc., is to be understood by the word ' the 
Unmanifested.' "Wiiy? From the context and the remainder of the 
sentence. For the context which immediately precedes sets forth the 
soul, the body, etc., under the figure of a ri^er, a chariot, etc., as 
follows : ' Know that the soul is the rider, the body the chariot, the 
intellect the charioteer, and the mind the reins. The senses are called 
the horses, and the objects of sense the roads on which they go. The 
soul accompanied by the senses and the mind is the enjoyer ; U6 so say 
the wise.' After pointing out (in the following verses) that with these 
senses, etc., if uncontrouled, the soul gains only this world, but if they 
are kept under controul, it attains to the highest state of Vishnu, 
which is the end of its road ; the author (in answer to the question 
' "What is that highest state of Vishnu which is the end of the road?') 
shews in the following verses that it is the supreme Spirit who 
transcends the senses, etc. (which form the subject of the context), 
who is alluded to as the goal, and the highest state of Vishnu: 
'The objects of sense are higher than the senses; the mind is 
higher than the objects of sense ; the intellect is higher than the 
mind ; the Great soul is higher than the intellect ; the Unmanifested 
one is higher than the Great soul; tne spirit (Purusha) is greater 
than the Unmanifested: there is nothing higher than Spirit, that 
is the end, that is the highest goal.' " After observing that the 
various terms in these lines are the same which had been previously 
introduced in the simile of the chariot, charioteer, rider, horses, etc., 
S'ankara assigns the reason of the superiority attributed to each suc- 
ceeding object over that which precedes it, and then goes on to say in 
regard to intellect and soul : " ' The Great soul is higher than the in- 
tellect,' that soul, namely, which is figuratively described as a rider, in 
the words ' Know the coul to be the -rider.' - But why is the Soul 

146 The words of the original, both as given -here and in the text of the Katha 
Upanishad are atmendriya-mano-yuktam bhokta, which are not very clear. The 
commeutaftrs understand atnu.n at the beginning of the compound as denoting body, 
and supply atmnnam as the subject. See Dr. Roer's translation of the Upanishads 
(Bibl. Ind. p. 107). 


superior to the intellect? Both from the use of the word Soul and 
because it aids the enjoyment of the enjoyer, it is shewn to be superior. 
Its character as tie Great soul is Droved by its being the master. . . The 
intellect of Hiranyagarb/ia, the first-born, is the highest basis of all 
intellect ; and it is that which is here called the ' Great soul.' It had 
been previously 'comprehended under the word 'intellect,' but is here 

separately specified, because it also is superior to our intellects 

Thus the body al&oe remains of the objects referred to in the passage. 
After going over all the others in order, with 'the view of pointing out 

the highest state to be attained, he indicates by the one remaining 
word, the 'Unapparent/ the one remaining subject of the text, viz. the 
body such is our conclusion. . . . Hence after examining both the 
earlier and later portions of the passage, we find that there is no 
place for the Pradhana imagined by our opponents." Going on to in- 
terpret the next aphorism (i. 4, 2) ' But the subtile body may also be 
properly called ' unmanifested, ' S'ankara begins : 

" We have declared that, looking to the context and the only word 
which remained to be explained, the body, and not Pradhana, is denoted 
by the word the ' TJnapparent.' But here a doubt arises : ' How can 
the body be properly designated by the word 'unapparent,' inasmuch 
as from its grossness it is very distinctly perceptible, and therefore 
should rather be denoted by the word ' apparent,' while the word ' un- 
apparent' signifies something that is not perceptible? "We answer: 
In this passage the subtile body in its character of cause is intended, 
since what is subtile is properly designated by the term ' unapparent.' 
Although this gross body itself cannot properly be described by the 
word ' Unapparent,' still this term applies to the subtile element which 
is its originator" .... S'ankara begins his interpretation of the next 
aphorism (i. 4, 3) as follows: "Here the Sankhyas rejoin: 'If you 
admit that this world in its primordial condition, before its name and 
form had been manifested, and while it existed in its rudimentary 
form, coi\ld be properly designated by the word J Unapparent,' and if 
the same term be declared applicable to body also while continuing in 
that state, then your explanation will exactly coincide with our doc- 
trine of Pradhana as the cause of all things ; since you will virtually 
acknowledge that the original condition of this world was that of Pra- 
dhana. To this we reply : If we admitted any self-dependent original 


condition as the cause of the world, we should then lay ourselves open 
to the charge of admitting that Pradhana is the cause. But we con- 
sider that this primordial state of the world i^ dependent upon the 
supreme Deity (Paramesvara) and not self-dependent. " An.d this state 
to which we refer must of necessity be assumed, as it is essential. 
For without it the ..creative action of the supreme Deity could not be 
accomplished, since, if he were destitute of hie S'&kti (power), any 
activity on his part would be 'inconceivable. r And* 30, too, thpse who 
have been emancipated from birth are not born again, because this ger- 
minative power (on the destruction, which implies the previous 
existence, of which emancipation depends) is consumed by know- 
ledge. 147 For that germinative power, of which the essence is 
ignorance, and which is denoted by the word ''Unapparent,' has its 
centre in the supreme Deity, and is a great illusive sleep, during 
which mundane souls repose unconscious of their own true nature. 
This 'Unapparent one' is in some places indicated by the term 
aether (dkasa}, as in the text (Brih. Ar. Up. iii. 8, 11) 'On this 
undecaying Being, o Gargi, the aether is woven as warp and woof;' in 
other places by the word 'undecaying' (akshara), as in the text, 
' Beyond the Undecaying is the Highest ; ' and is elsewhere desig- 
nated by the term 'illusion' (mdyd) as in the line (SVetasv. Up. 4, 10) 
' Know that Prakriti (or matter) is illusion, and the great Deity the 
possessor of illusion.' For this 'illusion' is 'unapparent,' because it 
cannot be denned in its essence and difference. This is the ' Unap- 
parent' which is described as above the ' Great one,' since the latter, 
when regarded as identical with the intellect of Hiranyagarbha, springs 
from the former. And even if the ' Great one' be identified with the 
embodied soul (jiva], the 'Unapparent' can be said to be above it, as 
the condition of the embodied soul is dependent upon the 'Unapparent.' 
For the ' Unapparent ' is ignorance, and it is during its condition of 

ignorance that the entire mundane actitn of the embodied soul is car- 


_ a f 

147 Govinda Auanda explains this clause as follows : Bandha-mukti-vyavasthartham 
api *a svlkaryya ity aha "muktcinam" iti \ yan-nasad muktih sa svikaryya tamvina 
eva srishtau muktanam punar bandhapattir ity prthah \ " In the words ' Those who 
had been emancipated,' etc., he tells us that this ignorance must be admitted, in order 
to secure the permanence of emancipation from the bondage (of birth) : that is, that 
ignorance f oy the destruction of which emancipation is obtained must be admitted ; as 
without it those who had been emancipated would at the creation be again involved 
in bondage," [because to be released at all, they must be released from something]. 


ried on. And that superiority of the ' Unapparent ' over the ' Great 
one ' is by a figurative description of body as identical with the former 
attributed to body also/' 

By these Subtle and elaborate explanations S'ankara scarcely appears 
to make out his point. Butt,! cannot follow further the discussion of 
this question, and now go on to the eighth aphorism (i. 4, 8) where the 
purport of another Vecfic test is investigated : 

" Ckanlasa-vad aviseshtft" \ punar api pradhdna-vddl aSabdatvam pra- 
dhdnasya asiddham ity aha, \ kasmdi \ mantra-vurndt \ (S'vetasvatara 
Upanishad, iv. 5) " a/dm ekdm lohita-sukla-krishndm lahvlh prajdh sri- 
jamdndm svarupdh I48 | ajo Jiy eko jmhamdno ' nusete jahdty endm thuJcta- 
Ihogdm ajo'nyah" iti J attra hi mantre lohita-sukla-krishna-sabdaih 
rajah-sattva-tamdmsy abhidhiyante \ lohitam rajo ranjandtmakatvdt suk- 
lam sattvam prakdsdtmakatvdt krishnam tamah dvarandtmaltatvdt \ teshdm 
sdmydvasthdvayava-dharmair vyapadisyate lohita- sukla-hrishnd iti \ na 
jdyate iti cha "ajd" sydd"mula-pralcritir avikritir" ity alhyupagamdt \ 
nanv ajd-saldas chhdgdydm rudhah \ vddham \ sd tu rudhir iha na dsra- 
yitum sakyd vidyd-prakarandt \ sd cha lahvlh prajds traigunydnvitdh 
janayati .... tasmdt sruti-muld eva pradhdnddi-kalpand Kdpildndm 
ity evam prdpte brumah \ na anena mantrena sruti-mulatvam Sdnkhya- 
vddasya sakyam dsrayitum \ na hy ay am mantrah svdtantryena kanchid 
api vddam samarthayitum utsahate \ sarvatrdpi yayd kaydchit kalpanayd 
ajdtvddi-sampddanopapatteh Sdnkhya-vddah eva iha alhipretah iti vise- 
shdvadhdrana-kdrandbhdvdt \ " chamasa-vat" \ 

" 'Because, as in the case of the spoon, there is nothing distinctive.' 
The assertor of Pradhana again declares that Pradhana is not proved to 
be unscriptural. Why ? From the following verse (SV. Tip. iv. 5) : 
' One unborn male, loving the unborn female of a red, white, and 
black colour, who forms many creatures possessing her own character, 
unites himself with her : another unborn male abandons her after he 
has enjoyed her.' F^r in this verse the words ' red,' ' white,' and 
' black,' denote (the three Qualities) Passion, Goodness, and Darkness ; 
Passion, from its stimulating character, being designated by the term 

148 The text of Dr. Roer's ed. of the Upanishad (Bibl. Ind. vol. vii.) has two 
various readings in this line, viz. lohita-krishna-varnaw for lohita-s'ukla-^rishnam 
(which latter, however, is the reading referred to by S'ankara in his commentary on 
that work), and sarupam for svarupah, > 


' red,' Goodness, from its illuminating character, by ' white,' and Dark- 
ness, from its enveloping character, by ' black.' The unborn female is 
described as red, white, and black, with reference to the characteristics 
of the three components which make up the state of equiKbium. She 
must be called ' unborn ' (Ajd], because she is not produced, since it is 
admitted that ' original matter '. (Mula-Prakriti = Pradhana) is not a 
modification (of any other substance SanJ'hya Kariua, verse 3). But 
is not ajd the conventional name for ' she- goat ?* True (reply the 
Sankyas), but that conventional sense cannot be adopted here, because 
knowledge is the subject of the context. And this unborn female pro- 
duces many creatures characterized by the three Qualities .... And 
from this it is concluded that the theory of"Kapila's followers re- 
garding Pradhana, etc., is based upon the Veda. ~We reply : that it 
cannot be admitted on the strength of this verse that the theory of 
the Sankhyas is founded on the Yeda. For the verse in question, if 
regarded independently, is powerless to sustain any hypothesis what- 
ever ; and the reason is that, as this description of the state of the un- 
born female may be rendered applicable on any hypothesis whatever, 
there is no ground for determining specifically that the Sankhya theory 
is here intended ' as in the case of the spoon.' " This aphorism refers 
to a verse quoted in the Brihad Aranyaka TJpanishad, ii. 2, 3 (Bibl. Ind. 
p. 413 of the Sanskrit, and p. 174 of Dr. Roer's translation), and be- 
ginning ' a cup with its mouth down, and its bottom upwards,' which, 
as S'ankara remarks, cannot, without sonae further indication, be applied 
to any one cup in particular ; and in the same wav, he argues, the un- 
born female in the passage under discussion cannot, in the absence of 
anything to restrict the application in any special way be understood 
as denoting Pradhana (evam ihdpy avisesho 'jam ekdm it\i asya man- 
trasya | na asmin mantre Pradhanam eva ajd 'bhipreta iti sakyate niyan- 
tum). The question then arises what is meant by this ' unborn female.' 
To this the author of the aphorisms and? S'ankara reply, that the word 
denotes the material substance of a four-fold class of elements, viz. 
light, heat, water, and food, all derived from the supreme Deity (Para- 
mesvarad utpannd jyotih-pramukha tejo,'b-anna-lakshand chatur-vidha- 
bhuta-grumasya pralcfiti-bhuta iyam ajd pratipattavya). These four ele- 
ments h f e however seems' (p. 357) to identify with three, in the words : 
thuta-traya-lakshand eva iyam ajd vijneya na guna-traya-Iahhand \ ' This 


unborn female is formed by three elements, not by the three quali- 
ties ; ' and the ascription of tlie three colours in the text to these 
three elements ( is supported by a quotation from the Chhandogya Upa- 
nishad, vi. '4, 1, which is as follows: Yad agneh rohitam rupam tejasas 
tad rftpam yat jiuklam tad apjdm yat krishnam tad annasya \ "The red 
colour ( of fire is that of heat ; its whits colour is that of water ; and its 
black colour is that of fooi (which here means earth, according to the 
commentator on the Chhandogya Upanishad). 149 In this way, he adds, 
the words denoting the three colours are used- in the proper sense, 
whereas if applied to the three qualities they would be figuratively em- 
ployed (roJiitddlndm cJia sabddndm rupa-msesheshu muJchyatvdd bhdkta- 
tvdch cha guna-vishayatvasya). S'ankara concludes that this verse, de- 
scriptive of the unborn female, does not denote any self-dependent 
material cause called Pradhana, but is shewn from the context to 
signify the Divine Power in its primordial state before Name and Form 
were developed (na svatantrd kdchit prakritih pradhdnam ndma ajd-man- 
trena dmndydte iti sakyate vaktum \ prakarandt tu sd eva daivl saldir 
avydkrita-ndma-rupd ndma-rupayoh prdg avasthdnendpi mantrena dmnd- 
yate ity uchyate). 

Passing over the further questions, which are raised on this subject, 
I go on to the llth Sutra and the comment upon it, from which we 
learn that the words ' knowing him by whom the five times five men, 
and the a3ther are upheld, to be Soul,' etc. (yasmin pancha pancha-jandh 
dlcdsds cha pratishthitah \ tarn evdnyah dtmdnam vidvdn ityddi\ are ad- 
duced by the Sankhyas in support of their system, as the number of 
the principles (tattva'), which it affirms (see Sankhya Karika, verse 3, 
and Sankhya Sutras, i. 61), corresponds to *,he number twenty-five in this 
text ; while, the applicability of the passage is denied by the Vedantins 
on the ground that the ' principles ' of the Sankhya are not made up of 
five homogeneous sets of five each (p. 362) ; that if the Soul and aether 
mentioned in the text are added, as they must be, to the twenty-five, 
the aggregate number will exceed that of the Sankhya ' principles,' 
among which both Soul and ffither are comprehended (pp. 364 f.) ; that 
the fact of the correspondence of the numbers, if admitted, would not 
suffice to shew that the ' principles ' of the Sankhya were referred to, 
as they are not elsewhere recognized in the Veda, and as ?he word 
119 See Babu Rajendra Lai Mittra's translation of>this Upanishad, p. 106. 


' men ' (jandh) is not usually applied to denote ' principles ' (p. 365) ; 
and further that the phrase 'the five dve men,' signifies only 'five,' 
and not ' five times five ' (p. 366), etc-. The conclusion arrived at in 
the twelfth aphorism is that the breath, and other vital afts, are re- 
ferred to in the passage under consideration; and that although the 
word ' men ' (jandh'fis not generally applied to ' breath,' etc., any more 
than to 'principles,' the reference is determined by the context. Others, 
as S'ankara observes, explain the term ' the five inen ' (panchajdndh] of 
the gods, fathers, gand-harvas, asurap, and rakshases, and others again of 
the four castes, and the Nishadas. 150 The Yedantic teacher (Badara- 
yana) however, as his commentator adds, has decided that the breath, 
etc., are intended. 

If we now turn to the Sankhya aphorisms themselves, we shall find 
that their author constantly refers to texts of the Yeda as supporting, 
coinciding with, or reconcileable with his dogmas. I have noticed the 
following instances, viz. Sutras i. 5, 36, 51, 54, 78, 84, 148, 155; ii. 
20-22; iii. 14, 15, 80 ; iv. 22 ; v, 1, 12, 15, 21 ; vi. 32, 34, 51, 58, 
59, which may be consulted in Dr. Ballantyne's translation. I can 
only refer more particularly to a few of these with the commentator's 

I begin with Sutra i. 155, 151 in which the author of the Aphorisms 
maintains that the great distinctive dogma of the Vedanta, the oneness 
of Soul, is not supported by the Veda. In Sutra 150 he had laid it 
down as his own conclusion, established" by the fact of the variety ob- 
servable in the conditions of birth, etc., that there is a multitude of 
souls, and he now defends this as conformable to Scripture. 

"Na advaita-sruti-virodho jdf'i-paratvdt " j dtmaikya-srutlndm virodhas 
tu ndsti tdsdm jdti-paratvdt \ jdtih sdmdnyam eka-rupatvam tattra ad- 
vaita-srutlndih tdtparyydd na tv ahhandatve prayojandbhdvdd ity arthah \ 
.... yatha-sruta-jdti-saldasya ddare tv "dtmd idam eJcah eva agreaslt" 
"sad eva saumya idam agre dsld ekam eva^advitiyam" (Chhand. Up. vi. 
2, \}ity-ddy-advaita-$ruty-iipapddakatayd eva sutram vydkheyafii \ "jdti- 
paratvdt" | vijdtlya-dvaiVa-nishedha-paratvdd ity arthah \ tattra ddya- 
vydkhydydm ayam Ihdvah \ dtmaikya-sruti-smritishv ekddi-sabdds chid- 

50 See the First Volume of this work, pp. 176 ff. 
161 i. 154 in- Dr. Hall's edition in the Bibl. Ind. 


ekarupatd-mdttra-pardh bhedddi-sabdds cha vaidharmya-lakshana-bheda- 
pardh | , 

" 155. ' This is not opposed to the Vedic doctrine of non-duality, 
since that merely refers to genus.' Our doctrine that souls are numer- 
ous does not .conflict with -the Yedic texts which affirm the oneness of 


Sou 1 ., since these passages refer to' oneness of genus. Genus means 
sameness, oneness of nature ; and it o is to this that the texts regarding 
non-duality relate, and not to the undividedness (or identity) of Soul ; 
since there is no occasion for the latter view. The Sutra must be 
explained with due regard to the sense of the word genus as it occurs 
in the Yeda, so as (thereby) to bring out the proper meaning of such 
texts, expressing non-duality, as these, ' This was in the beginning 
Soul, one only ; ' ' This was in the beginning, o fair youth, Existent, 
one without a second.' The words ' since that merely refers to genus,' 
mean ' since that is merely intended to deny a duality denoting a 
difference of genus.' The first of two interpretations given of the 
Sutra is as follows : In the texts of the S'ruti and Smriti relating to the 
oneness of Soul, the words ' One,' etc., denote simply that Spirit is one 
in its nature ; whilst the words, ' distinction,' etc., designate a dif- 
tinction defined as difference of nature." At the close of his remarks 
the commentator gives a second explanation of the Sutra. 

The author returns to this subject in the 61st S utra of the fifth Book : 
"Nfradvaitam dtmano lingdt tad-lheda-pratlteh" \ yadyapy dtmandm 
anyonyam bheda-vdkya-vad abheda-vdkydny api santi tathdpi na advaitam \ 
na atyantam abhedah \ ajddi-vdkya-sthaih prakriti-tydgdtydgddi-lingair 
bhedasyaiva siddher ity arthah \ na hy atyantdbhede tdni lingdny upa- 
padyante \ 

" ' Soill is not one ; for a distinction of souls is apparent from various 
signs.' Although there are texts affirming that there is no distinction, 
just as there are others which assert a distinction, of souls, still non- 
duality, i e. an absolute absence of distinction must be denied ; because 
a distinction is established by signs, such as the abandonment and non- 
abandonment of Prakriti, etc., mentioned in such texts as that about the 
' unborn female,' etc. (See'above, p. 165.) For these signs are incon- 
sistent with the hypothesis of an absolute Absence of distinction," etc. 


A kindred subject is introduced in the next Sutra, thp 62nd : 

"Na andtmand'pi pratyaksha-bddhdt" \ dndtmand'pilhogya-prapan- 


chena dtmano na advaitam pratyaTcsJiendpi bddJidt \ dtmanah sarva-bhog- 
ydbhede ghata-patayor apy abhedah sydt ^ ghatddeh patqdy-abhinndtmd- 
bheddt | sa cha bheda-grdhaka-pratyakshtf-badhitah f 

"'Further, there is not an absence of distinction (i.e. identity) be- 
tween Soul and non-soul, as this is disproved by the evidence of sense.' 
That is : non-duality (i.e. identity) is not predicable of Soul on the 
one hand, and non-soul, i.e. the perceptible otjects by which our senses 
are affected, on the other, because this is opposed to the evidence of 
sense. For if soul wef e identical v/ith all that is perceptible, there 
would also be no distinction between a jar and cloth, inasmuch as jars, 
etc., would not be distinct from soul which is not distinct from cloth, 
etc. ; and such identity (of jars, etc., with cloth, etc.) is opposed to the 
evidence of sense which obliges us to perceive a distinction." 

But how is this to be reconciled with such Yedic texts as ' this is 
nothing but soul' (dttnd eva idam)t An answer is given in Sutra 64, 
which seems to admit that the passages in question do at least on a 
prima facie view convey the sense ascribed to them by the Vedantins : 

"Anya-paratvam avivekdndm tattra " | avivekdndm avivelci-purushdn 
prati tattra advaite 'nya-paratvam updsandrthakdnuvddah ity artJiah \ 
loke hi sarlra-sarlrinor bJiogya-bhoTctros cha avivelcena abhedo vyavahriyate 
"'ham gauro" "mama dtmd Bhadrasenah" ityddih \ atas tarn eva vya- 
vahdram anudya tun eva prati tathd updsandm irutir mdadhdti sattva- 
suddhy-ddy-artham iti \ 

" 'These texts have another object, with a view to those who have 
no discrimination.' That is : in the passages which' affirm non-duality 
another object is intended, viz. a reference (to vulgar ideas) with a view 
to stimulate devotion. For it-- commonly occurs that undiscriminating 
persons confound the body and the soul, the object to be experienced, 
and the person who experiences it, as when they say 'I am white,' 
' Bhadrasena is myself.' The Yeda, therefore, referring to this mode of 
speaking, inculcates on such undiscerning people the practice of devo- 
tion with a view to tlie promotion of goodness, purity, etc." 

The author returns to 'the subject of non-duality in Sutra vi. 51, 
which is introduced by the remark : 

Nanv evam pramdnddy-anurodhena dvaita- sidhhdv advaita-sruteh kd 
gatir iti \ c 

"But if duality be thus established in accordance with proofs, etc., 
what becomes of the Vedic texts declaring non-duality ^? " 


The answer is as follows : 

" Na sruti-virodho rdgindm vqirdgydya tat-siddheh" \ advaita-sruti- 
virodhas tu ndsti rdgiram purushdtirikte vairdgydya eva srutibhir advai- 
ta-sddhdnd 1 ^ \ J 

" ' Our view is not opposed to the Veda, as the texts in question 
establish non-duality with a view to produce apathy in those who are 
actuated by desire 1 .' 'That ( is to say : There is in our doctrine regard- 
ing nom-duality nothing contrary to tile Veda, as the passages referred 
to affirm this principle with the view of producing in those who have 
desire an indifference in regard to everything except Soul." 

The 12th aphorism of the fifth Book asserts that according to the 
Veda, Pradhana, and ntft Isvara, is the cause of the world. The details 
of the reasoning on which this view is founded, as here stated by the 
commentator, differ in some respects from those which S'ankara puts 
into the mouth of the Sankhyas : 

"S'rutir api pradhdna-ltdryyatvasya " | prapanche pradhdna-kdryya- 
tvasya eva srutir asti na chetana-kdranatve \ yatJid " ajdm ekdm lohita- 
sukla-lcrishndm bahvlh prajdh srijamdndm sarupdh " | " tad ha idam 
tarhy avydlcritam aslt tad ndma-rupdlhydm vydlcriyata" ity-adir ity 
arthah \ yd cha " tad aikshata bahu sydm " ityddis chetana-kdranatd- 
srutih sd sargdddv utpannasya mahat-tattvopddhikasya mahdpurushasya 
janya-jndna-pard \ Jcirnvd bahu-bhavandnurodhut pradhdne eva " Jculam 
pipatishati" iti-vad gaunl \ anyathd " sdksM chetdh Jcevalo nirgunas 
cha ' ' ( S' vetas vatara Upanishad,' vi. 11) ity -ddi- sruty - ulctdparindmitva- 
sya purushe 'nupapatter iti \ ay am cha Isvara - pratishedhah aisvaryye 
vairdgydrtham Isvara - jndnam vind'pi moksha - pratipddandrtham cha 
praudhi-vdda-mdttram iti prdg eva vydkhydtam \ 

11 1 Ther are also Vedic texts to support the doctrine that the world 
has sprung from Pradhana, as its cause.' That is: There are Vedic 
texts to shew that the phenomenal world has sprung from Pradhana, 
and that it has not had a conscious being for its cause. They are such 
as these y ' An unborn female, red, white, and blftck in hue, producing 
many creatures like herself, etc. ; ' ' This was once undeveloped : it 
was developed with Name and Form.' As regards those other texts 
which affirm the causality of a conscious being, such as ' It reflected, 
let me become many,' they refer to the knowledge which sprang up in 
the great Male who was produced at the beginning of the' creation pos- 


sessing the attributes of the principle of Intellect (Mahat). Or, in ac- 
cordance with the idea of becoming multiplied, the expression (indicat- 
ing consciousness and will) is figuratively applied to Pradhana, as when 
it is said of the bank of a river that it ' intends to fall.' For on any 
other supposition the incapability of any modification which is ascribed to 
Purusha in such te^ds as ' He who is the witness, the* conscious, the 
sole being, free from the Qualities,' could npt properly be applied to 
him (since if he were the material cause of the creatiou he must become 
modified). And it has 9 be"en before explained 152 that this denial of an 
Isvara is a mere display of ingenuity, introduced for the purpose of 
producing apathy in regard to glory, and of propounding a method of 
final liberation even independently of the knowledge of an Isvara." 

The following is the 34th Sutra of the sixth Book, with the remarks 
by which it is introduced and followed : 

Nanu " lahvih prajdh purushdt samprasutdh " ity-ddi-sruteh puru- 
shasya kdranatvdvagamdd vivarttddi - vdddh dsrayamydh ity usankya 
aha | " sruti-mrodhdd na kutarkdpasadasya atma-ldbhah" \ purusha- 
kdranatdydm ye ye pahshdh sambhdvitds te sarve sruti-viruddhdh iti \ 
atas tad - alhyupagantrmdm kutdrkikddy - adhamandm dtma- svarupa-. 
jntinam na lhavati ity arthah \ etena dtmani sulcha-duhkhddi-gunopddd- 
natva-vddino 'pi kutdrhikdh eva \ teshdm apy dtma-yathdrtha-jndnam 
ndsti ity avagantavyam \ dtma-kdranatd-srutayas cfta sakti-saHimad- 
abhedena updsandrthdh eva "ajdm elcdm" ity-ddi-srutibhih pradhdna- 
Jcdranatd-siddheh \ yadi cha dkdsasya alftrddy-adhishthdna-kdranatd-vad 
dtmanah Jcdranatvam uchyate tadd tad na nirdkurmah parindmasya pra- 
tishedhdt \ 

"But must we not adopt the theories of an illusory creation, etc., 
because the causality of Purusha (soul) is to be learned from ( such texts 
as the following ' many creatures have been produced from Purusha ? ' 
To this difficulty he replies: 'From his opposition to Scripture the 
illogical outcaste does not attain to Soul.' 'The sense of this is, that all 
the propositions, affiriping the causality of Soul, which have 'been de- 
vised, are contrary to the Yeda ; and consequently the low class of bad 
logicians, etc., who adopt them have no knowledge of the nature of 

162 See Viinana Bhikshu's remarks, introductory to the Sutras (p. 5, at the foot), 
which will he quoted in. the next Section, and his comment on Sutra i. 92. He is, 
as we shall find, an eclectic, and not a thorough-going adherent of the Sankhya. 


Soul. Hence it is to be understood that those also who assert that 
Soul is the substance of the qualities of pleasure and pain, etc., are 
incompetent reasoners : they top are destitute of the true knowledge of 
Soul. The Yedic texts 'which declare its causality are intended to in- 
culcate devotion on the ground that there is no distinction between 
Power (S'akti) and the possessor of Power (S' aktimaf) ; for the causality 
of Pradhana is Established, by such texts as that relating to the 'one 
unborn female,' ek). JBut if it be affirmed that Soul is the cause of the 
world merely in the same sense in which the aether is the cause of clouds, 
etc., viz. by affording them a receptacle, we do not object to that, since 
we only deny the transformation (of Soul into material productions)." 153 
In regard to the question whether the principles of the Yedanta or 
those of the Sankhya' are most in harmony with the most prevalent doc- 
trine of the Upanishads, I shall quote some of the remarks of Dr. Rb'er, 
the translator of many of these treatises. In his introduction to the 
Taittirlya TJpanishad he observes that we there find "the tenets pecu- 
liar to the Yedanta already in a far advanced state of development ; it 
contains as in a germ the principal elements of this system." " There 
are, however," he adds, " differences " (Bibliotheca Indica, vol. xv. p. 5). 
The same nearly is the case with the Aitareya Upanishad (ibid. p. 27). 
In reference to the S'vetasvatara Upanishad he remarks : " S'ankara in 
his commentary on this Upanishad generally explains its fundamental 
views in the spirit of the Yedanta. He is sometimes evidently wrong 
in identifying the views of Some of the other Upanishads with the 
tenets of the Yedanta, but he is perfectly right to do so in the explana- 
tion of an Upanishad which appears to have been composed for the 
express purpose of making the principle of the Yedanta agreeable to 
the followers of the Sankhya " (ibid, pp! 43 f.). Of the Katha Upani- 
shad Dr. Roer says (ibid. p. 97) : " The standing point of the Katha is 
on the whole that of the Yedanta. It is the absolute spirit which is 
the foundation of the world.' .... In the order of manifestations or 
emanations from the absolute spirit it deviates, however, from that 
adopted by the other Upanishads and by the^ later Yedanta, and is evi- 
dently more closely allied to the Sankhya. The order is here : The 
unmanifested (avyakta), the great soul (mahutma, or mahat), intellect 

153 See Dr. Ballantyne's translation, which I have often followed. THe does not, 
however, render iu extenso all the passages which I have reproduced. 


(buddhi}, mind, the objects of the senses, and the senses," etc. 151 The 
reader who wishes to pursue the subject further may consult the same 
author's remarks on the other Upanishads. On < the whole question of 
the relation of the Vedanta and the Sankhya respectively tb the Yeda, 
Dr. Roer thus expresses himself in his introduction to the S'vetasvatara 
Upanishad (p. 36) :*" The Vedanta, although in many important points 
deviating from the Vedas, and although in its own doctrine quite inde- 
pendent of them, was yet believed to be in ptrfedt accordance with 
them, and being adopted by the ^ajority of the Brahmans, it was 
never attacked on account of its orthodoxy. The same cannot be said 
of the Sankhya ; for it was not only frequently in opposition to the 
doctrine of the Vedas, but sometimes openly declared so. Indeed, the 
Vedanta also maintained that the acquisition of truth is independent of 
caste (1) or any other distinction, and that the highest knowledge 
which is the chief end of man cannot be imparted by the Vedas (vide 
Katha ii. 23) ; yet it insisted that a knowledge of the Vedas was ne- 
cessary to prepare the mind for the highest knowledge (2). This the 
Sankhya denied altogether, and although it referred to the Vedas, and 
especially to the Upanishads, still it did so only when they accorded 
with its own doctrines, and it rejected their authority (3) in a case of 

I make a few remarks on some points in this quotation indicated by 
the figures (1), (2), and (3). (1) We have already learned above, p. 99, 
that, according to the Brahma Sutras (se"e i. 3, 34 if., and S'ankara's ex- 
planation of them), at least, a S'udra does not possess the prerogative of 
acquiring divine knowledge. (2) It appears from S'ankara's argument 
against Jaimini that he does npt consider a knowledge of the ceremonial 
part of the Veda as necessary for the acquisition of divine knowledge, 
but he seems to regard the Upanishads as the source from which the 
latter is derived. (3) I do not know on what authority this statement 
that the Sankhyas ever actually rejected fhe authority of the Vedas is 
founded. Their attempts to reconcile their tenets with the ^letter of 
the Veda may often seem "to be far-fetched and sophistical ; but I have 
not observed that S'ankara, while arguing elaborately against the inter- 
pretations of the Sankhyas, anywhere charges them either with deny- 
ing the authority of the Veda, or with insincerity in the appeals which 
they make to the sacred texts. 

154 See above, p. 161. 


On the subject of the Fpanishads the reader may also consult Prof. 
Max Miiller's Ancient Sanskrit Literature. 

I subjoin in a note sdme extracts from this work. 155 

The Nyaya and Vaiseshika Sutras do not appear to contain nearly so 
many .references to Vedic texts as the Sankhya ; but I have noticed the 
following: Nyaya iii. 32 (= iii. 1, 29 in the Bibl. Ind.) ; Vaiseshika 
ii. 1, 17 ; iii. 2, 21 ; iv. 2, 11 ; v. 2, 10. 

The author of the'Vaiseshika Sutras affirms, in iii. 2, 20, the doctrine 
that souls are numerous; and in the 21st Sutra, -which I quote, along 
with the comment of S'ankara Misra, and the gloss of the editor Pandit 
Jayanarayana Tarkapanchanana, he claims Yedic authority for this tenet : 

21. " S' dstra-sdmartfiyach cha" \ (S'ankara Misra) S'dstram srutih \ 

155 They (the Upanishads) contain, or are supposed to contain, the highest au- 
thority on which the various systems of philosophy in India rest. Not only the 
Vedanta philosopher, who, by his very name, professes his faith in the ends and 
objects of the Veda, but the Sankhya, the Vaiseshika, the Nyaya, and Yoga philo- 
sophers, all pretend to find in the Upanishads some warranty for their tenets, however 
antagonistic in their bearing. The same applies to the numerous sects that have 
existed and still exist in India. Their founders, if they have any pretensions to 
orthodoxy, invariably appeal to some passage in the Upanishads in order to substan- 
tiate their own reasonings. Now it is true that in the Upanishads themselves there 
is so much freedom and breadth of thought that it is not difficult to find in them some 
authority for almost any shade of philosophical opinion." (p. 316 f.) Again : " The 
early Hindus did not find any difficulty in reconciling the most different and some- 
times contradictory opinions in their search after truth; and a most extraordinary 
medley of oracular sayings might be Oollected from the Upanishads, even from those 
which are genuine and comparatively ancient, all tending to elucidate the darkest 
points of philosophy and religion, the creation of the world, the nature of God, the 
relation of man to God, and similar subjects. That one statement should be contra- 
dicted by another seems never to have been felt as any serious difficulty." (p. 320 f.) 
Once more : " The principal interest of the older Upanishads consists in the absence 
of that systematic uniformity which we find in the later systems of philosophy ; and 
it is to be regretted that nearly all the scholars who have translated portions of the 
Upanishads have allowed themselves to be guided by the Brahmanic commentators," 
etc. (p. 322). " In philosophical discussions, they (the Brahmans) allowed the greatest 
possible freedom ; and although at first three philosophical systems only were admitted 
as orthodox (the two MTmansas and the Nyaya), their numbe? was soon raised to six 
so as to include the Vaiseshika, Sankhya, and Yoga schools. The most conflicting 
views on points of vital importance were tolerated as long as their advocates succeeded, 
no matter by what means, in bringing their doctrines into harmony \vith passages of 
the Veda, strained and twisted in every possible sense. If it was only admitted that 
besides the perception of the senses and the induction of reason, revelation also, as 
contained in the Veda, furnished a true basis for human knowledge, ail other points 
seemed to be of minor importance." (p. 78 f.) 


tayd 'py dtmano bheda-pratipddandt \ sruyate hi . . . . (Jayanarayana) 
ito 'py jlvasya Isvara-bhinnatvam ity 'aha \ sastrasya*. sruteh sdmarthydj 
jlvesvarayor bheda-bodhakatvdt \ tathd hi \ |* dve bralmanl veditavye" 
(Maitrl Up. vi. 22) | " dvd suparnd sayujd sakhdyd samdnam vriksham 
parishasvajdte \ tayor anyah pippalam svadu atti anasnann anyo abhichd- 
kaslti" (Big-veda Sanhita, i. 164, 20; SVetasv. Tip. vi. 6; Mundaka 
Up. i. 3, 1, 1) ity-ddi-sruter jlvesvarayor^bhedo 'vafyam anglkaryyah \ 
na cha "tat tvam asi S'vetaketo " "Brahma-md Brahma eva*bhavati" 
ity-ddi-srutlndm Itd'gatir iti vdoJiyam \ "tat tvam asi" iti srutes tad- 
abhedena tadlyatva-pratipddanena abheda-lhdvand-paratvdt \ " Brahma- 
md Brahma eva" iti srutis cha nirduhkhatvddind Isvara-sdmy am jlvasya 
abhidhatte na tu tad-abhedam \ " niranjanah paxam sdmyam upaiti" iti 
sruter gaty-antardsambhavdt \ asti hi lauTciJca-vdlcyeshu " sampad-ddhikye 
purohito ''yam raja samvrittah" ity-ddishu sddrisya-pareshv abhedopa- 
chdrah \ na cha moltsha- dasdydm ajndna-nivrittdv abhedo jdyate iti 
vdchyam bhedasya nityatvena ndsdyogdd bheda-ndsdngikdre. 'pi vyakti- 
dvaydvasthdnasya dvasyahatvdch cha iti sankshepah \ bheda-sddhakdni 
yukty-antardni sruty-antardni cha grantha-gaurava-bhiyd parityaktdni \ 
" ' And this opinion is confirmed by the S'astra.' (S'ankara Misra) 
The S'astra means the Veda; by which also a distinction of Souls is 
established. For it is said," etc. [He then quotes two texts which are 
repeated by Jayanarayana, the author of the gloss, whose remarks are 
as fullows :] " There is another proo t f of the Soul being distinct from 
Isvara ; viz. this, that it is confirmed by the S'astra, the Veda, which 
declares the distinctness of the two ; and this principle must of neces- 
sity be admitted from such texts as these : 'Two Brahmas are to be 
known ; >156 and 'Two birds, united, friends, attach themselves to the same 
tree ; one of them eats the sweet fruit of the pippala tree, while the other, 
without eating, looks on.' Nor are we to ask what will then become of 
such other texts as (1) 'Thou art that, o SVetaketu;' (2) 'He who 
knows Brahma becomes Brahma ; ' for the for,mer of these two passages 
(1) tends to conve'y the idea of identity by representing as identity 
with That, the fact of S'vetaketu's entirely belonging to That; whilst 

156 The full text is : Dve brahmanl veditavye sabda-brahma param cha yat sabda- 
brahmari nishnatah param brahmadhigachhati \ "Two Brahmas are to be known, the 
verbal and tile supreme. He who is initiated in the former attains the latter." Here, 
however, by the verbal Brahma, the Veda must be intended. 


the second (2) affirms the equality of the Soul with fsvara, in con- 
sequence of its freedom from pain and other weaknesses, and not its 
identity with Him ; for it is shewn by another Yedic text, viz. ' The 
passionless 2ian attains the highest state of equality,' that any other 
destiny would be inconceivable. In secular modes of speaking also, 
such as the following, ' From the abundance of his wealth the domestic 
priest has become the 'king,', we find a figurative assertion of identity. 
Nor can It be said tkat (distinction disappears on the cessation of ignor- 
ance in the state of final emancipation, because* 1 distinction, from its 
eternity, cannot be destroyed, and because, even if its destructibility 
were admitted, two separate personalities must still continue to exist. 
Such is a summary of 6ur argument: further proofs from reasoning, 
and further texts of the Yeda, are omitted from a dread of making the 
book too bulky." 

The charge of open contempt of the Yeda is brought by S'ankara 
against S'andilya, the author of the Bhagavata heresy, as the orthodox 
Yedantin considers it. 157 . Of that doctrine S'ankara thus speaks in 
his remarks on Brahma Sutra ii. 2, 45 : % 

Veda-viprat&hedhas cha bhavati \ chaturshu vedeshu par am sreyo 'lab- 
dhvd S'andilyah idam sustram adhigatavan ity-adi-veda-ninda-darsanat \ 
tasmad asangata eshu kalpanu, iti siddham \ 

"And it also contradicts the Yeda: for we see such an instance of 
contempt of the Yedas as this, that S'andilya, not finding the means 
of attaining the highest good in the whole four of them, devised this 
S'astra. Hence it is established that these imaginations are absurd." 

The points of the Bhagavata doctrine objected to by S'ankara do not 
however appear to be those which are principally insisted on in the 
Bhakti Sutra?, of S'andilya, published by Dr. Ballantyne in the Biblio- 
theca Indica in 1861. I will notice some of these doctrines. The 
leading principle of the system is that it is not knowledge (jnana) but 
devotion (bhaRti) which is the means of attaining final liberation 
(Sutra 1). Devotion is defined in the 2nd Sutra to be a supreme love 
of God (sd para anuraktir Isvare). Knowledge cannot, the author con- 
siders, be the means of liberation, as it may co-exist with hatred of the 
object known (Sutra 4). Neither the study of the Yeda nor the acqui- 

157 See Colebrooke's Misc. Essays, i. 413 : "A passage quoted by S'ankara Acharya 
seems to intimate that its promulgate! was S'andilya," etc., etc. 



sition of such qualities as tranquility of mind is a necessary preliminary 
to devotion. The only requisite is a-desire of emancipation, according 
to the commentator (remarks on Satra 1). Ceremonial works, too, 
have no bearing upon devotion (Sutra 7), which may be practised by 
men of all castes, and even by ChandaU%s, since the desire to get rid of 
the evils of mundane existence is common to all (Sutra 78). The com- 
mentator explains that the authority of th# Yedas as the only source of 
supernatural knowledge is not denied, nor the facd, that only the three 
highest castes have- the right tp study them : but it is urged that 
women, S'udras, etc., may attain by means of the Itihasas and Puranas, 
etc., to knowledge founded on the Vedas, whilst Chandalas, etc., may 
acquire it by traditional instruction based on the Smriti and the prac- 
tice of virtuous men. Those whose devotion is not matured in the 
present world, will find the opportunity of perfecting it in S'vetadvipa, 
the world of the divine Being (Sutra 79). Even the wicked may have a 
penitential devotion (artti-bhaktdv eva adhikarah], and after they are 
freed from their guilt, they may attain to full devotion. The Bhagavad 
Gita is much quoted by the commentator on these Sutras ; but the 
Veda is also sometimes adduced in proof of their doctrines ; as e.g. the 
following words of the Chhandogya TJpanishad, vii. 25, 2, are cited to 
prove that devotion is the chief requisite, and knowledge, etc., subser- 
vient to it : 

" Atmd eva idam sarvam iti \ sa vai esha evam pasyann evam manvd- 
nah evam vijanann atma-ratir atma-krldah dtma-mithunah atmanandah 
sa svardd lhavati" \ tattra " atma-rati-"rupayah para-bhakteh " pas- 
yann " iti darsanam apriyatvddi-bhrama-nirasa-mukhena angam lhavati \ 
" ' All this is Soul. H who perceives this, thinks this, knows this, 
delights in Soul, sports with Soul, consorts with Soul,, .takes pleasure 
in Soul ; he becomes self-resplendent.' Here the sight expressed in 
the words 'perceiving,' etc., is by removing all errors regarding dis~ 
agreeableness, etc., an adjunct of supreme devotion in the form of ' de" 
light in Soul.' " ' 

In his remarks on Sutra 31 the commentator quotes another passage 
of the same Upanishad, iii. 14, 4, in v/hich a S'andilya is referred to as 
the author of a statement. S'anbara in his commentary on the TJpani- 
shad kall| him a rishi. He cannot, however, have been the same person 
as the author of the Sutras j although, even if he had been so reputed, 


S'ankara would have had little difficulty in denying that they could 
have been written by a rishi, as^we shall see in the next section that 
he contradicts the opinion that, the rishi Kapila, referred to in the 
S'vetasvatar^, Upanishad, was the author of the Sankhya aphorisms. 


SECT. XI. Distinction in point of authority between the Veda and the 
Smritis or non'- VeUic S'ystras, as stated in the Nydya-mdld-vistara, 
and ly the Cominenttitors on Manu, and the Veddnta, etc. ; difference 
of opinion between S'ankara and Madhusud'and regarding the ortho- 
doxy of Kapila and Kandda, etc. ; and Vijndna Bhikshu's view of the 


A distinct line of demarcation is generally drawn by the more 

critical Indian writers between the Vedas, and all other classes of 
Indian S'astras, however designated. The former, as we have seen, are 
considered to possess an independent authority and to be infallible, 
while the latter are regarded as deriving all their authority from the 
Veda, and (in theory at least) as infallible guides only in so far as they 
coincide with its dicta. This will be clear from the following passages : 

I. Nydya-mdld-vistara. The first text which I adduce has been 
already quoted in the Second Volume of this work, but is repeated here 
for facility of reference. It is from the treatise just named, i. 3, 24 : 

Baudhdyandpastambdsvaldyana-kdtydyanddi-ndmdnkitdh kalpa-sutra- 
di-granthdh nigama- nirukta-shad^-anga-granthdh Manv-ddi-smritayas cha 
apaurusheydh dharma-luddhi-janakatvdt veda-vat \ na cha mula-pramdna- 
sdpekshatvena veda-vaishamyam iti Sankanlyam \ utpanndydh luddheh 
svatah-prdmdnydnglkdrena nirapekshatvdt \ Maivam \ uktdnumdnasya 
kdldtyaydpadishtatvdt \ Baudhdyana-sutrarh Apastamba-sutram ity evam 
purusha-ndmnd te granthdh uchyante \ na cha Kdthakddi-samdkhyd-vat 
pravachana-nimittatvam yuktam \ tad-grantha-nirmdna-kdle taddnmtanaih 
kaischid upalaldhatvdt \ tach cha avichhinna-pdramparyena anuvarttate \ 
tatah Kdliddstidi-gran$ha*vat paurusheydh \ tathdpi veda-mulatvdt pra- 
mdnam | . . . . kalpasya vedatvam nddydpi siddham \ kintu prayatnena 
sddhanlyam \ na cha tat sddhayitum sakyam \ paurusheyatvasya samdkh- 
yayd tat-karttur upalambhena cha sdflhitatvdt \ 

"It may be said that the Kalpa Sutras and, other works designated 
by the names of Baudhayana, Apastamba, Asvalayana, Katyayana, etc., 


and the Nigama, Nirukta, and six Vedangas, together with the Smritis 
of Manu and others, are superhuman, Because they impart a knowledge 
of duty, as the Vedas do ; and that tihey should not be suspected of 
inferiority to the Vedas on the ground that they depend upoE. a primary 
authority, since the knowledge which they impart is independent, 
because it is admitted to be self-evidencing. But tnis view is in- 
correct, for the inference in question proceeds upon an erroneous 
generalization. The books referred to are calle<Vby the names of 
men, as ' the Sutras of Baudhayana,' ' the Sutras of Apastamba ; ' and 
these designations cannot correctly be said to originate in the exposition 
of the works by those teachers whose names they bear (as is really the 
case in regard to the Kathaka, and other parts of the Veda) ; for it was 
known to some of the contemporaries of these men, at the time when 
they were composing these Sutras, Smritis, etc., that they were so en- 
gaged j and this knowledge has descended by unbroken tradition. 
Hence these books are, like the works of Kalidasa and others, of human 
origin. Nevertheless, they possess authority, as being founded on the 
Veda." . . . The following additional remarks represent the opinion of 
the Guru (Prabhakara) on the same question : " It is not yet proved 
that the Kalpa Sutras possess the character of the Veda; it would 
require great labour to prove it ; and, in fact, it is impossible to prove 
it. For the human origin of these books is established by the names 
which they bear, and by their being observed to have had authors." 

II. Kulluka. The same thing is admitted by Kulluka, the commen- 
tator on Manu, who (in his remarks on i. 1) thus defines the relation 
of his author to the Vedas : 

Paurusheyatve 'pi Manu-vdlfydndm aviglta-malidjana-parigrahdt sruty- 
upagrahdcJi cha veda-mulakatayd prdmdnyam \ Tathd cha jhhdndogya- 
Irdhmane sruyate "Manur vai yat kinchid acadat tad bheshajam Iheshaja- 
tdyai" iti \ Vrihaspatir apy alia " Veddrthopanilandhritvdt prddhdnyam 
hi Manoh smritam \ Manv-artha-viparltd ' tu yd smritih sd na sasyate \ 
Tdvach clihdstrdni soohante tarka-vydkarhndni cha \ Dharmdrfia-moJcsho- 
padeshtd Manur ydvad nd drisyate " | Mahdlhdrate 'py uktam "Purdnam 
Mtinavo dharmah sdngo vedas chikitsita^i \ djnd-siddhdni chatvdri na 
hantavydni hetubhih " | virodhi-Eauddhddi-tarkair na hantavydni \ anu- 
kulas tu inlmdmsddi-tarkah pravarttariiyah eva \ ata eva vakshyati " dr- 
sham dJiarmopadesaih chs, veda-sdstrdvirodhind \ yas tarkendnusandhatte 
sa dharmam veda netarah " iti I 


" Though the Institutes of Manu had a personal author, still, as their 
reception by illustrious men of imimpeaehed [orthodoxy], and their 
conformity to the Veda*; prove that they are based upon the latter, they 
are authoritative. Accordingly it is recorded in the Chhandogya Brah- 

mana.that, '"Whatever Manu said is a medicine for remedial purposes.' 


And Vrihaspati says : ' As Manu depends upon the contents of the 

Veda, he is traditionally ce^brated as pre-eminent. But that Smriti 
which is'contrary to* the sense of Manu, is not approved. Scriptures 
and books on logic and grammar are all eclipsed as soon as Manu, bur 
instructor in duty, and in the means of attaining both earthly pros- 
perity, and final liberation, is beheld.' And it is said in the Maha- 
bharata : ' The Puranas", the Institutes of Manu, the Veda with its 
appendages, and treatises on medicine, these four, which are established 
by authority, are not to be assailed by rationalistic arguments ; ' that 
is, they are not to be attacked by hostile reasonings, such as those of 
the Bauddhas. But friendly arguments, such- as those of the Mlman- 
sakas, are to be employed. And accordingly we shall find below (Manu 
xii. 106) that he says, 'the man who investigates the injunctions of 
the rishis, and the rules of duty by reasoning which js agreeable to the 
Veda, he, and he only, is acquainted with duty.' " (See above, p. 24,. 
note 29.) 

III. Nyaya-malti-vistara. But the precepts of the Smriti are not 
considered useless or superfluous. On the contrary, an authority is 
attributed to them corresponding to the antiquity, elevated position, 
and sacred character of their supposed authors. Thus the author of 
the Nyaya-mala-vistara says (i. 3, 3) : 

Vimatd smritir veda-mula \ vaidika-manv-iidi-pranita-smrititvat \ upa- 
nayanadhyay(Viudi-smriti-vat \ no, clia vaiyarthyam sankanlyam \ asmad- 
udlnum pratyaksheshu paroksliesJm ndnd vedesJiu viprakirnasya anushthe- 
yarthasya' ekatra sanlcshipyamanatvat \ 

"The variously understood Smriti is founded on the Veda, because 
the traditiofls, such as those regarding investiture* study, etc., have 
been compiled by Vedic men, such as Manu and others. Nor is it to 
be surmised that the Smriti is useless, since it throws together in a 
condensed form a variety of injunctions regarding matters to be ob- 
served, which are scattered through different Vedas, both su,ch*as are 
visible and such as are invisible to us." (This last expression appears 


to refer to the supposition that some parts of the Veda which Manu 
and others had before them when compiling their own works have 
now been lost. See Huller's Anc. Sansk. Lit. pp. 103-107.) 

Accordingly the Smritis have an authority superior to that founded 
merely on the practice of learned men ,of modern date, who have no 
intuition into the past and invisible. Thus the Nyaya-mala-visjara 
says (i. 3, 19) : ( 

No, hi iddnlntandh sishtdh Manv-ddi-vad desa-kdld-viprakrishthm vedam 
divya-jndnena salcshatkarttum saknuvanti yena sishfdchdro mula-vedam 
anumdpayet \ 

" For learned men of the present day do not possess the power, 
which Manu and others had, of placing before their minds, through 
divine knowledge, the Veda which is far removed from them both in 
place and time, so as to justify us in regarding the practice of these 
moderns as a sufficient ground for inferring the existence of a Veda as 
its foundation." 

But as learned men, in any particular country or at any particular 
time, may be able to consult some Smriti which authorizes their par- 
ticular observance^, "these observances may serve as ground for infer- 
ring the existence of some Smriti on which they are founded, but not 
for inferring a Veda (tasmdch chhishtdchdrena, smritir anumutum sakyate 
na tu srutih}. But a Smriti which is thus merely inferred to exist is 
set aside by any visibly existing Smriti of contrary import (anumitd 
cha smritir v irudShayd pratyakshayd smrityd Iddhyate)" 

IV. S'ankara. The above passages, by assuming that Manu and 
other eminent sages had the power of consulting Vedic texts now no 
longer accessible, make them practically almost infallible. The same 
view is taken by S'ankara Acharyya. (See, however, the pp.ssage quoted 
from him above, in note 67, p. 62 ; but there he has the author of the 
Sankhya in view, whose tenets he regarded as contrary to the Veda.) 
In answer to the remark of a Mlmansaka objector stated in the com- 
ment on the Brahma Sutra i. 3, 32, that the Itihasas atfd Puranas, 
being of human origin, have only a derived and secondary authority 
(' itihdsa-purdnam api paurusheyatvdt<-pramdndntara-mulatdm dkdn- 
JcsTiate '), S'ankara argues in his explanation of the following Sutra (i. 3, 
S3) that they have an independent foundation: 

Itihdsa-purdnam api'vydkhydtena margena sambhavad mantrdrthavdda- 



mulatvdt pralhavati devatd-vigrahddi prapanchayitum \ pratyaksha-mulam 
api sambhavati \ bhavati hi asmdkam apratyalcsham api chirantandndm pra- 
tyaksham \ tathd cha Vydsddayo d'evatdbhih pratyakshaih vyavaharantiiti 
smaryate \ yas tu bruydd iddriintandndm ivapurveshdm api ndsii devddibhir 
vyavaharttum sdmarthyam iti sa jagad-vaichitryam pratishedet \ iddnlm 
iva cha na any add, 'pi sdrvabhaamah kshatriyo 'sti iti brjlydt tatas cha rdja- 
sut/dd^chodandh tiparundhydt \ iddnlm 'iva cha kdldntare 'py avyavasthita- 
prdydn varndsrami-dharmdr?pratijdriita t tatas cha vyavasthd-vidhdyi sds- 
tram anarthakam kurydt \ Tasmdd dharmotkarsha-vasdt chirantandh devd- 
dibhih pratyaksham vyajahrur iti ilishyate \ api cha smaranti " svddhyd- 
yddishta-devatd-samprayogah " ityddi \ yogo 'py animady-aisvarya-prdpti- 
phalakah smaryamdno wa sakyate sdhasa-mdtrena pratydkhydtum \ srutis 
cha yoga-mdhdtmyam prakhydpayati \ " prithvy-ap-tejo-'nila-khe samut- 
thite panchdtmake yoga-gune pravritte \ na tasyo rogo najard na mrityuh 
prdptasya yogdd 158 nimisham sarlram" iti \ rishindm api mantra-lrdh- 
mana-darsindm sdmarthyam na a&madiyena sdmarthyena upamdtum yult- 
tarn \ tasmdt sa-mulam itihdsa-purdnam \ 

" The Itihasas andPuranas also, having originated in the way which 
has been explained, have power, as being based on the hymns and 
arthavadas, to evince the corporeality, etc., of th gods. It is also 
reasonable to suppose that they are founded upon intuition. For there 
were things palpable through intuition to the ancients, though they are 
not thus palpable to us. 159 Accordingly it is recorded in the Smriti that 
Vyasa and others associated fa<je to face with the gods. 160 Any man 

158 Instead of yogad nimisham the text of the Biblioth. Indica reads yogagnimayam 

159 See above, pp. 116, 118, and 127; and also Prof Mliller's article on the Vais'e- 
shika Philosophy in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, vol. vii. p. 311, 
where it is remarked that the Vais'eshikas, like Kapila, include the intuition of rishis 
under the category of pratyaksha (arsham jnanani sutra-krita prithak na lakshi- 
tain yogi-pratyakshe 'ntar-bhavat"). 

160 Compare with this R.V. i. 179, 2 : Ye chid hi purve ritasapah asan sakam deve- 
bhir avadann ritani \ te chid avasur ityadi \ " The pious sages who lived of old and 
who conversed about sacr^i truths with the gods, they led a conjugal life," etc. See 
also the passages quoted from the 'Vana-parvan of the MahEbharata, the S'atapatha 
Brahmana, and Plato in the First Volume of this work, p. 147 ; and compare Hesiod, 
fragment 119: l-vval yap r6re Sairts taav, vval 8e BO&KOL aQavaroiffi 8fo7cri KO.TCI- 

" Immortal gods, not unfamiliar, then 

Their feasts and converse shared witlnmortal men." 
And Herodotus writes of the Egyptians, ii. 144 : To 5e irp^repov ruv dvSpuv rovruv 


who should maintain that the ancients, like his own contemporaries, 
were destitute of power thus to associate with superhuman heings like 
the gods, would be denying all variety in the hist6ry of the world. 
Such a person would in like manner affirm, that as now there is no 
Kshattriya possessed of universal sovereignty, so neither was there ever 
such a prince ; and would thus impugn the scriptural injunctions re- 
garding the rajasuya sacrifice [which was only to be performed by a 
universal monarch]. He would also allege that m. former times, as 
now, the dutes of castes and of orders were scarcely at all in force, and 
would thus render fruitless the scriptures by which the rules relating 
to them are prescribed. By these considerations it is intimated that the 
ancients, in consequence of their eminent holiness, were admitted to 
associate immediately with the gods, etc. And 'ihe Smriti 161 says that 
nearness to, and converse with the gods is gained by reading the Veda, 
etc. Again, when the Smriti talks of the practice of Yoga resulting in 
the acquisition of superhuman faculties, such as minuteness, this asser- 
tion cannot be impugned through mere audacity, [i.e. it must have 
had some good foundation]. The Veda, too, declares the immense 
power of devotion in these words : ' When the fivefold influence of 
Yoga, connected with the elements of earth, water, fire, air, and aether, 
has begun to act, and a man has attained an aathereal [or fiery] body, 
he is no longer affected by disease, decay, or death.' And it is un- 
reasonable to estimate, by the analogy of our own power, the power of 
the rishis, the seers of the Vedic hymns and Brahmanas. Wherefore 
the Itihasas and Puranas have an (independent) foundation.' " 

S'ankara does not, however, treat all the ancients in this way. Like 
many other systematizers, he finds no difficulty in rejecting or explain- 
ing away any authorities whi^h come into conflict with his views. It 
is thus that he deals with Kapila, the author of the Sankhya. That 
eminent sage is thus spoken of in the S'vetasvatara TJpanishad, v. 2 : 

Yo yonim yonim adhitishthaty eko visvani rupuni yonls cha sarvuh \ 

Of oiis fivai TOVS eV 'Aiyinrry ,&pxovras, oiKtovras apa -rolai avdptiiiroiai, " And [the 
Egyptian priests said] that before these men the gods were the rulers in Egypt, 
dwelling together with men." < 

161 It appears from the gloss of Govinda Ananda that one of the Toga Sutras is 
here quoted, I give the sense according to his explanation : mantra-japad deva-san- 
nidhyham tat-sMnbhashanam cha iti sutrarthah. 


rishim prasutam Kapilam yas tarn agrejndnair litharttijdyamdnam cha 
pasyet \ , ( 

" The god who alone superintends every source of production and 
all forms, .jvho formerly "nourished with various knowledge his son the 
rishi Kapila, and beheld him at his birth, etc." 182 

Towards the tlose of his comment 9n Brahma S'Rtras ii. 1, 1, which 
I shaTl cite at some length. S'ankara makes some remarks on this pas- 
sage of .that Upaifi.'ihad, After stating 1 the points that had been estab- 
lished id the first Book (adJiyaya] of the Brahma Sutras, and alluding 
to the objections which had been urged against the Sankhya and other 
hostile doctrines as contrary to the Veda, S'ankara goes on to explain 
the object of the second book, and the purport of the aphorism with 
which it begins, as follows : 

Iddnlm sva-pakshe smriti-nydya-virodha-parihdrah pradhdnddi-'Vddd- 
ndm cha nydydlhdsopalrimhitatvam prativeddntam srishty-ddi-prakri- 
ydydh avigitatvam ity asya artha-jdtasya pratipddandya dvitlyo'dhydyah 
drabhyate \ tattra prathamam tdvat smriti-virodham upanyasya pariha- 
rati | yad uktam Brahma eva sarvajnam jagatah Icdranam tad ayuktam \ 
Icutah " smrity-anavakdsa-dosha-prasangdt " | smritis cha tantralchyd 
paramarsJii-pranltd sishta-parigrihltd \ anyds cha tad-anusdrinyah smri- 
tayah \ evam saty anavakdsdh prasajyeran \ tdsu hy achetanam pradhd- 
nam svatantram jagatah kdranam upaniladhyate \ Hanv-ddi-smritayas 
tdvach chodand - lalcshanena agnihotrddind dharma -jdtena apekshitam 
artham samarpayantyah sdvakdfrih bhavanti asya vttrnasya asmin kdle 
^nena vidhdnena upanayanam Idrisas cha dchdrah ittham vedddhayanam 
ittham samdvarttanam ittham saha- dharma- chdrinl-samyogah iti tathd 
purushdrthdms chatur-varndsrama-dharmdn ndnd-vidhdn vidadhati \ na 
evam kdpilddi-smritlnam anushtheye vishaye 'vakdso 'sti moksha-sddhanam 
eva hi samyag-darsanam adhikritya tdh pranltdh \ yadi tattra apy ana- 
validsdh syur dnarthakyam eva dsdm prasajyeta \ tasmdt tad-avirodhena 
veddntdh vydkhydtavydh \ katham punar " ikshity-'ddibhyo hetulhyo 
Srahma ev<b sarvajnam ja'gatah kdranam ity avadhdritah sruty-arthah \ 
" smrity-anavakdsa-dosha-prasangena " punar ahshipyate \ lhaved ayam 
andkshepah sva-tantra-prajndndm \ para-tantra-prajnds tu prdyena jandh 

162 See S'ankara's commentary on this passage in Bibl. Ind. vii. 351, and Dr. Eb'er's 
translation, p. 62, with the note ; also Dr. Hall's note in p. 19 of the urefifce to his 
edition of the Sankhya Sara, in the Bibl. Ind. , 


svdtantryena sruty-artiham avadhdrayitum asaknuvantah prakhydta-pra- 
netrikdsu smriti&hv avalamberan tad-lalena cha sruty-artham pratipat- 
serann asmat-krite cha vydkhydne na visvasyur bahu-mdndt smritlndm 
pranetrishu \ kapila-pralhritlndm cha drsham jndnam apratibatam sma- 
ryyate srutis cha lhavati " rishim prasutam kapilam yas tarn agre jndnair 
bibhartti jdyamdnam cha pasyed" iti \ tasmdd na eshdm'.natam ayathdr- 
tham sakyam sambhdvayitum \ tarkdvashtambhena eha te 'rtham ptatish- 
thdpayanti \ tasmdd api smriti-balena veddntdh, vyjihhyeyah iti punar 
dkshepah I tasya si&iddltir " na \ anya-smrity-anavakdsa-dosha-prasan- 
gdd " iti \ yadi smrity-anavakdsa-dosha-prasangena Isvara-kdrana-vddah 
dkshipyeta evam apy anydh isvara-kdrana-vddinyah smrityo 'navakdsdh 
prasajyeran \ tdh uddharishydmah | . . . . evam cohekasah smritishv api 
Isvarah kdranatvena updddnatcena cha prakdsyate \ smriti-lalena pratya- 
vatishthamdnasya smriti-lalena eva uttaram pravakshydmi ity ato ''yam 
anya-smrity-anavakdsa-doshopanydsah \ darsitam tu srutlnam zsvara- 
kdrana-vddam prati tdtparyyam \ vipratipattau cha smritlndm avasya- 
kartavye 'nyatara-parigrahe 'nyatarasydh paritydge cha sruty-anusdrin- 
yah smritayah pramdnam anapekshydh itarah \ tad uktam pramdna-la- 
kshane " virodhe tv anapekshaih sydd asati hy anumdndm" iti (Mimansa 
Sutras i. 3, 3) | na cha atlndriydn arthdn srutim antarena kaschid upa- 
labhate iti sakyam sambhdvayitum mmittdbhdvdt \ sakyam kapilddlndm 
siddhdndm apratihata-jndnatvdd iti chet \ na \ siddher api sdpekshatvdt \ 
dharmdnushthdndpekshd hi siddhih sa cha dharmas chodand-lakshanah I 
tatas cha purva-siddhdyds chodandydh artho na paschima-siddha-purusha- 
vachana-vasena atisankitum sakyate \ siddha-vyapdsraya-kalpandydm api 
bahutvdt siddhdndm pradarsitena prakdrena smriti-mpratipattau satydm 
na sruti-vyapdsraydd anyad nirnaya-kdranam asti \ para-tantra-prajna- 
sya api na akasmdt smriti-visesha-vishayah pakshapdto yuktah \ kasyachit 
kvachit tu pakshapdte sati purusha-mati-vaisvarupyena tattvdvyasthdna- 
prasangdt \ tasmdt tasya api smriti-vipratipatty-upanydsena sruty-anu- 
sdrdnanusdra-vivechanena cha san-mdrge prajnd sangrahamyd \ Yd tu 
srutih Kapilasya jndndtisayam darsayantl ptadursitd na fayd sruti- 
mruddham api Kdpilam matam sraddhdtuih sakyam " Kapilam" iti 
" sruti-sdmdnya-mdtratvdd" l63 anyasya cha Kapilasya Sagara-putrdndm 
prataptur Vdsudeva-ndmnah smarandt \ anydrtha-darsanasya cha prdpti- 
rahitasyc asddhakatvdt \ *Bhavati cha anyd Manor mdhdtyam prakhyd- 

168 Mlmansa-sutra i. 1, 31. See above,' pp. 78 f. 


payantl Srutir "yad vat kincha Manur avadat tad bheshajam " 164 iti \ 
Mamma cha (xii. 91) " sarva-bhuteshu chdtmdnam sarva-bhutdni chat- 
mam' | samam pasyann dtma-ydfi svdrdjyam adhigachchhati" iti sarvdt- 
matva-dartanam prasamsatd Kdpilam matam nindyate iti gamy ate \ Ka- 
pilo t hi na sarvatmatva-darsapam anumanyate dtma-lheddbhyupagamdt \ 
.,*... atas cha dtma-lheda-kalpanayd J pi KdpilUsya tantrasya veda- 
viruddhatvam vedamfsdri-Jfanu-vachana-virudhatvam cha na kevalaih sva- 
tantraiprakriti-patikalpanayd eveti si'ddham \ vedasya hi nirapeksham 
svdrthe prdmanyam raver iva rupa-vishaye ptiru^W^vachasam tu muldn- 
tardpeksham svdrthe prdmanyam vaktri-smriti-vyavahitam cha iti vipra- 
karshah \ tasmdd veda-mruddhe vishaye smrity-anavakda-prasango na 
doshah \ * 

" But now the second chapter is commenced with the view of effect- 
ing the following objects, viz. (a] to refute, in our own favour, the 
charge of contradicting the reasonings of the Smriti, to shew (b) that 
the doctrines regarding Pradhana, etc., have nothing more than an ap- 
pearance of reason, and (c) that the manner in which the subjects of 
creation, etc., are treated in each of the Upanishads is unimpeachable. 
First of all then the author states, and removes, the objection of con- 
trariety to the Smriti. Our opponents urge that it is incorrect to say 
that the omniscient Brahma is the cause of the world. Why ? Because, 
(l)as they allege, that doctrine 'is chargeable with the objection of setting 
aside the Smriti as useless'(Br. Sutra, ii. 1, 1). This term ' Smriti' denotes 
a systematic treatise (tantra) co'mposed by an eminent rishi, and received 
by the learned ; and there are other Smritis in conformity with it. And 
the alleged difficulty is that (on the theory that Brahma is the cause) all 
these would be set aside as useless ; since^they propound an unconscious 
Pradhana #s the self-dependent cause of the world. The Smritis of 
Manu and others, indeed, which affirm that by means of the agnihotra 
and other enjoined ceremonies, the objects desired (by those who practise 
these rites) will be accomplished, will still retain their use, viz. of pre- 
scribing the objects to'be pursued, viz. the various duties of the four 
castes and orders, that such and such a caste* shall be initiated at such 
a time and by such a process, and shall follow such and such a mode of 
life, that the Yeda is to be studied, that the cessation of study is to 
take place, and that union with a woman fol?owing the samerites is to 
164 See above, p. 181, and the First Volume of this -vork, pp. 188, and 510. 


celebrated, in such, and such ways. But [on the hypothesis of Brahma 
being the creator] no such room is left for the Smritis of Kapila and 
others, on the ground of any ceremonie? to be performed [in conformity 
with their prescriptions] ; for they have been "composed as embodying 
perfect systems affording the means of final liberation. If in this 
respect also no place' be left for them the difficulty will 1 arise that they 
are quite useless. And hence the conclusion is resfchefi. that the TJpani- 
shads should be interpreted so as 1 ' to harmonize witt'ftiem. But, such 
being the case, howf it is again objected, have you determined on the 
strength of the reasons furnished by the texts about 'beholding,' etc., 
that it is the meaning of the Yeda that Brahma is the omniscient cause 
of the world, thus exposing yourself to the charge of leaving no place 
for the Smriti ? Although we hold that this charge is harmless as regards 
those who think for themselves ; yet men have for the most part no 
independent opinion, and are unable by an unassisted act of their own 
judgment to determine the sense of the Vedas, and will consequently lean 
upon the Smritis composed by renowned authors, and adopt the sense of 
the Vedas which they enforce : and from their lofty opinion of these authors 
they will have no confidence in our interpretations. And it is moreover 
urged (2) that Kapila and the others are declared by the Smriti to have 
possessed an unobstructed intuitive (drska 165 ") knowledge; and there is 
also a Yedic text to the effect ' He who of old sustains with manifold 
knowledge Kapila when he is produced, and beholds him when born,' etc. 
(S'vetasv. Tip. v. 2). Consequently theii- doctrines cannot be imagined 
to be untrue. And they further support their tenets by argument. On 
these grounds also, it is urged, the Upanishads must be interpreted by 
the aid of the Smritis. The questions thus raised are settled by the con- 
cluding words of the Sutra, ' No ; for this conclusion is vitiated by the 
objection that other Smritis would in this way be rendered useless.' (1) 
If the doctrine that God is the cause of the world is chargeable with 
the objection that it leaves no room for the Smriti, in the same way the 
difficulty will arise (on the other theory) 'that otlier texts of Smriti 
which affirm that God is' the cause will be set aside. These we shall 
adduce." After quoting some passages, ,S'ankara proceeds: "In the 
same manner in numerous texts of the Smriti God is shewn to be both 
the instrumental and the 1 material cause. I must answer on the 
165 Ser* above, pp. 116, 118, and 127. 


strength of the Smriti the person who opposes me on the same ground, 
and so I just indicate this objection against his views as having the 
effect of setting aside other Smritis. But it has heen shown that the 
sense of the>Vedic texts is in favour of the causality of God. And 
since, if the Smritis are at variance with each other, we must of neces- 
sity accept the ori'e set and reject the other, those of tfiem which are con- 
formable to the Veda* will be authoritative, and the rest will deserve 
no attention : for i &as been said in the'section (of the Purva Mimansa) 
on proof (i. 3, 3), that ' if it (the Smriti) be cdntr,a^ (to the Veda) it 
must be disregarded ; but if there be no (contrariety) it must be in- 
ferred (that the former is founded on the latter).' And it is inconceiv- 
able that anyone should discover things beyond the reach of the senses 
without the aid of the Veda, since the means of doing so are wanting. 
If it be urged that we can conceive such discovery (of imperceptible 
things without the help of the Veda) as possible in the case of Kapila 
and other perfect persons (siddhdnam"), because there was nothing to 
obstruct their knowledge ; we reply, No ; because perfection (siddhi ) 
is dependent upon something else, viz. on the practice of duty. Now 
duty is defined as something which is enjoined. And the subject- 
matter of an injunction which was previously promulgated cannot be 
called into doubt on the strength of the words of a man who became 
perfect at a subsequent period. And even on the supposition that con- 
fidence could be placed in such 'perfect' persons, yet, as they are 
numerous, and as such a mutual contradiction as we have already 
pointed out exists between the Smritis of different 'perfect' persons, 
there is no means left of determining the truth, but reliance on the Veda. 
Causeless partiality to any particular Smriti, on the part even of a man 
who has no independent opinion, is improper ; but if anyone ever does 
exhibit such partiality, the charge of depriving truth of all fixity at- 
taches to his procedure, because the opinions of men (which he takes 
as the standard of his belief) assume all sorts of forms. Consequently 
his judgment also should* be directed into the righkpath by indicating 
the mutual contradictions between the different Smritis, and by dis- 
tinguishing those of them which are conformable to, from those which 
are at variance with, the Veda. And (2) the Vedic text which has been 
pointed out, showing the transcendent character of Kapila' s knowledge 1 , 
cannot be a warrant for believing the doctrine of Kapila, though con- 


trary to the Veda, since the word Kapila ' has, in this text, a general 
sense' [applicable to others besides the author of the Sankhya] (Mim. 
Sutra, i. 1, 31), and another Kapila called Vasudeva, the consumer of 
Sagara's sons, is also mentioned in the Smriti ; and since tho indication 
of something which has a different object i,n view, and is therefore irrele- 
vant to the matter in question, can prove nothing.' 186 1'here is, besides, 
another text of the Veda which sets forth th^ eminent fliginity of Manu in 
these terms, ' "Whatever Manu said is medicine/ 187 'And Manu when 
he employs the word? (xii. 91), ' He who, with impartial eye, beholds 
himself in all beings, and all beings in himself, thus sacrificing his 
own personalty, attains to ^lf-refulgence ; ' and, by saying this com- 
mends the tenet that everything is one with the supreme Spirit must 
be understood as censuring Kapila's doctrine. For Kapila does not 
assent to the identity of Brahma and the universe, since he holds a 
diversity of souls." . . . (After quoting one passage from the Maha- 
bharata, and another from the Veda, to prove that Kapila is wrong, 
S'ankara proceeds) : " Hence it is proved that Kapila's system is at 
variance with the Veda and with the words of Manu, who follows the 
Veda, not only in supposing an independent Prakriti (nature), but also 
in supposing a diversity of souls. Now the Veda has an independent 
authority in regard to its own contents, as the sun has (an inherent 
power) of manifesting forms ; whilst the words of men have, as regards , 
their own sense, an authority which is dependent on another source 
(the Veda), and which is distinguished (from the authority of the 
Veda) by the fact of their authors being remembered. Consequently 
it forms no objection to a doctrine that it sets aside a Smriti on a point 
which is contrary to the Veda." 

166 The words thus translated are explained as follows in the Gloss of Govinda 
Ananda : Kincha "yah Kapilam jnanair bibhartti tarn Isvaram pasyed" iti vidKiyatt 
tathii cha anyarthasya Isvara-pratipatti-seshasya Kapila-sarvajnatvasya darsanam 
anuvadas tasya mdnantarena prapti-sunyasya svartha-sadhakatvayogad na anuvada- 
matrad sarvajnaiva-siddhir iiy aha \ " And it*is enjoined (in the text of the S'veta- 
s'vatara Upanishad) : ' Let him behold that Is'vara who nourishes Kapila with various 
knowledge ; ' and so since this ' indicatioli ' of, this reference to, the omniscience of 
Kapila, which has another object in view, and er.ds in the establishment of an Is'vara, 
and which on other grounds is shewn to be irrelevant, cannot prove its own meaning, 
this mere reference does nr>t suffice to evince Kapila's omniscience : This is what 
S'ankara 'means to say." 

167 See the First Volume' of this work, pp. 188 and 510. 


See also S'ankara's commentary on the Taittinya TJpanishad, Bib. 
Ind. vii. pp. 136, 137, where h<? says : 

Kdpila-kdnddddi-tarka-sdstra-virodhah iti chet \ no, \ teshdm muld- 
bhdve vedawirodhe cha Wfrdntyopapatteh \ 

" If it be objected that this is contrary to the rationalistic doctrines 
of Kapila and Kanada [and therefore .wrong], I answer no, since these 
doctrines are proved* to be^ erroneous, as having no foundation, and as 
being in oppositioEdto the Veda." 

His remarks on a passage of the Prasna tTpanishad, which are as 
follows, afford a curious specimen of the contemptuous manner in which 
this orthodox Yedantist treats the heretical Sankhyas, etc. (Prasna Up. 
vi. 4; Bib. Ind. viii.*244) : 

Sdnkhyds tu avidyd- dhydropitam eva purushe karttritvam kriyd-kdra- 
Icam phalam cha iti kalpayitvd dgama-vdhyatvdt punas tatas trasyantaa 
paramdrthatah eva Ihoktritvam purushasya ichchhanti \ tattvdntaram cha 
pradhdnam purushdt paramdrtha-vastu-bhutam eva kalpayanto 'nya-tdr- 
kika-krita-luddhi-vishaydh santo vihanyante \ Tathd itare tdrkikdh sdn- 
khyair ity evam paraspara-viruddhdrtha-kalpandtah dmishdrthinah iva 
prdnino 'nyonyani viruddhamdndh artha-daritvdt paramdrtha-tattvdt 
tad-duram eva apakrishyante \ atas tan-matam anddritya veddntdrtha- 
tattvam ekatca-darsanam prati ddaravanio mumukshavah syur iti tdrkika- 
mate dosha-darsanam kinchid uchyate 'smdbhir na tu tdrkika-tdtparyyena \ 

11 The followers of the Sankhya imagine that the functions of action, 
and the enjoyment of reward which causes action, become erroneously 
attributed to the soul (purusha) in consequence of supervening ignorance ; 
but as this doctrine differs from that of Scripture, they become afraid of 
it, and seek to ascribe to the soul enjoyment in the proper sense. And 
supposing a/iother principle distinct from soul, viz. Pradhana (or na- 
ture), which they regard as substance in the proper sense, they become 
the objects of correction by other rationalists, and are crushed. Thus, 
in consequence of the contrariety between the conceptions of the San- 
khyas ancb those of other freethinkers, the two parties quarrel with 
each other like animals fighting for, flesh ; and thus, from their having 
an (exclusive) regard to (thevr own) views, they are all drawn away 
to a distance from the essential truth. "Wherefore let men, disregarding 
their tenets, seek for final liberation by paying'honour to the principles 

of the Yedantic doctrine, which maintains the inity of all being. Ve 


have thus pointed out something of the errors of the rationalists, and 
have said nothing in accordance with their views." 

IV. In thus depreciating Kapila, Simkara is in direct opposition to 
the Bhagavata Purana (which, however, may be a work of later date 
than his 168 ), in which the author of the Sajnkhya is spoken of with the 
greatest reverence. Thus in Bh?g. Pur. i. 3, 10, he "is described as 
the fifth incarnation of Vishnu : 

Panchamah Kapilo ndma siddhesah Tcala-viplutar . \ provachasuraye 
sankhyam tattva-gramarmnirnayam \ 

" In his fifth manifestation, he [in the form of] Kapila, and lord of 
saints, declared to Asuri the Sankhya which defines the series of prin- 
ciples, and which had been lost through the lapse of time." 

And again, in Bhag. Pur. ix. 8, 12, 13, Kapila is made the subject 
of eulogy. A legend narrates that the sixty thousand sons of king 
Sagara, conceiving Kapila to be the robber of a horse which had been 
carried away from their sacrifice, advanced to slay him, when they 
were burnt up by fire issuing from his body. The author of the 
Purana, however, denies that this was in any degree owing to passion 
on the part of the sage : 

Na sudhu-vddo muni-kopa-lharjitdh nripendra-putrdh iti sattva-dhd- 
mani \ katham tamo ro&hamayam vilhdvyate jagat-pavitrdtmani khe rajo 
bhuvah \ yasyeritd sdnkhyamayi dridheha naur yayd mumukshus tarate 
duratyayam \ lhavdrnavam mrityu-patham vipaschitah pardtma-bhutasya 
katham prithanmatih \ 

"It is not an assertion befitting a good man to say that the king's 
sons were burnt up by the wrath of the sage ; for how is it conceivable 
that the darkness (tamas) of ,anger should reside in the abode of good- 
ness (sattva\ or that the dust (or passion, rajas] of the earth should 
ascend into the sky, the region of purity ? How could that sage, one 
with the supreme Spirit, by whom the strong ship of the Sankhya was 
launched, on which the man seeking emancipation crosses the ocean 
of existence, hard to* be traversed, and leading to death, how could he 
entertain the idea of any distinction between himself and others [and 
so treat any one as an enemy] ? " 

It is not necessary for me to quote any further passages in praise of 
the author gf the Sankhya. There is a great deal about this system 
168 See Wilson's Vish. Pur., preface, pp. xliv. and ii. 


in the Mahabharata, S'antiparvan, verses ll,037ff. See Colebrooke's 
Essays, i. 236 (p. 149 of Williams and Norgate's ed.) ; Wilson's Vishnu 
Parana, pref. p. xclv. and text, pp t . 18 ff. with notes; Bhagavata Purana, 
iii. chapter,^ 24-30 ; "Weber's Ind. Stud, passim ; Dr. Rb'er's Introduc- 
tion to S'vetasvatara Upanishad, Bibl. Ind. xv. 35 if. ; and Dr. Hall's 
preface to the Simkhya-sara in the Bibl. Ind. p. 19,note. 

"We'have thus seen .that a distinct line qf demarcation is drawn by 
the most accurate arid critical of the Indian writers, between the S'ruti, 
which they define to be superhuman and independent, and the Smriti, 
which they regard as of human origin, and as dependent for its author- 
ity on its conformity with the S'ruti. S'ankara, indeed, as we have also 
observed (above, p. 183), goes very nearly, if not altogether, so far as 
to assign an independent foundation to the Smritis ; but he confines this 
distinction to such of these works as coincide in doctrine with the S'ruti 
or Veda, according to his own Vedantic interpretation of its principles, 
while all other speculators are denounced by him as heterodox. It is, 
however, clear from the S'vetasvatara Upanishad, the Mahabharata, the 
Bhagavad Gita, the Vishnu, and the Bhagavata Puranas, etc., that the 
doctrines of the Sankhya must have been very prevalent in ancient 
times, and that S'ankara, when he condemned them as erroneous, must 
have done so in the face of many powerful opponents. 169 

169 I quote the following passage from Dr. Bb'er's Introduction to the S'vetasvatara 
Upanishad, pp. 36 f. : "At the time of the composition of the S'w etas' watara, the 
Sankhya was not a new system, which had to overcome the resistance of old received 
opinions, and the prejudices of men in power, whose interest might be opposed to the 
introduction of a doctrine by which their authority could be questioned. It had 
found many adherents; it was the doctrine of Manu, of some parts of the Maha- 
bharata, and to its founder divine honour had been assigned by general consent. It 
was a doctrine whose argumentative portion demanded respect, and as it was admitted 
by many Bramhans (sic), distinguished for their knowledge of the Vedas, it could not 
be treated as a heresy. The most learned and eminent of the Bramhans were evidently 
divided among themselves with reference to the truth of the Sankhya and Vedanta, 
and this must have afforded to the opponents of the Vedaic system a most powerful 
weapon for attacking the 'Sedas themselves. If both the Sankhya and Vedanta are 
divine revelations, both must be true ; 'but if the doctrine of the one is true, the doc- 
trine of the other is wrong ; for they are contradictory among themselves. Further, 
if both are derived from the Yedas, it is evident that also the latter cannot rereal the 
truth, because they would teach opposite opinions about one and the same point. Such 
objections to the Vedas had been made already in ancient times, as is clear from the 
Upanishads, from several passages of Manu, from Yaska, etc. ; and under |hese cir- 
cumstances it cannot be wondered at, if early attempts were made to '^reconcile the 



It is not necessary for me here to inquire with any accuracy what 
the relation was in which the different philosophical systems stood to 
each other in former ages. It may sufftce to say that the more thorough- 
going adherents of each of the Vedanta, the Sankhya, ,the Nyaya, 
etc. must, according to all appearance, have maintained -their respec- 
tive principles with the utmost earnestness and tenacity, and could not 
have admitted that any of .the rival systems was superior to their own 
in any particular. It is impossible to study the^utras of th# several 
schools, and come to any other conclusion. The more popular systems 
of the Puranas, on the other hand, blended various tenets of the dif- 
ferent systems syncretically together. In modern times the superior 
orthodoxy of the Yedanta seems to be generally admitted. But even 
some who hold this opinion refuse to follow the example of S'ankara in 
denouncing the founders of the rival schools as heretical. On the con- 
trary, they regard them all as inspired Munis, who, by adapting their 
doctrines to the capacities or tendencies of different students, have 
paved the way for the ultimate reception of the Vedantic system. 
Such is the view taken in the Prasthana-bheda of Hadhusudana Saras- 
vati, who gives the following lucid summary of the leading principles 
of the different schools of speculation ("Weber's Indische Studien, i. 23) : 

Sarveshdm cha sankshepena trividhah eva prasthdna-bhedah \ tatra 
drambha-vddah ekah \ parindma-vddo dvitlyah \ vivartta-vddas tritiyah \ 
pdrthivtipya-taijasa-vdyavlyds chaturvidhdh paramdnavo dvy-anukddi- 
kramena Irahmdnda-paryantam jagad drambhante \ asad eva kdryyam 
kdraka-vydpdrdd utpadyate iti prathamas tdrkikdndm mlmdmsa- 
kdndm cha \ sattva - rajas - tamo - gunatmakam pradhdnam eva mahad- 
ahankdrddi - kramena jagad-dkdrena parinamate \ purvam api sukshma- 
rupena sad eva ktiryam kdrana-vydpdrena abhtryajyate iti dvitiyah 
pakshah Sankhya -Yoga - Pdtanjala - Pdsupatdndm \ Jlrahmanah pari- 
namo jagad, iti Yaishntivdndm \ sva-prakdsa-paramdnandddvitiyam Brah- 
ma sva-mdyd-vasdd mithyaiva jagad-dkdrena kalpate iti tritiyah paksho 

1 H 

tenets of the Vedanta and Sankhya to save the uniformity of the doctrine, and 
therebv the sacredness of the Vedas as Jhe Scriptures derived from the immediate 
revelation of God. So, for instance, it is recorded that Vyasa, the reputed author of 
the Bramha Sutras, wrote also a commentary to Patanjali's Yoga-s'astra, which is still 
extant under his name. In the same manner composed Gaudapilda, the eminent 
Vedantisv, and teacher of S'ankara's teacher, Govinda, a commentary to Is'vara 
Krishna's Sankhya Karika.- and the Bhagavad Gita has also the same object." 


Brahma-vddinum \ sarvesJidm prasthdna-karttrlndm muriindm vivartta- 
vdda-paryavasdnena advitiye Paramesvare eva pratipddye tdtparyam \ na 
hi te munayo Ikruntdh sarvajnatydt teshdm \ kintu vahir-vishaya-prava- 
ndntim apqtatah purushirthe praveso na samlhavati iti ndstikya-vdra- 
ndya taih pralcdra-lheddh pradarsitdh \ tatra teshdm tdtparyam abuddhvd 
veda-viruddhe 'py arihe tdtparyam utprekshamdnds* tan-matam eva upti- 
deycwbena grihnanio y'andh ndnd-patha-jusho lhavanti \ iti sarvam ana- 
vadyam 9 \ > , & , 

" The difference in principle between these various schools is, when 
briefly stated, three-fold. The first doctrine is that of a commencement 
of the world ; the second is that of an evolution ; the third is that of 
an illusion. Atoms o'f four descriptions earthy, aqueous, igneous, and 
aerial beginning with compounds of two atoms, and ending in the 
egg of Brahma (the world), originate the universe : and effects, pre- 
viously non-existent, come into being from the action of a causer. This 
is the first theory, that of the Logicians and Mimansakas. The second 
theory, that of the Sankhyas, Yogas, Patanjalas, and Pasupatas, is that 
Pradhdna (or Prahriti =. nature), consisting of the three gunas (quali- 
ties), sattva, rajas, and tamas, is evolved, through the successive stages 
of maliat (intellect), and ahankdra (consciousness), etc., in the form of 
the world ; and that effects, which had previously existed in a subtile 
form, are [merely] manifested by the action of their cause. Another 
form of this theory is that of the Vaishnavas [the Ramanujas], who 
hold the universe to be an evolution of Brahma. The third view, that 
of the Brahma-vadins (Vedantists), is, that Brahma, the self-resplen- 
dent, the supremely happy, and the one sole essence, assumes, unreally, 
the form of the world through the influence of his own illusion (Maya). 

The ultimate scope of all the Munis, authors of these different sys- 
tems, is to support the theory of illusion, and their only design is to 
establish the existence of one Supreme God, the sole essence ; for these 
Munis could not be mistaken [as some of them must have been, if 
they were not all of vJne 1 opinion, or, as those of them must have been 
who did not hold Vedantic principles], since, they were omniscient. 
But as they saw that men, addicted to the pursuit of external objects, 
could not all at once penetrate into the highest truth, they held out to 
them a variety of theories, in order that they m%ht not fall into^theism . 
Misunderstanding the object which the Munis, thus had in view, and 


representing that they even designed to propound doctrines contrary 
to the Vedas, men have come to regard the specific doctrines of these 
several schools with preference, and thjis become adherents of a variety 
of systems. Thus all has been satisfactorily stated." , 

I find that VijnanaBhikshu, the commentator on the Sankhya aphor- 
isms, takes very nearly the same o view as is here quoted from Madhu- 
sudana Saras vati, in regard to the superiority of the "Brahma Mimansa 
or Vedanta over the other Darsatas. 

In his Sankhya-pravachana-bhashya (Bibliotheca Indica, pp. 3 ff.), 
he thus writes : 

Sydd etat \ Nydya-vaisekikdbhydm atra avirodJio lhavatu \ brahma- 
mlmdmsd-yogdbhydm tu virodho 'sty eva \ tdbhydwi nityesvara-sddhandt \ 
atra cha Isvarasya pratishidhyamdnatvdt \ na cHa atrdpi vydvahdrika- 
pdramdrthika-lhedena sesvara-nirisvara-vddayor avirodho 'stu sesvara- 
vddasya updsand-paratva-sambhavdd iti vdchyam \ vinigamakdbhdi-dt \ 
ivaro hi durjneyah iti nirlsvaratvam api loka-vyavahdra-siddham aisva- 
ryya-vairdgydya anuvaditum sakyate dtmanah sagunatvam iva, \ na tu 
kvdpi sruty-dddv Isvarah sphutam pratishidhyate yena sesvara-vddasyaiva 
vydvahdrikatvam avadhdryeta iti \ atra uchyate \ atrdpi vydvahdrika- 
pdramdrthika - Ihdvo lhavati \ "asatyam apratishtham te jagad dhur 
anisvaram" ityddi-sdstrair nirlsvara-vddasya ninditatvdt \ asminn eva 
sdstre vydvahdrikasyaiva pratishedhasya aisvaryya-vairdgyddy-artham 
anuvddatvauchitydt \ yadi hi laukdyatika-matdnusdrena nityaisvaryyam 
na pratishidhyeta tadd paripurna-nitya-nirdoshaisvaryya-darsanena tatra 
chittdvesato vivekdbhydsa - pratibandhah sydd iti sdnkhydchdryydndm 
dsayah \ sesvara-vddasya na kvdpi nindddikam asti yena updsanddi-para- 
tayd tat sdstram sankochyeta \ yat tu " ndsti sdnkhya-samam jndnam 
ndsti yoga-samam lalam \ atra vah samsayo md bhuj jndnam sankliyam 
param smritam" ityddi vdkyam tad-vivekdmse eva sdnkhya-jndnasya dar- 
sandntarebJiyah utkarsham pratipddayati na tv lsva/ra-pratisheddmse 'pi \ 
tathd Pardsarddy-akhila-sishta-samvdddd api sesvara-vddasyaiva pdra- 
mdrthikatvam avadh/iryate \ api cha "-Akshafada-pranlte cjia Kdndde 
sdnkhya-yogayoh \ tydjyah sruti-virudho 'msah smty-eka-saranair nri- 
bhih | Jaiminlye cha Vaiydse virudhdmso na kaschana \ srutyd reddrtha- 
vijndne sruti-pdram gatau hi tdv " iti Pardsaropapurdnddilhyo 'pi 
Irahma-inimdmsdydh isvardmse lalavattvam \ yathd \ " nydya-tantrdny 
anekdni tais tair uktdni vddibhih | hetv-dgama-saddchdrair yad yuHam 


tad updsyatdm" iti moksha-dharma-vdkydd api Pard&arddy-akhila-iishta- 
vyavahdrena Irahma-mimdmsd-nndya-vaiseshikddy-uktah isvara-sddhaka- 
nydyah eva grdhyo lalavattvdt \ tathd \ "Yam na pasyanti yoglndrdh 
sdnkhydh npi mahesvardm \ anddi-nidhanam brahma tarn eva iaranam 
vraja" ityddi-kaurmddi-vdknaih sdnkhydndm livardjndnasyaiva ndrdya- 
nddind proktatvdch cha \ kincJia hrahmy-mimdmsdydh Isvarah eva mukhyo 
vishayah upakramtidtfbhir avcidhritah \ tatrdmse tasya bddhe sdstrasyaiva 
aprdmanyam sydt \t" yat-parah sabdaKsa abddrthah" iti nydydt \ sdn- 
khya-sdstrasya tu purushdrtha-tat-stidhana-prakrMi-purusha-vivekdv eva 
mukhyo vishayah \ iti Uvara-pratishedhdmsa-lddhe 'pi na aprdmdnyam \ 
"Yat-parah sdbdah sa abddrthah" iti nydydt \ atah sdvakdsatayd sdn~ 
khyam eva isvara-pratitfhedhdmse durbalam iti \ na cha Irahma-mimdm- 
sdydm api Isvdrah eva mukhyo vishayo na tu nityaisvaryam iti vaktum 
sakyate \ "smrity-anavakdsa-dosha-prasanga"-rupa-purva-pakshasya anu- 
papattyd nityaisvaryya-visishtatvena eva Irahma-mlmdmsd-vishayatvdva- 
dhdrandt \ lrahma-abdasya para- Irahmany eva mukhyatayd tu "athdtah 
para-lrahma-jijndsd " iti na sutritam iti \ etena sdnkhya-virodhdd brah- 
ma-yoga-darsanayoh kdryyesvara-paratvam api na idnkamyam \ prakriti- 
svdtantrydpattyd " rachandnupapattes cha na anumdnam" ityddi brahma- 
sutra-parampard- nupapattei cha \ tathd " sa purveshdm api guruhkdlena 
anavachchheddd" itiyoga-sutra-tadlya-vydsa-hhdshydbhydm sphutam Isa- 
nityatdvagamdch cha iti \ tasmdd abhyupagama-vdda-praudhi-vddddind 
eva sdnkhyasya vydvahdrikefaara-pratishedha-paratayd brahma-mlmdmsd- 
yogdlhydih saha na virodhah \ alhyupagama-vddas cha sdstre drishtah \ 
yathd Vishnu-purdne (i. 17, 54) | "Ete bhinna-drisdm daitydh vikalpdh 
kathitdh mayd \ kritva^hhyupagamam tatra sankshepah sruyatdm mama " | 
iti \ astu vd pdpindm jndna-pratilandh'drtham dstika-darsaneshv apy 
amsatah sruti-vimddhdrtha-vyavasthdpanam teshu teshv ameshv apra- 
mdnyam cha \ iruti - smrity - aviruddheshu tu mukhya - vishayeshu prd- 
mdnyam asty eva \ atah eva Padma-purdne 6rahma-yoga-darsandti- 
riktdndih darsandndm nindd 'py upapadyate \ Yathd tatra Pdrvatlm 


prati Isvara-vdJeyam \ * l srinu^ devi pravakshydmi ' tdmasdni yathd-kra- 
mam \ yeshdm sravana-mdtrena pdtjtyam jndnindm api \ prathamam hi 
mayaivoktam S'aivam Pdsupatdjlikam \ mach-chhakty-dvesitair vipraih sam- 
proktdni tatah param \ ffanddena tu samproktam sdstram vaiieshikam 
mahat \ Gautamena tathd nydyam sdnkhyam lu Kapilena yai*\ dvijan- 
mand Jaiminind purvaih vedamaydrthatah \ nirlsvarena vddena kritam 


sdstram mahattaram \ Dhishanena tathd proJctam chdrvdkam ati-garhi- 
tam | daitydndm ndsandrthdya Vishnun r l Buddha-rupi^d \ lauddha-sds- 
tram asat proktam nagna-nlla-patddikafii \ mdyd-vddam asach-chhdstram 
prachchhannam lauddham eva cha \ mayaiva kathitam devi kblau brdh- 
mana-rupind \ apdrtham sruti-vdkydndm darsayat loka-garhitam \ .kar- 
ma-svarupa-tydjyatvam atra cha jsratipddyate \ sarva-~karma-paribhrn r '(- 
sdd naishkarmyam tatra chochyate \ pardtmf-juayor *aikyam may a 'tra 
pratipddyate \ Irahmano ^sya par am rupam nirglinaZi darsitam *mayd \ 
sarvasya jagato 'py asya ndsandrthafq Jcalau yuge \ veddrthavad mahdsds- 
tram mdyd-vddam avaidikam \ mayaiva kathitam devijagatdm ndsa-kdra- 
ndd" iti \ adhikam tu Irahma-mlmdmsd-bhdshye prapanchitam asmdlhir 
iti | tasmdd dstika-sdstrasya na kasydpy aprdmanyam virodho vd sva- 
sva-vishayeshu sarveshdm abddhdt avirodhdch cha iti \ nanv evam purusha- 
bahutvdmse 'py asya sdstrasya abhyupagama-vddatvam sydt \ na sydt I 
avirodhdt \ Irahnia-mlmdihsdydm apy " amso ndnd-vyapadesdd" ityddi- 
sutra-jdtairjlvdtma-lahutvasyaiva nirnaydt \ sdnkhya-siddha-purushdndm 
dtmatvam tu Irahma-rnimdmsayd Iddhyate eva \ " dtmd iti tu upayanti" 
iti tat-sutrena paramdtmanah eva paramdrtha-lhumdv dtmatvdvadhd- 
randt \ tathdpi cha sdnkhyasya na aprdmanyam \ vydvahdrikdtmano 
jivasya itara-viveka-jndnasya moksha-sddhanatve vivaJcshitdrthe Iddhd- 
Ihdvdt | etena sruti-smriti-prasiddhayor ndndtmaikdtmatvayor vydvahd- 
rika-pdramdrthika-lhedena avirodhah \ 

"Be it so: let there be here no discrepancy with the Nyaya and 
Vaiseshika. But it will be said that th'e Sankhya is really opposed to 
the Brahma-mimansa (the Vedanta) and the Yoga [of Patanjali] ; since 
both of these systems assert an eternal Isvara (God), while the Sankhya 
denies such an Isvara. And. it must not be said (the same persons 
urge) that here also [as in the former case of the ft"yaya f and Yaise- 
shika], owing to the distinction between practical [or conventional, or 
regulative] and essential truths, there may be no [real] contrariety 
between the theistic and the atheistic theories, inasmuch as the theistic 
theory may possibly'have a view to devotion [and may therefore have 
nothing more than a practical end ?n view] ; you are not, it will be 
said, to assert this, as there is nothing to lead to this conclusion [or, 
distinction]. For as Isvara is difficult to be krifcwn, the atheistic theory 
also, which js founded on popular opinion, may, indeed, be adverted to 
for the purpose of inspiring indifference to the conception of a Deity> 


(just as it is [conventionally] asserted that soul has qualities) ; but 
neither the Veda, nor any other sastra contains a distinct denial of 
an Isvara, by which the merely -practical [or conventional] character of 
the theistifc theory could'' be shewn. [Consequently the theistic theory 
is not a mere conventional one, but true, and the contradiction between 
the atheistic Sankhya and the theistic systems is real and irreconcilable]. 
" To this we re'pl/: in this case also the distinction of practical and 
essential truths hoWs. For although the atheistic theory is censured by 
such texts as the following : ' They declare a world without an Isvara to 
be false and baseless ; ' yet it was proper that in this system (the San- 
khya), the merely practical (or conventional) denial [of Isvara] should 
be inculcated for the purpose of inspiring indifference to the conception 
of a Deity, and so forth. Because the idea of the author of the San- 
khya was this, that if the existence of an eternal Isvara were not 
denied, in conformity with the doctrine of the Laukayatikas, men would 
be prevented by the contemplation of a perfect-, eternal, and faultless 
godhead, and by fixing their hearts upon it, from studying to discri- 
minate [between spirit and matter]. But no censure on the theistic 
theory is to be found in any work, whereby [the scope *)f ] that 
system might be restricted, as having devotion, etc., in view as its 
only end. And as regards such texts as the following : ' There is 
no knowledge like the Sankhya, no power like the Yoga ; doubt not 
of this, the knowledge of the Sankhya is considered to be the highest,' 
they [are to be understood as] proving the superiority of the Sankhya 
doctrine over other systems, not in respect of its atheism, but only of 
its discrimination [between different principles]. It is, moreover, estab- 
lished by the concurrence of Parasara, and all other well instructed 
persons, that the theistic theory is that which represents the essential 
truth. Further, such texts as the following of the Parasara Upapurana, 
and other works, shew that the strength of the Brahma-mlmansa lies 
on the side of its theism, viz., 'In the systems of Akshapada (Gotama) 
and Kanaka, and in the" Sankhya and Yoga, that ]/art which is opposed 
to the Yeda should be rejected by ,#11 personsnvho regard the Yeda as 
the sole authority. In the systems of Jaimini and Vyasa (the Yedanta) 
there is no portion contrary to the Yeda, since both these sages have 
attained to a perfect comprehension of its true meaning. In 4he same 
way it results from this text of the Mokstu-dharma (a part of the 


S'anti-parvan of the Mahabharata), viz. : ' Many systems of reasoning 
have been promulgated by different Authors; [in these] whatever is 
established on grounds of reason, of soripture and of approved custom, 
I B to be respected;' [from this text also, I Say, it results*] that the 
theory, declared in the Brahma-mimansa. the Nyaya, the Vaiseshika, 
etc., in consonance with the tradition of Parasara and 1 all other well- 
instructed men, which asserts an Isvara, is aldiie *to be received, in 
consequence of its strength ; arid [the same tkin#- follows] from the 
fact that in such passages as this of the Kaurma-purana, etc., viz.-- 
' Take refuge with that Mahesvara, that Brahma without beginning 
or end, whom the most eminent Yogins, and the Sankhyas do not 
behold,' Narayana (Vishnu) and others asserir that the Sankhyas are 
ignorant of Isvara. 

"Moreover, Isvara is determined to be the principal subject of the 
Brahma-mimansa by the introductory statement, etc., of that system. 
If it were open to objection on that side [i.e. on the side of its principal 
subject], the entire system would be without authority. For it is a 
rule that ' the sense of a word is that which it is intended to denote.' 
"Whereag the principal subjects of the Sankhya are (1) the grand 
object of human pursuit, and (2) the distinction between nature (pra- 
kriti] and spirit (purusha), which is the instrument of attaining that 
grand object. Thus this system does not lose its authority, even 
though it be erroneous in so far as it denies an Isvara. For it is a rule 
that 'the sense of a word is that which it is intended to denote.' 
Hence, as the Sankhya has a certain applicability of its own, it is weak 
only in so far as it denies an Isvara. 

"Nor can it be alleged tha,t it is Isvara only, and not the eternity of 
his existence, that is the principal subject of the Brahnia-mlmansa ; 
since, through the disproof of the objection (purva-paksha] that the 
theistic theory 'is chargable with the defect of rendering the Smriti 
inapplicable,' 17 it is ascertained that the assertion of an eternal Isvara 
is the main object of the Brahma-mimansa. But as the word 'Brahma' 
is properly employed t<? denote th f e supreme Brahma, the first aphor- 
ism of the Brahma-mimansa does not run thus, ' Now follows the en- 
quiry regarding the supreme Brahma ; ' [but thus, ' Now follows the 

170 The aphorism here referred to (Brahma Sutras ii. 1, 1), with most of S'ankara's 
comment on it, has been already quoted above, pp. 185 if. 


enquiry regarding Brahma.'] Hence we are not to surmise that, as they 
[would otherwise] contradict the Sankhya, the Brahma-mimansa and 
Yoga systems must aim at establishing [not an eternal Deity] but a 
[secondary*] Isvara, who'is merely an effect. For this is disproved (1) 
by the series of Brahma Sutras (ii. 2, 1 ff.) which affirm that 'an un- 
intelligent caust? of the world cannot be inferred, as it ig not conceiv- 
able ^that such acaase should frame anything,' and which would be 
rendered inconclu'siy^ by the assumption of the independent action of 
Prakriti'; and (2) by the fact that the eternity 'of God is clearly under- 
stood from the Yoga aphorism [i. 26], viz. ' He is also the instructor 
of the ancients, as he is not circumscribed by time,' as well as from 
the commentary of Vyasa thereon. 171 Hence, as the Sankhya, arguing 
on its own special principles, and at the same time making a great dis- 
play of ingenuity 172 and so forth, has in view a merely practical denial 
of an Isvara, it does not contradict the Brahma-mlmansa or the Yoga. 
The method of reasoning on special principles is referred to in the 
S'astra. Thus it is said in the Vishnu Purana [i. 17, 54, "Wilson, 
vol. ii. p. 44], ' These notions, Daityas, which I h^e described, are 
the guesses of persons who look on the Deity as distinct from them- 
selves. Accepting them as partially correct, hear from me a summary 
(of transcendental truth). 

"Or let it be [supposed] that even orthodox systems, with the view 
of preventing sinners from attaining knowledge, lay down doctrines 
which are partially opposed to the Veda ; and that -in those particular 
portions they are not authoritative. Still in their principal contents, 

171 I quote the commentary of Bhoja-raja on this Sutra, as given hy Dr. Ballantyne 
(Aphorisms of the Yoga, part first, p. 32) : Purvetfiam \ adyanam Brahmad~inam api 
sa gurur upadeshta yatah sa kalena navachchhidyate anaditvat \ tesham punar adi- 
mattvad asti "kalena avachchhedah \ " Of the ancients, that is, of the earliest [beings], 
Brahma and the rest, he is the guru, i.e., the instructor, because He, as having no 
beginning, is not circumscribed by time ; while they, on "the other hand, having had 
a beginning, are circumscribed by time." 

172 I am indebted to F?of?ssor Coif ell for a satisfactory interpretation of the first of 
these two phrases, abhyupagama-vada and praudhi-vada, as well as for various other 
improvements in my translation of this pafsage. The phrase abhyupagama-siddhanta 
is rendered by Dr. Ballantyne "Implied dogma" (Nyaya aphorisms, i. 31, p. 30, as 
corrected in MS.). Professor Goldstiicker s.v. renders it by "implied axiom." In 
Bohtlingk and Roth's Lexicon the phrase abhyupagama-vada is rendered " a dis- 
cussion in a conciliatory spirit." In regard to the seijse of praudhi~vadc> see above, 
p. 172. 


which are consonant to the S'ruti and the Smriti, they possess authority. 
Accordingly, in the Padma Parana we t find a censure passed even upon 
the several philosophical systems (Darsanas}, with the exception of the 
Brahma (the Vedanta) and the Yoga. For in that work Isvwa (Haha- 
deva) says to Parvati, 'Listen, goddess, c while I declare to you the 
Tamasa work^ (the 1 works characterised by tamas, or* the quality of 
darkness) in order; works by the mere hearing* of 'which even wise 


men become fallen. First of afl, the S'aiva systems, called Pasupata, 
etc., were delivered b.v myself. Then the following were uttered by 
Brahmans penetrated by my power, viz. the great Vaiseshika system 
by Kanada, and the Kyaya, and Sankhya, by Gotama and Kapila re- 
spectively. Then the great system, the Purva'-[mimansa], was com- 
posed by the Brahman Jaimini on Vedic subjects, but on atheistic 
principles. So too the abominable Charvaka doctrine was declared by 
Dhishana, 173 while Vishnu, in the form of Buddha, with a view to the 
destruction of the Daityas, 174 promulgated the false system of the Baud- 
dhas, who go about naked, or wear blue garments. I myself, goddess, 
assuming the foap. of a Brahman, uttered in the Kali age, the false 
doctrine of Maya [illusion, the more modern form of the Vedanta], 
which is covert Buddhism, which imputes a perverted and generally 
censured signification to the words of the Veda, and inculcates the 
abandonment of ceremonial works, and an inactivity consequent on such 
cessation. In that system I propound the identity of the supreme and 
the embodied soul, and show that the highest form of this Brahma is 
that in which he is devoid of the [three] qualities. It was I myself, 
goddess, by whom this great sastra, which, composed of Vedic materials 
and inculcating the theory of f illusion, is yet un- Vedic, was declared in 
the Kali age for the destruction of this entire universe. ^ "We have 
entered into fuller explanations on this subject in the Brahma-mimansa- 
bhashya. There is, therefore, no want of authority, nor any contra- 
diction, in any orthodox system, for they are all incapable of refutation 
in their own especial subjects, and are not mutually discrepant. Does, 
then, this system (the S&nkhya) lav down a theory based only on its 
own assumptions in respect of the multitude of souls also ? It does not. 
For in the Brahma-mlmausa also it is determined by such a kind of texts 

' 17 % A name of Yrfhaspati, according to Wilson's dictionary. 
J71 See Wilson's-Vishnu Purana, pp. 334 ff. 


as the following (Brahma Sutras, ii. 3, 43), viz. 'the embodied spirit is 
a portion 175 of the^ supreme soul, from the Variety of appellations,' that 
there is a multitude of embodied spirits. But it is denied by the Brahma- 
mlmansa tteat the spirits \purusha) asserted by the Sankhya have the 
character of Soul ; for it is determined by the Brahma Sutra (iv. 1, 3), 
' they approach fiim as one with themselves,' 176 that, on the ground of 
transcendental truth, the supreme Soul alone has the character of Soul. 
But, nevertheless, tli^jSankhya is not urfauthoritative ; for as the know- 
ledge of its own distinctness from other things, o obtained by the em- 
bodied spirit in its worldly condition, is instrumental to final liberation, 
this system is not erroneous in the particular subject matter which it 
aims at propounding. In this way it results from the distinction of 
practical and real, that there is no contradiction between the two 
theories (made known by the S'ruti and Smriti), of a multitude of 
souls, and the unity of all soul. 

The view taken by Madhusudana, as quoted above, and partially 
confirmed by Vijnana Bhikshu, of the ultimate coincidence in principle 
of all the different schools of Hindu philosophy, however mutually 
hostile in appearance, seems, as I have remarked, to be that which is 
commonly entertained by modern Pandits. (See Dr. Ballantyne's Sy 
nopsis of Science, advertisement, p. iv.) This system of compromise, 
hwoever, is clearly a deviation from the older doctrine j and it practi- 
cally abolishes the distinction in point of authority between the Yedas 
and the Smritis, Darsanas, etc. For if the Munis, authors of the six 
Darsanas, were omniscient and infallible, they must stand on the same 
level with the Yedas, which can be nothing more. 

I return, however, from this digression regarding the hostility of 
S'ankara to $he adherents of the Sankhya and other rationalistic schools, 

175 On this, however, S'ankara (in loco) remarks as follows : JJvah Isvarasya amso 
bhavitum arhati yatha'gnervisphulingah \ amsahivaaiiisah \ nahiniravayavasyamu- 
khyo 'ms ah sambhavati \ kasmat punar niravayavatvcit so, eva na bhavati \ "nana- 
vyapadesat \ " The embodied soul must be ' a portion ' of Is'vara, as a spark is of fire 
(and not mer3ly dependent upon him 3s a servant on his master) . ' A portion ' means, 
' as it were a portion ; ' for nothing can be, in the proper sense, ' a portion ' of that 
which has no parts. Why, then, as Is'vara'has no parts, is not the embodied soul the 
very same as he ? ' From the variety* of appellations,' etc., etc." 

176 The original Sutra runs thus : Alma iti ttt upagachchhanti grahayanti cha \ 
" They approach Him as one with themselves, and [certain texts] cause them to 
receive Him as one with themselves." This refers to certain texts whicH S'ankara 
adduces from one of the Upanishads, apparently. 


and the opinions of later authors concerning the founders of those 
several systems. The distinction drawn by the Indian commentators 
quoted in this section between the superhuman Veda and its human 
appendages, the Kalpa Sutras, etc., as well as the other Smritis, is not 
borne out by the texts which I have cited above (pp. 8, 31) from the 

Brihad Aranyaka (-= S'atapatha Brahmana), and Mundaka Upanishads. 

f ' 

By classing together the Yedic Sanhitas, and tht oiher works enume- 
rated in the same passages, the authors of bath^fc'e TJpanishfcds seem 
to place them all upon 'an equal footing; and the former of the two 
authorities speaks of them all as having proceeded from the breathing 
of the Great Being. If the one set of works are superhuman, it may 
fairly be argued that the others are so likewise. According to the 
jVIundaka TJpanishad, neither of them (if we except only the Yedantas 
or Upanishads) can be placed in the highest rank, as they equally in- 
culcate a science which is only of secondary importance. 

As, however, S'ankara (who, no doubt, perceived that it would be 
inconsistent with modern theories to admit that any of the works 
usually classed under the head of Smriti had been really breathed forth 
by the Creator, and that such a directly divine origin could, on ortho- 
dox principles, be assigned only to writings coming under the desig- 
nation of S'ruti), maintains in his comment on the text of the Brihad 
Aranyaka Upanishad that the whole of the works there enumerated, 
excepting the Sanhitas of the four Vedas, are in reality portions of the 
Brahmanas, it will be necessary to quote his remarks, which are as 
follows (Bibl. Ind. ii. 855 ff.) : 

. . . Nisvasitam iva nisvasitam \ yathd aprayatnenaiva purusha-nisvdso 
lhavaty evam vd \ are kim tad nisvasitam tato jdtam ity uchyate \ Yad 
rigvedo yajurvedah sdmavedo 'tharvangirasas cJiaturvidJiam mantra-jdtam \ 
itihdsah ity Urvasl-Pururavasor samvddddir "Urvasl ha apsardh " ityddi- 
brdhmanam eva \ pur&nam " asad vd idam agre dsld" ityddi \ vidyd 
devajana-vidyd "vedah so 'yam" ityddih { upanishadah " priyam ity etad 
updslta" ityddydh, \ slokdh " brdhmana-jprctbhavdh mantras tad ete 
slokdh" ity ddayah \ sutrdni vastu-sangraha-vdkydni vede yathd " dtmd 
ity eva updslta" ityddmi \ anuvydkhydndpi mantra-vivarandni \ vydkhyd- 
ndni arthavdddh | . . . . evam ashtavidham brdhmanam \ evam mantra- 
Irdhmanayor eva grahanym \ niyata-rachandvato vidyamdnasyaiva vedasya 
abhivyaktih purusha-nisvdsa-vat \ na cha purusha-luddhi-prayatna-pur- 


o f 

vakah | ataTi pramdnam nirapelcshah eva svdrthe \ .... tena vedasya 
aprdmdnyam d&ankate \ tad-dsankd-nivriUy-artham idam uktam \ puru- 
sha-nisvdsa-vad aprayatnotthitatvdt pramdnam vedo na yathd 'nyo gran- 
tJiah iti | f , > 

"'His breathing ' means, ' as it were, his breathing,' or it denotes the 
absence of effort; 1 as in the case of a man's breatMng. We are now 


told what that breathing was which was produced from him. It was 
the four^classes of ' (hymns), those of the Kich, Yajush, Saman, 
and Atha'rvangirases (Atharvana) ; Itihasa (or 'narrative), such as the 
dialogue between Urvasi and Pururavas, viz. the passage in the Brah- 
mana beginning ' Urvasi the Apsaras,' etc. [S'. P. Br. p. 855] ; Purana, 
such as, ' This was originally non-existent,' etc. ; Vidya (knowledge), 
the knowledge of the 'gods, as, ' This is the Veda/ etc. ; TJpanishads, 
such as, ' Let him reverence this, as beloved,' etc. ; S'lokas, such as 
those here mentioned, ' The mantras are the sources of the Brahmanas, 
on which subject there are these slokas,' etc. ; Sutras (aphorisms) oc- 
curring in the Veda which condense the substance of doctrines, as, 
' Let him adore this as Soul,' etc. ; Anuvyakhyanas, or interpretations 
of the mantras ; Vyakhyanas, or illustrative remarks." The commen- 
tator adds alternative explanations of the two last terms, and then pro- 
ceeds: " Here, therefore, eight sorts of texts occurring in the Brahmanas 
are referred to ; and consequently the passage before us embraces merely 
mantras and Brahmanas. The manifestation of the Yeda, which already 
existed in a fixed form of composition, is compared to the breathing of 
a person. The Yeda was not the result of an effort of the intelligence 
of any person. 177 Consequently, as proof in respect of its own contents, 
it is independent of everything else." 

S'ankara terminates his remarks on this passage by intimating, as 
one supposition, that the author of the Upanishad means, in the words 

177 Compare S'ankara's Comment on Brahma Sutra, i? 1, 3, as quoted above in 
p. 106, where this same text of the Brih. Ar. Up. is referred to. As the fact of 
Brahma being the author 'T)f the Vedas is there adduced to prove the transcendent 
character of nis knowledge, and of his power, we must, apparently (unless we are to 
charge the great commentator with layings down inconsistent doctrines in the two 
passages), suppose that in the text before us he does not mean to deny that Brahma 
was conscious of the procession of the Vedas, etc., from himself, and cognizant of their 
sense (as the author of the Siinmya aphorisms and his commentator seem to have 
understood, see above p. 13&), but merely that his consciousness and cognizance were 
not the result of any effort on his part. 


on which he comments, to remove a doubt regarding the authority of 
the Yeda, arising from some words which had preceded, and therefore 
affirms that "the Yeda is authoritative, because it was produced with- 
out any effort of will, like a man's breathiiig, and not in the same 
manner as other books." (See Sankhya Sutras, v. 50 ; above, p. 135.) 

This attempt to explain the whole of the eight classes of works enu- 
merated in the Upanishad as nothing else than parts' of the Brahmanas, 
cannot be regarded as altogether satisfactory, skaqe. 'some of them, such 
as the Sutras, have always been referred to a distinct class of writings, 
which are regarded as uninspired (see Miiller's Anc. Ind. Lit. pp. 75, 
86) ; and the Itihasas and Puranas had in all probability become a 
distinct class of writings at the period when the Upanishad was com- 
posed. And S'ankara's explanation is rendered more improbable if we 
compare with this passage the other from the Mundaka Upanishad, i. 
1, 5, already quoted above (p. 31), where it is said, "The inferior 
science consists of the Rich, Tajush, Saman, and Atharvan Vedas, ac- 
centuation (sihhd], ritual prescriptions (kalpa), grammar, commentary 
(nirukta), prosody (chhandas), and astronomy." 173 Here various ap- 
pendages of the Yedas, which later writers expressly distinguish from 
the Yedas themselves, and distinctly declare to have no superhuman 
authority, are yet mentioned in the same category with the four San- 
hitas, or collections of the hymns, as constituting the inferior science 
(in opposition to the knowledge of the supreme Spirit). From this we 
may reasonably infer that the author of the Brihad Aranyaka Upani- 
shad also, when he specifies the Sutras and some of the other works 

178 I take the opportunity of introducing here Siiyana's remarks on this passage in 
his Commentary on the Rig-ve^a, vol.J.., p. 33 : Atigambhirasya vedasya artham 
avabodhayitum sikshacfini shad-angani pravrittani \ ata eva tesham apara-vidya- 
rupatvam Mundakopanishady Atharvanikah amananti \ " dve vidye" ityadi | . . . . 
sadhana-bhiita- dharma-jnana-hetutvat shad-anga-sahitanam karma-kandanam apara- 
vidyatvam \ parama-punishrirtha-bhTtta-brahma-jnana-hetutvad upanishadam para- 
vidyatvam \ " The S'iksha and other five appendages are intended to promote the com- 
prehension of the sense of the very deep Veda t Hence, fti the Mundaka Upanishad, 
the followers of the A'tharva-veda declare that these works belong to the class of 
inferior sciences, thus: ' There are two s^'ences,' etc. [see the entire passage in p. 31.] 
Since the sections of the Veda which relate to ceremonies [including, of course, the 
hymns], as well as the six appendages, lead to a knowledge of duty, which is an in- 
strument [of something further], they are ranked as an inferior science. On the other 
hand the .t'panishads, whichfconduct to a knowledge of Brahma, the supreme object 
of man, constitute the highest science." 


which he enumerates, intended to speak of the Yedangas or appendages 
of the Yedas, and perhaps the Smritis also, as being the breathing of 
Brahma. The works which in, the passage from the Mundaka are 
called Kalp,a, are also coumonly designated as the Kalpa Sutras. 

This conclusion is in some degree confirmed by referring to the pas- 
sage from the Mahabharata, S'anti-parvan, 7,660, which has been cited 
in p. '105, where ft it said that the "great rishis, empowered by Sva- 
yambhii, obtained' by devotion the Yedas, and the Itihasas, which had 
disappeared at the end of the preceding Tuga." Whatever may be 
the sense of the word Itihasa in a Yedic work, there can be no doubt 
that in the Mahabharata, which is itself an Itihasa, the word refers to 
that class of metrical histories. And in this text we see these Itihasas 
placed on a footing of equality with the Yedas, and regarded as having 
been, like them, pre-existent and supernatural. See also the passage 
from the Chhandogya Upanishad, vii. 1, 1 if. (Bibl. Ind., vol. iii. pp. 
473 ff.), quoted above (p. 33), where the Itihasas and Puranas are spoken 
of as " the fifth Yeda of the Yedas." The same title of " fifth Yeda " 
is applied to them in the Bhag. Pur. iii. 12, 39 : Itihasa-purdndni pan- 
chamam vedam Tsvarah \ sarvelhyah eva mukhebhyah sasrije sarva-dar- 
sanah \ "The omniscient Isvara (God) created from all his mouths the 
Itihasas and Puranas, as a fifth Yeda." See also the passages quoted 
above in pp. 27-30, from the Puranas and Mahabharata, where the 
Itihasas and Puranas themselves are placed on an equality with, if not 
in a higher rank, than the Yedas. The claims put forward by these 
popular works on their own behalf are not, indeed, recognized as valid 
by more critical and scientific authors, who, as we have seen at the 
beginning of this section, draw a distinct line of demarcation between 
the Yedas and all other works ; but it would appear from the passages 
I have quoted from the TJpanishads that at one time the Yedas were, 
at least, not so strictly discriminated from the Bother S'astras as they 
afterwards were. 

SECT. XIL Recapitulation of the Arguments urged in the Dafisanas, 
and by Commentators, in supporfof the Authority of the Vedas, with 
some remarks on these reasonings. 

As in the preceding sections I have entered at some length into the 
arguments urged by the authors of the philosopical systems and their 


commentators, in proof of the eternity and infallibility of the Vedas, it 
may be convenient to recapitulate the most important points in these 
reasonings ; and I shall then add such] observations a^ the consideration 
of them may suggest. ( . 

The grounds on which the apologists of the Yedas rest their authority 
are briefly these : first, it is urged that,' like the sur, they shine by 
their own light, and evince an inherent power both, of revealing* their 
own perfection, and of elucidating all othkr things.,' past and,, future, 
great and small, near and remote (Sayana, as quoted above, p. 62 ; 
S'ankara on Brahma Sutras i. 1, 3 1 , above, p. 190). This is the view 
taken by the author of the Sankhya Sutras also, who, however, 
expressly denies that the Vedas originated frpni the conscious effort 
of any divine being (see p. 135). Second, it is 'asserted that the Veda 
could have had no (human) personal author, as no such composer is 
recollected (Madhava, above, pp. 83 ff), and cannot therefore be sus- 
pected of any such imperfection as would arise from the fallibility of 
such an author (pp. 69 f. ; Sayana p. 106). Third, the Purva-mimansa 
adds to this that the words of which the Vedas are composed are eternal, 
and have an eternal connection (not an arbitrary relation depending upon 
the human will) with their meanings, and that therefore the Vedas are 
eternal, and consequently perfect and infallible 179 (Mimansa Sutras and 
Commentary, above, pp.71 ff., and Sarva-darsana-sangraha, above, pp.9 If.) 
Fourth, the preceding view is either explained or modified by the com- 
mentator on the Taittiriya Sanhita (above, p. 69), as well as by Sayana in 
his Introduction to the Big-veda (above, p. 106), who say that, like time, 
sether, etc., the Veda is only eternal in a qualified sense, i.e. during the 
continuance of the existing mundane system; and that in reality it sprang 
from Brahma at the beginning of the creation. But this origin cannot 
according to their view affect the perfection of the Veda, which in con- 
sequence of the faultlessness of its author possesses a self-demonstrating 
authority. Fifth, although the Vedanta, too, speaks of the eternity of the 
Veda (above, p. 105), it also in the same passage makes mention of its 
self-dependent author ;. while in another passage (p. 106) it distinctly 
ascribes the origin of the Indian Scripture to Brahma as its source or 

179 In the Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad (p. 688 of Dr. Roer's ed.) it is said : Va- 
chaiva samrad Brahma jnauate vag vai samrat paramam Brahma \ " By speech, o 
monarch, Brkhma is known. Speech is the supreme Brahma." 


cause. Brahma here must be taken as neuter, denoting the supreme 
Spirit, and not masculine, desigaating the personal creator, as under 
the fourth head. 180 Sixth, according to the Naiyayika doctrine the au- 
thority of "the Veda is established by the fact of its having emanated 
from competent persons who> had an intuitive perception of duty, and 
whose competence is proved by their injunctions being attended with 
the desired results 'in all cases which come within the cognizance of our 
senses a"tyd experience (Nyaya Sutras, above, pp. 116). Seventh, agree- 
ably to the Vaiseshika doctrine, and that of the'Kusumanjali, the in- 
fallibility of the Veda results from the omniscience of its author, who 
is God (Vaiseshika Sutras, Tarka Sangraha, and Kusumanjali, pp. 1 19 ff., 
127, and 129 ff., above).' 

These arguments, as the reader who has studied all their details will 
have noticed, are sometimes indirect opposition to each other in their lead- 
ing principles ; and they are not likely to seem convincing to any persons 
but the adherents of the schools from which they have severally emanated. 
The European student (unless he has some ulterior practical object in 
view) can only look upon these opinions as matters of historical interest, 
as illustrations of the course of religious thought among a highly acute 
and speculative people. But they may be expected to possess a greater 
importance in the eyes of any Indian readers into whose hands this book 
may fall ; and as such readers may desire to learn in what light these 
arguments are regarded by "Western scholars, I shall offer a few remarks 
on the subject. 

In regard to the first ground in support of the infallibility of the 
Veda, viz. the evidence which radiates from itself, or its internal evi- 
dence, I may observe first, that this is a Species of proof which can 
only be estimated by those who have made the Indian Scripture the 
object of careful study ; and, second, that it must be judged by the 
reason and conscience of each individual student. This evidence may 
appear conclusive to mpn in a certain stage of their national and per- 
sonal culture, and especially to those who have been accustomed* from 
their infancy to regard the Vedas with a hereditary veneration ; whilst 
to persons in a different state of" mental progress, and living under dif- 
ferent influences, it will appear perfectly futile. It is quite clear that, 
even in India itself, there existed in former agel multitudes of learned 
180 See note in p. 205, above. 



and virtuous men who were unable to see the force of this argument, 
and who consequently rejected the authority of the Vedas. I allude of 
course to Buddha and his followers. And we have even found that 
some of those writers who are admitted to have been orthodox, such as 
the authors of the Upanishads, the Bhag?vad Gita, and the Bhagavata 


Purana, while they attach the highest value to the divine knowledge con- 
veyed by the latest portions of the Veda, denreciatfe, if they do not actu- 
ally despise, the hymns and the ceremonial worship connected with them. 
In regard to the recbnd argument, viz. that the Vedas must be of 
supernatural origin, and infallible authority, as they are not known to 
have had any human author, I observe as follows. The Greek historian, 
Herodotus, remarks (ii. 23) of a geographer tff his own day who ex- 
plained the annual inundations of the river Mle by supposing its stream 
to be derived from an imaginary ocean flowing round the earth, which 
no one had ever seen, that his opinion did not admit of confutation, 
because he carried the discussion back into the region of the unap- 
parent (e<? agaves rbv yJuQov dvevel/cas ovtc e^a eXey^oi/). The same 
might be said of the Indian speculators, who argue that the Veda must 
have had a supernatural origin, because it was never observed to have 
had a human author like other books; that by thus removing the 
negative grounds on which they rest their case into the unknown 
depths of antiquity, they do their utmost to place themselves beyond 
the reach of direct refutation. But it is to be observed (1) that, even 
if it were to be admitted that no human authors of the Vedas were 
remembered in later ages, this would prove nothing more than their 
antiquity, and that it would still be incumbent on their apologists to 
show that this circumstance necessarily involved their supernatural 
character ; and (2) that, in point of fact, Indian tradition does point to 
certain rishis or bards as the authors of the Vedic hymns. It is true, 
indeed, as has been already noticed (p. 85), that these rishis are said to 
have only "seen" the hymns, which (it is alleged) were eternally pre- 
existent, and that 'they were not their authors. But as 'tradition de- 
clares that the hymns were uttered by such and such rishis, how is it 
proved that the rishis to whom they are ascribed, or those, whoever 
they were, from whom they actually proceeded, were not uttering the 
mere productions of tteir own minds ? The whole character of these 
compositions, and the circumstances under which, from internal evi- 


dence, they appear to have arisen, are in harmony with the supposition 
that they were nothing more than the natural expression of the per- 
sonal hopes and feelings of those ancient bards by whom they were 
first recited? In these songs the Aryan sages celebrated the praises of 
their ancestral gods (while at .the same time they sought to conciliate 
their goodwill by a variety of oblations supposed to be acceptable to 
them), and besougnt of them all the blessings which men in general 
desire health, wealth, 'long life, cattle, offspring, victory over their 
enemies, forgiveness of sin, and in some cases also .celestial felicity. 

The scope of these hymns is well summed up in the passage which 
I have already quoted (from Colebrooke's Misc. Essays i. 26) in the 
Second Volume, p. 206 : 'Arthepsavah rishayo devatds chhandobhir abhya- 
dhdvan \ " The rishis desiring [various] objects, hastened to the gods 
with metrical prayers." The Mrukta, vii. 1, quoted in the same place, 
says : Tat-kdmah rishir yasydm devatdydm arthapatyam ichhan stutim 
prayunkte tad-devatah sa mantro lhavati \ " Each particular hymn has 
for its deity the god to whom the rishi, seeking to obtain any object of 
desire which he longs for, addresses his prayer." And in the sequel 
of the same passage from the Nirukta (vii. 3), the fact that the 
hymns express the different feelings or objects of the rishis is distinctly 
recognized : 

Paroksha-kritdh pratyaksha-kritds cha mantrdh Ihuyishthdh alpasah 
ddhydtmikdh \ athdpi stutir eva bhavati na dslrvddah "Indrasya nu mr- 
ydni pravocham " Hi yathd etasmin sukte \ athdpi dslr eva na stutih 
" suchakshdh aham akshibhydm Ihuydsam suvarchdh mukhena susrut 
karntibhytim Ihuydsam" iti \ tad etad lahulam ddhuaryave ydjneshu cha 
mantreshu \ athdpi sapathtilhiSdpau \ " adya*muriya" ityddi . . . athdpi 
kasyachid bhdyasya dchikhydsd \ "na mrityur dsid" ityddi . . . \ athdpi 
paridevand kasmdchchid bhdvdt \ " sudevo adya prapated andvrid" ityddi \ 
athdpi nindd-prasamse \ "kevaldgho bhavati kevalddl" ityddi \ evam 
aksha-sukte dyuta-nindd cha krishi-prasamsd cha \ evam uchchdvachair 
alhiprdyair Yishindm mantra-drishtayo lhavanti \ ' 

" [Of the four kinds of verses sp joined in the preceding section], 
(a) those which address a god as absent, (i) those which address him 
as present, and (c~) those which address the worshippers as present 
and the god as absent, are the most numerous.,' while those (d) which 
refer to the speaker himself are rare. It happens also that a god is 


praised without any blessing being invoked, as in the hymn (R. V. i. 32). 
'I declare the heroic deeds of Indra ; ' etc. Again, r blessings are in- 
voked without any praise being offered; as in the words, ' May I see well 
with my eyes, be resplendent in my face, and' hear well with, my ears.' 
This frequently occurs in the Adhvarya^a (Yajur) Veda, and in the 
sacrificial formulae. Then agaiit we find oaths and curses, as in the 
words (R.V. vii. 104, 15), 'May I die to-day, if I "am a Yatudhana,' 
etc. (See Yol. I. p. 327.) Further, we observe <--he desire to 'describe 
some particular state of things, as jn the verse (E.Y. x. 129, 2), ' Death 
was not then, nor immortality,' etc. Then there is lamentation, arising 
out of a certain state of things, as in the verse (R.V. x. 95, 14), 'The 
beautiful god will disappear and never return?' etc. Again, we have 
blame and praise, as in the words (R.V. x. 117, 6), ' The man who eats 
alone, sins alone,' etc. So, too, in the hymn to dice (R.V. x. 34, 13) 
there is a censure upon dice, and a commendation of agriculture. Thus 
the objects for which the hymns were seen by the rishis were very 
various." 181 

It is to be observed, however, that although in this passage the 
author, Yaska, speaks of the various desires which the rishis expressed 
in different hymns, he nevertheless adheres to the idea which was re- 
cognized in his age, and in which he doubtless participated, that the 
rishis "saw" the hymns. 

In the Mrukta, x. 42, the form of the metre in particular hymns 
is ascribed to the peculiar genius of the rishi Paruchhepa : 182 Abhydse 

181 In Nirukta, Iv. 6, allusion is made to a rishi Trita perceiving a particular hymn 
when he had been thrown into a well (Tritam Jcupe 'vahitam etat suktam prati 
babhau), ( _ 

182 A Paruchhepa is mentioned in the Taittlriya Sanhita, ii. 5, 8, 3, as follows : 
Nrimedhas clia Paruehhepis cha brahmavadyam avadetam " asmin dce.-av ardre 'gniih 

janayava yataro nau brahmlyan " iti \ Nrimedho 'bhyavadat sa dhumam ajanayat \ 
Paruchhepo ' bhyavadat so"'gnim ajanayat \ " rishe" ity abravld "yat samavadvidva 
Jcathd tvam agnim ajljano naham" iti \ " samidhenlnam eva aha-ih varnam veda" ity 
abravtt \ " yad ghritavat padam anuchyate sa asam varnes l tam tva samidbhir An- 
ffirah' ity alia samidhehfshv eva taj jyotir janayati " \ "Nrimedha afid Paruchhepa 
had a discussion concerning, sacred knowk^dge. They said, ' Let us kindle fire l in this 
moist wood, in order to see which of us has most sacred knowledge.' 2 Nrimedha pro- 
nounced (a text) ; but produced only smoke. 'Paruchhepa pronounced (a text) and 
generated fire. Nrimedha said, ' Rishi, since our knowledge is equal, how is it that 
thou hast generated fire, wbrle I have not.' Paruchhepa replied, ' I know the lustre 

1 " Without friction." Comm. 

* "In regard to the Samidhem" formulas." Comm. 


bhuyamsam artham many ante yathd "aho darsanlya oho dar&ariiya" iti \ 
tat Paruchchhepasi(a sllam \ " Men. consider 'that by repetition the sense 
is intensified, as in the words ' o beautiful, o beautiful.' This is Paru- 
chhepa's hi/bit." 

In Mrukta, iii. 11, the rishi Kutsa is mentioned ( as being thus de- 
scribed by the interpreter Aupamanyava : RisTiih Kutso bhavati Icartta 
stomdnum ity Aupamanyavah^\ " 'Kutsa is the name of a rishi, a maker 
of hymn's,' according *o 'Aupamanyava." 

So too the same work, x. 32, says qf the rishi Hiranyastupa that "he 
declared this hymn " (Hiranyastupah rishir idam suktam provdcha}. 

I do not, as I have already intimated, adduce these passages of the 
Mrukta to show that the author regarded the hymns as the ordinary 
productions of the rishis' own minds, for this would be at variance with 
the expression " seeing," which he applies to the mental act by which 
they were produced. It appears also from the terms in which he 
speaks of the rishis in the passage (Mrukta, i. 20) quoted above, p. 120, 
where they are described as having an intuitive insight into duty, that 
he placed them on a far higher level than the inferior men of later 
ages. But it is clear from the instances I have adduced that Yaska 
recognizes the hymns as being applicable to the particular circum- 
stances in which the rishis were placed, and as being the bona fide ex- 
pression of their individual emotions and desires. (See also the pas- 
sages from the Nirukta, ii. 10 and 24, quoted in Vol. I. pp. 269 
and 338, which establish the same point.) But if this be true, the 
supposition that these hymns, i.e. hymns specifically suited to express 
the various feelings and wishes of all the different rishis, were eternally 
pre-existent, and were perceived by them at the precise conjunctures 
when they wpre required to give utterance to their several aims, is per- 
fectly gratuitous and unnecessary. It might be asserted with nearly 
the same shew of reason that the entire stock of ordinary language 
employed by human beings to express their ideas had existed from 
eternity. 183 > 

of the Samidhems. The sentence which contains the word ghrita (butter) forms their 
lustre. When any one repeats the woiis, " "We augment thee, o Angiras (Agni) with 
fuel and with butter," he then generates that lustre in the Samidhenis.' " 

183 A difficulty of the same nature as that here urged, viz. that men and objects 
which existed in time are mentioned in the Vedas which a'^'e yet said to be 'eternal, was 
felt by Jaimini, as we have already seen (pp. 77ff.). I recur to this subject in p. 215. 


In regard to the third argument for the authority of the Vedas, viz. 
that they are eternal, because the wqrds of which {hey are composed 
are eternal, and because these words have an inherent and eternal (and 
not a merely conventional) connection with ttte signification*; or objects, 
or the species of objects, which they represent, it is to be observed that 
it is rejected both' by the Nyap a and Sankhya schools. 184 And I am 
unable (if I rightly comprehend this orthodox re'asdning) to see how it 
proves the authority of the Veda more than that 1 of any other book. 
If the words of the Veda are eternal, so must those of the Bauddha 
books be eternal, and consequently, if eternal pre-existence is a proof 
of perfection, the infallibility of these heretical works must be as much 
proved by this argument as the divine origin of the Vedas, whose pre- 
tensions they reject and oppose. Or if the meaning is that the words 
of the Veda alone are eternal and infallible, this is an assumption which 
requires proof. If their reception by great rishis be alleged as evidence, 
it must be remarked that the authority of these rishis is itself a point 
which cannot be admitted until it has been established. 

In regard to the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh of the arguments 
above stated, as put forward by the representatives of different schools 
or opinions in favour of the authority of the Veda, it may suffice to 
say that they for the most part assume the point to be proved, viz. that 
the Veda did proceed from an omniscient, or at least a competent, 
author. The only exception to this remark is to be found in the reason- 
ing of the Nyaya and Sankhya aphorisms that the infallibility of the 
Vedas is shown by the fact that the employment of the formulas or 
prescriptions of those parts of them which deal with temporal results, 
such as can be tested byt experience, is always found to be effica- 
cacious ; a premiss from which the conclusion is drawn that those other 
parts of the Veda, which relate to the unseen world, must be equally 
authoritative, as the 'authors of these different parts are the same per- 
sons. This argument cannot appear convincing to any but those who 
admit first, the invariable efficacy of all the formulas and '/prescriptions 

See, however, the comment on Brahma Sutra, i. 3, 30, regarding the perpetual recur- 
rence of the same things in successive creations from, and to, all eternity, which will 
be quoted in the Appendix. 

184 See Er. Ballantyne'sfemarks on this controversy, in pp. 186, 189, 191, and 192 
of his " Christianity contfasted with Hindu Philosophy." 



of the Veda which relate to such matters as can be tested by experience, 
and secondly, the identity of the authors of the parts of the Veda which 
contain these formulas and prescriptions with the authors of the other 
parts. It .would be impossible to prove the former point, and next to 
impossible to prove the latter. 

Against the eternity of the Vedas an objection hrfs been raised, which 
Jaimini considers it accessary to notice, viz. that various historical per- 
sonages, are name& , in jtheir' pages, and that as these works could not 
have existed before the persons whose doings they record, they must 
have commenced to exist in time. This difficulty Jaimini attempts, as 
we have seen above (pp. 77 ff.), to meet by explaining away the names 
'of the historical personages in question. Thus Babara Pravahini is 
said to be nothing else than an appellation of the wind, which is 
eternal. And this method, it is said, is to be applied in all similar 
cases. Another of the passages mentioned by an objector (see above, 
p. 79) as referring to non-eternal objects is E.V. iii. 53, 14, "What 
are the cows doing for thee among the Kikatas ?" etc. The author of the 
Mimansa Sutras would no doubt have attempted to show that by these 
Kikatas we are to understand some eternally pre-existing beings. But 
Yaska, the author of the Nirukta, who had not been instructed in any 
any such subleties, speaks of the Kikatas as a non-Aryan nation. 
(Vol. I. p. 342, and Vol. II. p. 362.) It is difficult to suppose that 
Jaimini unless he was an enthusiast, and not the cool and acute 
reasoner he has commonly proved himself to be could have seriously 
imagined that his rule of interpretation could ever be generally re- 
ceived or carried out. 155 The Brahmanas evidently intend to represent 
the numerous occurrences which they narrate, as having actually taken 
place in time, and the actors in them as having been real historical 
personages. ' See, for instance, the legends from the S'atapatha and Ai- 
tareya Brahmanas, the Taittariya Sanhita, etc., quoted in the First 

is 5 In Sayana's Introduction. to R.V. vol. i. p. 23, it is said : Manushya-vrittanta- 
pratipadakati rieho narasamsyah \ " The Naras'anisis are ve'rses which set forth the 
histories of men." Yaska's definition is the same in substance, Nir. ix. 9. If these 
Naras'amsis are, as Sayana says, verses of the hymns (richali), and if according to 
his definition their object is to record events in human history, it follows that they 
must refer to non-eternal objects. See also the explanation of the words riarasamsena 
slomena in Vajasaneyi Sanhita, 3, 53, given by the Commentator Mahidhara, which 
will be quoted further on. 


Volume of this work, pp. 182, 192, 194, 328, 355, etc. And it is 
impossible to peruse the YecUc hymns without coming to the conclusion 
that they also record a multitude of events, which the writers believed 
to have been transacted by men on earth in former ages. (S ( ee the pas- 
sages quoted from the Eig-veda in the First and Second Yolumes of this 
work, passim; thoaa, for example, in Vol/I. pp. 162 fft, 318 ff., 339 ff., 
and Vol. II. p. 208.) . s 

"We shall, no doubt, be assisted in arriving al^ a covrect conclusion in 
regard to the real origin and character of the hymns of the Veda, if 
we enquire what opinion the rishis, by whom they were confessedly 
spoken, entertained of their own utterances ; and this I propose to in- 
vestigate in the following chapter. . ' 





I HAVE already shewny in the preceding pages, as well as in the Second 
Volume of this work, that the hymns of the Rig-veda themselves sup- 
ply us with numerous data by which we can judge of the circum- 
stances to which they owed their origin, and of the manner in which 
they were created. We have seen that they were the natural product 
and expression of the particular state of society, of the peculiar religious 
conceptions, and of all those other influences, physical and moral, which 
prevailed at the period when they were composed, and acted upon 
the minds of their authors. (Vol. I. pp. 161 f., Vol. II. pp. 205 ff.; and 
above, pp. 211 f.) We find in them ideas, a language, a spirit, and a 
colouring totally different from those which characterize the religious 
writings of the Hindus of a later era. They frequently discover to us 
the simple germs from which the mythological conceptions current in 
subsequent ages*were derived, germs which in many cases were de- 
veloped in so fanciful and extravagant a manner as to shew that the 
simplicity of ancient times had long since disappeared, to make way for 
a rank ana wild luxuriance of imagination. They afford us very *is- 
tinct indications of the locality in which they were composed (Vol. II. 
Pp. 354-372) ; they shew us the Aryan tribes living in a state of war- 
fare with^ surrounding .enemies (some of them, probably, alifin in race 
and language), and gradually, as we may infer, forcing their way on- 
ward to the east and south (Vol. II. pp. 374 ff., 384 ff., 414 ff); they 
supply us with numerous specimens of the particular sorts of prayers 
viz. for protection and victory, which men so circumstanced would na- 
turally address to the gods whom they worshipped, as weS. as of those 


more common supplications which men in general offer up for the 
various blessings which constitute the sum of human welfare ; and they 
bring before us as the objects of existing veneration a class of deities 
(principally, if not exclusively, personification? of the elements, and of 
the powers either of nature, or of reason) who gradually lost their im- 
portance in the estimation of the later Indians, and made way for gods 
of a different description, invested with new attributes, and in many 
cases bearing new appellations. t <- r 

These peculiarities of the hymns abundantly j fistify us in regarding 
them as the natural 'product and -spontaneous representation of the 
ideas, feelings, and aspirations of the bards with whose names they are 
connected, or of other ancient authors, while the archaic forms of the 
dialect in which they are composed, and the references which are made 
to them, as pre-existent, in the liturgical works by which they are ex- 
pounded and applied, leave no reason for doubt that they are the most 
ancient of all the Indian Scriptures. 

"We can also, as I have shewn, discover from the Vedic hymns them- 
selves, that some of them were newer and others older, that they were 
the works of many successive generations of poets, that their com- 
position probably extended over several centuries, and that in some 
places their authors represent them as being the productions of their 
own minds, while in other passages they appear to ascribe to their own 
words a certain divine character, or attribute their composition to some 
supernatural assistance. (Vol. I. p. 4, and II. pp. 206 ff., 219 ff.) 

I shall now proceed to adduce further proofs from the hymns of the 
Big-veda in support of these last mentioned positions f repeating, at the 
same time, for the sake of completeness, the texts which I have already 
cited in the Second Volume. 

SECT. I. PassagesJ'rom the Hymns of the Veda which distinguish 

between the RisJiis as Ancient and Modern. 

' * 

The appellations or epithets applied by the authors of the hymns to 
themselves, and to the sages who in former times had instituted, as 
well as to their contemporaries who continued to conduct, the different 
rites of divine worship, are the following : rishi, kavi, medhdvin, vipra, 



vipa&hit, vedhas, muni, etc. The rishis are defined in Bb'htlingk and 
Roth's Lexicon, to be persons "who, whether singly or in chorus, either 
on their own behalf or on behalf 'of others, invoked the gods in artificial 
language, and in song ;", and the word is said to denote especially " the 
priestly bards who made this art their profession." The word Icavi 
means "wise,'!, or "a poet','' and has ordinarily, the latter sense in 
mod'ern Sanskrit. , TQpra means " wist?," and, in later Sanskrit, a "Brah- 
man; " medhavi'A .means ' ^intelligent; " vipaschit and vedhas, "wise " 
or "learned." Mufti signifies in modern Sanskrit a "sage" or "devo- 
tee." It is not much used in the'Rig-veda, bitt occurs in viii. 17, 13 
(Vol. II. p. 397). 

The following passages from the Rig-veda either expressly distinguish 
between contemporary rishis and those of a more ancient date, or, at 
any rate, make reference to the one or the other class. This recognition 
of a succession of rishis constitutes one of the historical elements in the 
Veda. It is an acknowledgment on the part of the rishis themselves 
that numerous persons had existed, and events occurred, anterior to 
their own age, and, consequently, in time ; and it therefore refutes, by 
the testimony of the Veda itself, the assertion of Jaimini (above, pp. 
77 ff.) that none but eternally pre-existing objects are mentioned in 
that book. 

If, under this and other heads of my inquiry, I have cited a larger 
number of passages than might have appeared to be necessary, it has 
been done with the intention of showing that abundant evidence of my 
various positions can be adduced from all parts of the Hymn- collection. 1 

R. V. i. 1, 2. Agnih purvebhir rishibhir Idyo nutanair uta \ so, devan 
eha vaTcshati \ 

" Agni, who is worthy to be celebrated by former, as well as modern 
rishis, will bring the gods hither." 

The word purvebhih is explained by Sayana thus : Purdtanair Bhrigv- 
angirah-prabhritibhir rishibhih \ "By the ancient rishis, Bhrigu, An- 
giras," efc. ; and ndtcMMh is % interpreted by idariintanair asmabhir api, 
"by us of the present day also." See also Niruk'ta, vii. 16. 

1 I have to acknowledge the assistance kindly rendered to me by Prof. Aufrecht 
in the revision of my translation of the passages quoted in this and the following 
sections. As, however, the texts are mostly quite clear in so far as regards the points 
which they are adduced to prove, any inaccuracies with which I may be chargeable 
in other respects are of comparatively little importance. 


i. 45, 3. Priyamedha-vad Atri-vaj Jdtavedo Virupa-vat \ Angiras-vad 
mahi-vrata Praslcanvasya srudhi havam \ 4. Mahi-kercrvah utaye Priya- 
medhdh ahushata, \ 

" (god) of great power, listen to the invocation of Praskanva, as 
thou didst listen to Priyamedha, Atri, Virupa, and Angiras. 4. The 
Priyamedhas, skilled-in singing praises, have invoked thee." 

Here Praskanva is referred to, in verse 3, as alive, 4 whilst Priyamedha, 
Atri, Virupa, and Angiras belong* to the past. la verse 4 the de3cend- 
ants of Priyamedha are however alluded to as existing. The three 
other names are also, no doubt, those of families. In R.V. iii. 53, 7, 
(see Vol. I. p. 341) the Virupas appear to be referred to ; while in viii. 
64, 6 (which will be quoted below), a Virupa is addressed. In v. 22, 4, 
the Atris are spoken of. 

i. 48, 14. Ye chid hi tvdm risnayah purve utaye juhure ityddi \ 

" The former rishis who invoked thee for succour," etc. 

i. 80, 16. Yam Atharvd Mianush pita Dddhyan dhiyam atnata \ tas- 
min brahmani purvathd Indre ukthd samagmata ityddi \ 

" In the ceremony [or hymn] which Atharvan, or our father Manu, 
or Dadhyanch performed, the prayers and praises were, as of old, con- 
gregated in that Indra," etc. 

i. 118, 3 (repeated in iii. 58, 3). Ahur viprdsah Asvind purdjah \ 

11 Asvins, the ancient sages say," etc. 

i. 131, 6. A me asya vedhaso namyaso manma srudhi naviyasah \ 

"Hear the hymn of me this modern sage, of this modern [sage]." 

i. 139, 9. DadhyanhamejanushampurvoAngirdhPriyamednahKamo 
Atrir Manur vidur ityddi \ 

11 The ancient Dadhyanch, Angiras, Priyamedha, Kanva, Atri, and 
Manu know my birth." 

i. 175, 6. Yathd purvebhyo jaritribhyah Indra mayah iva dpo na tri- 
shyate babhutha \ Tdm anu tvd nividam johdvlmi ityddi \ 

"Indra, as thou hast been like a joy to former worshippers who 
praised thee, like waters to the thirsty, I. invoke tnee again and again 
with this hymn," etc. 

iv. 20, 5. Vi yo rarapse rishibhir navebhir vriksho na pakvah srinyo 
na jetd \ maryo na yoshdm abhi manyamdno achhd vivalcmi puruhutam 
Indram \ 

" Like a man desiring a woman, I call hither that Indra, invoked by 


many, who, like a ripe tree, like a conqueror expert in arms, 8 has 
been celebrated b^ recent rishis." 

iv. 50, 1. Tarn pratndsah riskayo dldhydndh puro viprdh dadhire 
mandra-jibvam \ * 

" The ancient rishis, resplendent and sage, have placed in front of 
them [Brihaspati] with gladdening tongue." 

v. 42, 6 '.$& te purve Maghavan net apardso na vlryam nutanah 

Jcaschana dpa \ " > . * 

* * 

""^either the ancients nor later men, nor -any modern man, has at- 
tained to [conceived] thy prowess, o Maghavan." 

x. 54, 3. Ke u nu te mahimanah samasya asmat purve rishayo antam 
' dpuh | yad mdtaram ch pitaram cha sdkam ajanayathds tanvdh svdydh \ 

"Who among the 'rishis who were before us have attained to the 
end of all thy greatness ? for thou didst at once produce from thy own 
body both the mother and the father (earth and heaven)." 

vi. 19, 4. Yathd chit purve jaritdrah dsur anedydh anavadydh arishtdh \ 

"As [Indra's] former worshippers were, [may we be] blameless, 
irreproachable, and unharmed." 

vi. 21, 5. Ida hi te vevishatah purdjuh pratndsah dsuh purulcrit sakhd- 
yah | Te madhyamdsah uta nutandsah utdvamasya puruhuta lodhi \ 

11 For now, o energetic god, men are thy worshippers, as the ancients 
born of old and the men of the middle and later ages have been thy 
friends. And, o much-invoked, think of the most recent of all." 3 

vi. 21, 1. Satusrudhi Indranutanasyabrahmanyatovlrakdr'udhdyah \ 

"Heroic Indra, supporting the poet, listen to the modern [bard] who 
wishes to celebrate thee." 

vi. 22, 2. Tarn u nah purve pitaro navagvdh sapta viprdsah alhi vdja- 
yantah ityddi \ 

" To Him (Indra) our ancient fathers, the seven Navagva sages, de- 
siring food, (resorted) with their hymns," etc. 

vi. 50, 15. Evd napdto mama tasya dhllhir Bharadvdjdh alhyarchanti 

* > 
arkaih \ - < , 

"Thus do the Bharadvajas my, grandsons, adore thee with (my ?) 
hymns and praises." , 

2 Prof. Aufrecht thinks srinyo najeta may perhaps mean, " like a winner of sickles 
(as a prize)." * 

3 This verse is translated in Benfey's Glossary to the Sama-veda, p. 76, col. i. 


vii. 18, 1. Tve ha yat pitaras chid nah Indra visvd vdmdjaritdro asan- 
vann ityddi \ * < 

" Since, in thee, o Indra, even our fathers, thy worshippers, obtained 
all riches," etc. 

vii. 29, 4. TJto gha te purushydh id dsa*>, yeshdm purveshdm asrinor 
rishlndm \ adha aham tvd Maghavan johavlmi tvam nah Ihdra asi prama- 
tihpiteva \ 

" Even they were of mortal birth, those fartnei* rishis whqm thou 
didst hear. I invoke the"e again and again, o Maghavan ; thou . c i"t to 
us wise as a father." 

vii. 53, 1 Te chid hi purve kavayo grinantah puro mahl dadhire 

devaputre \ 

"The ancient poets, celebrating their praises, have placed in the 
front these two great [beings, heaven and earth] of whom the gods are 
the children." 

vii. 76, 4. Te id devdndm sadhamddah dsann ritdvdnah Icavayah pur- 
vydsah \ gulham jyotih pitaro anvavindan satya - mantrdh ajanayann 
ushdsam \ 

"They shared in the enjoyments of the gods, those ancient pious 
sages. Our fathers discovered the hidden light ; with true hymns they 
caused the dawn to arise." 

vii. 91, 1. Kuvid anga namasd ye vridhiisah purd devdh anavadydsah 
dsan | te Vdyave Manave Iddhitdya avdsayann 4 ushasam suryena \ 

" Certainly those gods who were formerly magnified (or grew) by 
worship were altogether blameless. They lighted up the dawn and 
the sun to Vayu (Ayu?) and the afflicted Manu." (See Yol. I. p. 172.) 

viii. 36, 7. S'ydvdsvasya svnvatas tathd srinu yathd asrinor Atreh 
karmdni Jcrinvatah \ , 

" Listen to S'yavasva pouring forth libations, in the same way as 
thou didst listen to Ati'i when he celebrated sacred rites." 5 

ix. 96, 11. Tvayd hi nah pitarah Soma purve karmdni chakruh pava- 
mdna dhlrdh | < ' c 

" For through thee, a pure Soma, our wise forefathers of old per- 
formed their sacred rites." 

4 See Benfey's Glossary to Sama-veda, under the word vas 2. 

5 Compare viii. $5,' 19 ; and viii. 37, 7. 


ix. 110, 7. Tve Soma prathamdh vrikta-varhisho make vdjdya sravase 
dJiiyam dadhuh \ r 

"The former [priests] having .strewed the sacred grass, offered up a 
hymn to tlaee, o Soma, for great strength and food." 

x. 14, 15 (=A.V. xviii. 2, 2). Idam namah rishibhyah purvajebhyah 
pathikridbhyah \ 

" This reverence to the rishis, horn of old, the ancients, who showed 
us the i-oad." (Thie verse may also be employed to prove that at the 
end othe Yedic period the rishis had become -objects of veneration.) 

x. 66, 14. Vasishthtisah pitrivad vdcham alcrata devdn ildndh rishi- 
vad | ityddi \ 

"The Vasishthas, like the forefathers, like the rishis, have uttered 
their voice, worshipping the gods." 

x. 67, 1 will be quoted in a following section. 

x. 96, 5. Tvam aharyathdh upastutah purvebhir Indra harikesa yaj- 


vabhih \ 

"Indra, with golden hair, thou didst rejoice, when lauded by the 
ancient priests." 

x. 98, 9. Tvdm purve rishayo glrlhir dyan tvdm adhvareshu puruhuta 
visve \ 

" To thee the former rishis resorted with their hymns; to thee, thou 
much invoked, all men [resorted] at the sacrifices." 

Yajasaneyi Sanhita, xviii. 52. Imau te pak&hav aja/rau patatrinau ya- 
Wiyam rakshamsi apahamsi Agne \ tulhydm patema sukritam u lokam 
yatra rishayo jagmuh prathamajuh purdnah \ 

" But these undecayin'g, soaring pinions, with which, o Agni, thou 
slayest the Eakshases, with them let u ascend to the world of the 
righteous, whither the earliest-born ancient rishis have gone." (This 
verse is quoted in the S'atapatha Brahmana, ix. 4, 4, 4, p. 739.) 

The ancient rishis, as Sayana says in his note on R.V. i. 2, were 
Bhrigu, Angiras, and others whom he does not name. In another place 
we find -itharvan, iframu, Dadhyanch, and others mentioned. I will 
not here enter into any particulars Regarding these ancient sages. For 
some texts relating to Bhrigu, I may refer to the First Volume of this 
work, pp. 443 ff. ; and various passages relating to Manu will be found 

in the same volume pp. 162ff., and in pp. 324-332 of the Second 

Volume. In regard to Atharvan, as well a ingiras, Professor Gold- 


stacker's Sanskrit and English Dictionary, and in regard to the same 
personages and Dadhyanch, the Sanskrit and German Lexicon of Boeht- 

lingk and Roth, may be consulted. a 


SECT. II. Passages from the Veda in v^hich a distinction is drawn 
between the older and the more recent hymns. 

From the passages which I propose to bring forward in the present 
section, it will be found that the hymns which "fee rishis addressed to 
the gods are frequently spoken of ?s'new, while others of anciefft date 
are also sometimes mentioned. The rishis no doubt entertained the 
idea that the gods would be more highly gratified if their praises were 
celebrated in new, and perhaps more elaborate and beautiful composi- 
tions, than if older, and possibly ruder, prayers had been repeated. 

The fact that a hymn is called new by its author, does not, however, 
by any means enable us to determine its ae relatively to that of other 
hymns in the collection, for this epithet of new is, as we shall see, 
applied to numerous compositions throughout the Yeda; and often 
when a hymn is not designated as new, it may, nevertheless, be in 
reality of recent date, compared with the others by which it is sur- 
rounded. When, however, any rishi characterizes his own effusion as 
new, we are of course necessarily led to conclude that he was acquainted 
with many older songs of the same kind. The relative ages of the 
different hymns can only be settled by means of internal evidence fur- 
nished by their dialect, style, metre, ideas, and general contents ; and 
we may, no doubt, hope that much will by degrees be done by the 
researches of critical scholars towards such a chronological classification 
of the constituent portions ofthe Eig-veda. 

The hymns, praises, or prayers uttered by the rishis are'called by a 
great variety of names, such as rich, sdman, yajush, brahman, arka, 
uktha, mantra, manman, mati, manlshd, sumati, dhl, dhiti, dhishand, 
stoma, stuti, sushtuti, prasasti, samsa, gir, vdcb,vaohas, nltha, nivid, etc. 

E.Y. i. 12, 11. Sa nah stavdnah dlhara gdyatrena navlyasd I rayirh 
I'lravatlm isham \ 

"Glorified by our newest 6 hymn, do'thou bring to us wealth and 
food with progeny." (Sayana explains navlyasd by purvakavr apy 
asampdditenz. gdyatrena \ " A hymn not formed even by former rishis.") 

6 Compare Psalms, 33, 3 ;"40, 3 ; 96, 1 ; 98, 1 ; 144, 9 ; 149, 1 ; and Isaiah, 42, 10. 


i. 27, 4. Imam u shu tvam asmdkam sanim gdyatram navydmsam \ 
Agne deveshu prjivochah \ 

11 Agni, thou hast announced or do thou announce] among the gods 
this our c/ffering, our newest hymn." 

i. 60, 3. Tarn navyasl hridah d jdyamdnam asmat sukirttir madhu- 
jihvam asydh \ yam ritvijo vrijane md'iushdsah prayasvantah dyavo jya- 
nanta \ 

" May our neweSt.-.Ja'udation (springing) from (our) heart, reach him, 
the L^veet-tongued, at his birth, (him) whom mortal priests the descend- 
ants of Manu, offering oblations, have generated in the ceremonial." 
(See iii. 39, 1, in next page, and i. 171, 2 and ii. 35, 2, which will be 
quoted further on in tKe next section). 

i. 89, 3. Tdn pur v ay d nividd humahe vayam Bhagam Mitram Aditim 
Daksham Asridham ityddi \ 

""We invoke with an ancient hymn Bhaga, Mitra, Aditi, Daksha, 
Asridh [or the friendly]," etc. (Purvakdlmayd \ nityayd \ nividd \ 
veddtmikayd vdchd \ " With an ancient eternal, hymn a Vedic 
text." Sayana.) 

i. 96, 2. Sa purvayd nividd Jcavyatd Ayor imdh prajdh ajanayad ma- 
nundm \ 

" Through the ancient hymn, the poetic work, of Ayu he (Agni) 
generated these children of men." 7 

i. 130, 10. Sa no navyelhir vrisha-karmann ukthais purdm darttah 
pdyulhih pdhi sagmaih \ 

" Through our new hymns, do thou, vigorous in action, destroyer of 
cities, sustain us with invigorating blessings." 

i. 143, 1. Pra tavyasim navyaslm dhltim Agnaye vacho matim sahasah 
sunave bhari \ 

"I bring to Agni, the son of strength, a new and energetic hymn, a 
production of thought uttered by the voice (vacflah)." 

ii. 17, 1. Tad asma\ navy am Angiras-vad archata ityddi \ 

" Utter T;o him [Indra] tha't new [hymn] like 1 Angiras." ("]S"ew, 
i.e. never before seen among other jteople " an'yeshv adrishta-purvam 

ii. 18, 3. Han nu kam rathe Indrasya yojam dyai suktena vachasd 
navena \ mo shu tvdm atra bahavo hi viprdh ni rlraman yajamundso anye \ 

7 See the Aitareya Brahmana, p. 143 of Prof. Haug's translation ; and Vol. I. p. 180. 



" With this new and well- expressed hymn I have yoked 8 the steeds 
in Indra's car, in order that he may come hither. Let not the other 
wise sacrificers, who are numerous, stop thee (from coming to me)." 

ii. 24, 1. Sa imam aviddhi prabhritim yah Isishe \ ayd vi^hema na- 
vayd mahd gird \ 

"Do thou who rulest receive this, our offering [of praise] : let us 
worship thee with this new and grand song^" 

iii. 1, 20. Eld teAgnejanimd sandni pra purvydj/a, nutandni ijocham \ 

" These ancient [and these] new productions I have uttered tc ihee, 
Agni, who art ancient." (Comp. H.V. viii. 84, 5, in the next section.) 

iii. 32, 13. Yah stomelhir vdvridhe purvyebhir j/o madhyamebhir uta 
nutanebhih \ 

" [Indra] who has grown through (or been magnified by) ancient, 
intermediate, and modern hymns." 

iii. 39, 1. Indram matir hridah d vachyamdnd achhti patim stoma- 
tashtd jigdti \ d jdgrivir vidathe sasyamdnd Indra yat te jdyate viddhi 
tasya \ 2. Divas chid d purvyd jdyamdnd vi jdgrivir mdathe sasyamdnd \ 
bhadrd vastrdni arjund vasdnd sd iyam asme sanajd pitryd dhlh \ 

" 1. The vigilant hymn, formed of praise, and uttered from the heart, 
proceeds to Indra the lord, when chaunted at the sacrifice : be cogniz- 
ant, Indra, of this [praise] which is produced for thee. 2. Produced 
even before the daylight, vigilant, chaunted at the sacrifice, clothed in 
beautiful and radiant garments, this is our ancient ancestral hymn." 
(Pitryd is rendered by Sayana as pitri-kramdgatd, " received by suc- 
cession from our fathers.") 

iii. 62, 7. Iyam te Pushann dghrine sushtutir deva navyasl \ asmdbhis 
tubhyam sasyate \ <* 

"Divine and glowing Pushan, this new laudation is recited by us 
to thee." 

v. 42, 13. Pra su r mahe susarandya medhdm giram lhare navya&lm 
jdyamdndm \ 

"I present to tho mighty protector a mental production, a new ut- 
terance [now] springing up." 

8 Compare the expressions vacho-yuja hari, "brown horses yoked by the hymn. 
(R.V. viii. 45, 39 ; viii. 87, 9) ; brahma-yuj, "yoked by prayer" (i. 177, 2; iii. 35, 
4 ; viii. 1, 24 ', viii. 2, 27 ; vi ; i. 17, 2) ; and mano-yuj, " yoked by the mind, or will " 
(i. 14, 6; i. 51, 10; iv. 48, 4; v. 75, 6; viii. 5, 2). 


v. 55, 8. Yat purvyam Maruto yach cha nutanam yad udyate Vasavo 
yach cha Sasyate j' visvasya tasya lhavatha navedasah \ 

" Be cognizant of all that is' ancient, Maruts, and of all that is 
modern, o? all that is spoken, Yasus, and of all that is recited." 

vi. 17, 13 Suvlram >tvd svdyudham suvajram a brahma navy am 

n * 

avase t vavritydt \ 

"May the new* prayer impel thee, the heroic, well-accoutred, the 
loud- thundering, to'succour us." (" E"ew, i.e. never made before hy 
others > prayer, i.e. the hymn made, by us " N&tanam anyair akrita- 
purvam \ brahma asmdbhih kritam stotram Sayana.) 

vi. 22, 7. Tarn vo flhiyd navyasyd savishtham pratnam pratna-vat 
paritamsayadhyai \ 

"I seek, like the ancients, to stimulate thee, the ancient, with a 
new hymn." 

vi. 34, 1. Sam cha tve jatynur girah Indra purvlr vi cha tvad yanti 
vibhvo mamshdh \ purd nunam cha stutayah rishindm paspridhre Indre 
adhi ukthdrkdh \ 

"Many songs, Indra, are collected in thee; numerous thoughts issue 
forth from thee ; both before and now the praises, texts and hymns of 
rishis have hastened emulously to Indra." 

vi. 44, 13. Yah purvydlhir uta nutandlhir girlhir vdvridhe grinatdm 
rishindm \ 

"He (Indra) who grew through the ancient and modern hymns of 
lauding rishis." (See K.V. iii. 32, 13, above p. 223.) 

vi. 48, 11. A sakhdyah sulardughdm dhenum ajadhvam wpa navyasd 
vachah \ 9 

" Friends, drive hither the milch cow w^th a new hymn." 

vi. 49, 1 . * Stushe janam suvratam navyasllhir glrbhir Mitrdvarund 
sumnayantd \ 

" With new praises I celebrate the righteous race, with Mitra and 
Varuna, the beneficent" ,("The well-acting race, i.e. the divine race, 
the company of the gods," sukarmdnam janam daivyam janam deva- 
sangham Sayana.) 

vi. 50, 6. Abhi tyam vlram girvanasam archa Indram Irahmand jari- 
tar navena \ 

"Sing, o worshipper, with a new hymn, tq the heroic Indra, who 
delights in praise." 

8 Compare the words m Agne navyaaa vachas tanushu samsam esham, viii. 39, 2. 


vi. 62, 4. Td navyaso jaramdnasya manma upa bhushato yuyujdna- 
saptl ityadi \ 5. Ta valgu dasrd purusdkatamd pratna navyasd vachasd 
vivdse \ 

" 4. These (Asvins), with yoked horses, approach the hymn of their 
new worshipper. ..... 5. I adore with a' new hymn these brilliant, 

strong, most mighty, and ancient'(gods)." 

vii. 35, 14, will be quoted in the next section. t 

vii. 53, 2. Pro, purvaje pitard navyasilhir girhkih Icrinudhvam sadane 
ritasya ityadi \ ' 

"In the place of sacrifice propitiate with new hymns the ancient, 
the parents " (i.e. Heaven and Earth), etc. 

vii. 56, 23. Bhuri chakra Marutah pitrydni vJcthdni yd vah sasyante 
purd chit \ 

" Ye have done great things, o Maruts, when our fathers' hymns 
were recited of old in your honour." * 

vii. 59, 4 abhi vah dvartt sumatir navlya&i 10 tuyam ydta pipl- 

shavah \ 

"May the new hymn turn you hither; come quickly, desirous 
to drink." 

vii. 61, 6 Pro, vdm, manmdni richase navdni kritdni brahma 

jujushann imdni \ 

"May the new hymns made to praise you, may these prayers gra- 
tify you." 

vii. 93, 1. S'uchiih nu stomam nava-jdtam adya Indrdgril Vrittra-hand 
jushetham \ ubhd hi vdm suhavd johavlmi ityddi \ 

"Indra and Agni, slayers of Yrittra, receive with favour the pure 
hymn newly produced to-da*y. For again and again do I invoke you 
who lend a willing ear," etc. . 

viii. 5, 24. Tdlhir dydtam utilhir navyasibhih susastibhih yad vdm 
vrishanvasu huve \ 

" Come with those same succours, since I jnvoke you, bountiful 
[deities], with new" praises." (The epithet navyasibhih in this text 
might possibly be construed with'the word utibhih, "aids.") 

viii. 6, 11. Aham pratnena manmand girah sumbhdmi Kanva-vat \ 
yena Indrah sushmam id dadhe \ 

10 The same words, sumati' navlyasi, occur in viii. 92, 9, where they may not have 
the same sense as here. 


."I decorate my praises with an ancient hymn, after the manner of 
Kanva, whereby Indra put on strength." ' 

viii. 6, 43. Imam su purvydnl dhiyam madhor ghritasya pipyushlm 
Kanvdh uktliena vavridhuh \ 

" The Kanvas with their praise have augmented this ancient hymn, 
replenished with sweet butter." , 

viii. 12, 10. lydm te ritviudvatl dJiitir eti navlyasl saparyanti ityddi \ 

"This new and sfo'lgmn hymn advances to honour thee," etc. 

viii. .20, 19. Yunah u su navishthayd vrishnak, pdvakdn abhi Solhare 
gird | gdya ityddi \ 

"Sing, o Sobhari, ^with a new hymn to these youthful, vigorous, 
and brilliant (gods). 

viii. 23, 14. S'rushtl Agne navasya me stomasya vlra vispate vi md- 
yinas tapushd rakshaso daJia \ 

" Heroic Agni, lord of the people, on hearing my new hymn, burn 
up with thy heat the deluding Rakshases." 

viii. 25, 24 Kasdvantd viprd navishthayd mail \ maho vdjindv 

arvantd sachd asanam \ 

"I have celebrated at the same time with a new hymn, these two 
sage and mighty [princes], strong, swift, and carrying whips." 

viii. 39, 6. Agnir veda marltdndm apichyam .... Agnir dvdrd vyiir- 
nute svdhuto navlyasd \ 

"Agni knows the secrets of mortals .... Agni, invoked by a new 
[hymn], opens the doors." 

viii. 40, 12. Eva Indrdgnibhydm' pitri - vad navlyo Mdndhdtri - vad 
Angiras-vad avdchi ityddi \ 

" Thus has a new [hymn] been utteredHo Indra and Agni after the 
manner of our fathers, and of Mandhatri, and of Angiras." 

viii. 41, 2. Tarn u shu samand gird pitrlndm cha manmabhih Ndbhd- 
kasya prasastibhir yah sindhundm upa udaye sapta-svasd sa madhyamah \ 

" [Worship] him (Varuna) continually with a song, with the hymns of 

the fathers, 11 and with tfie praises of Nabhaka. He who dwells at the 

. i 

11 The expression here employed, pitrlndm cha manmabhih, occurs also in R.V. x. 
57, 3 (=Vaj. S. 3, 53): Mano nu a huvamahe narasamsena somena pitrlndm cha 
manmabhih \ " "We summon his soul with Soma, accompanied by human praises, and 
with the hymns of the fathers." The Vajasaneyi Sanhita. reads stotntna, " hymn," 
instead of somena. The commentator there explains nara&umsena stomena as "a hymn 


birth-place of the streams, the lord of the seven sisters, abides in .the 
centre." (This verse is qudted in the, Mrukta x. 5. Nabhaka is said 
by Yaska to have been a rishi (rishir 'Ndbhtiko babhuva). A translation 
of the passage is given in Roth's Illustrations' of the Mr. p. <135, where 
reference is also made to two verses of tte preceding hymn (viii. 40, 
4, 5), in which Nabhaka (the anpestor of Nabhaka) is 'mentioned thus : 
(verse 4) Abnyarcna NabhdJca-vad Indrdgnl yajasd cfira .... (verse 5) 
Pra brahmdni Nabhdka-vad Indrdgnibhydm irajyath \ " Worship Indra 
and Agni with sacrifice 'and hymn, like Nabhaka .... Like Kgbhaka, 
direct your prayers to Indra and Agni." In explanation of the seven 
sisters, Roth refers to Mr. v. 27 (R.Y. viii. 58, 12) where the seven 
rivers are mentioned. See his Illustrations of Mr. pp. 70, 71. 

viii. 44, 12. Agnih pratnena manmand Sumbhdnas tanvam svam kavih 
viprena vavridhe \ 

" The wise Agni, illuminating his own body at [the sound of] the 
sage and ancient hymn, has become augmented." 

viii. 55, 11. Vayam gJia te apurvyd Indra brahmani vrittrahan \ 
purutamdsah puruhuta vajrivo bJiritim no. pra bhardmasi \ 

" Indra, slayer of Vrittra, thunderer, invoked of many, we [thy] 
numerous [worshippers] bring to thee, as thy hire, hymns which never 
before existed." 

viii. 63, 7, 8. lyam te navyasl matir Agne adhdyi asmad a mandra 
sujdta sukrato amura dasma atithe \ sa te Agne santamd chanishthd bha- 
vatu priyd tayd vardhasva sushtutah \ 

"0 Agni, joyful, well-born, strong, unerring, and wondrous guest, 
this new hymn has been offered to (or, made for) thee by us ; may 
it be dear to thee, agreeal&le and pleasant : lauded by it, do thou 
increase." , 

viii. 65, 5, 6 Indram girbhir havamahe \ Indram pratnena man- 
mand marutvantam havdmahe ityddi \ 12. (=S.V. ii. 340.) Vdcham ash- 
tu-padlm aham nava-sraktim rita-sprisam \ Indrdt pari tanvam mame \ 

" 5. We invoke Indra with songs'; we invoke Indra,'-attended by 
the Maruts, with an ancient hymu. ... 12. I compose for the sake of 

in which men are praised," and pitrlnam cha manmabhih, as hymns " in which the 
fathers are reverenced" (pitaro yaih stotrair manyante te manmanas tair ityadi}. 
See Prof. IVfex MUller's translation of this hymn in the Journal of Roy. As. Soc. for 
1866, pp. 449 and 458. ' 



Indra a hymn of eight feet and nine lines, abounding in sacred 
truth." (This vrse is translated and explained by Professor Benfey, 
Sama-veda, p. 255.) \ 

ix. 9, 8^. Nu navyase *navlyase suktdya sddhaya pathah | pratna-vad 

rochaya ruchah | 

" Prepare (oSoma) the paths for our newest,most recent, hymn ; 
and,' as of old, cause the lights to shine." 

ix. 42, 2. EsJJtt^prqtnendt manmann devo devebhyah pari | dhdrayd 

pavate sutah \ . 


" This god, poured forth to the g"ods, with an ancient hymn, purifies 
with his stream." 

ix. 91, 5. Sa pratn$-vad navyase visva-vdra suktdya pathah Jcrimhi 
prdchah ityddi [ 

" god, who possessest all good, make, as of old, forward paths for 
this new hymn." 

ix. 99, 4 (= S.Y. ii. 9835- Tarn gdthayd purdnyd pundnam abhi anu- 
shata | uto Jcripanta dhitayo devdndm ndma lilhraiih | 

"They praised the pure god with an ancient song; and hymns em- 
bracing the names of the gods have supplicated him." (Benfey trans- 
lates the last clause differently.) 

x. 4, 6 lyam te Agne navyasl mamshd yulcshva ratham na sucha- 

yadlhir angaih | 

" This is for thee, Agni, a new hymn : yoke thy car as it were with 
shining parts." 

x. 89, 3. Samdnam asmai anapdvrid archa kshmayd divo asamam 
brahma navyam ityddi | 

" Sing (to Indra) without ceasing a new hymn, worthy of him, and 
unequalled in earth or heaven." 

x. 91, l5. Imdm pratndya sushtutim navlyaslm vocheyam asmai usate 
srinotu nah | , 

" I will address to this ancient [deity] my new praises, which he 
desires; may he listentft us." 

x. 96, 11 Navyam navyam haryasi manma nu priyam ityddi | 

" Thou delightest in ever new hymns, which are dear to thee," etc. 

x. 160, 5. Asvdyanto gavyanto vdjayanto havamahe tvd upa gantavai 
u | dlhushantas te sumatau navdydm vayam Indra tvd sunaih huvema | 

" Desiring horses, cattle, and wealth, we iavoke thee to'^approach us. 


Paying homage to in a new hymn, may we, o Indra, invoke thte 
auspiciously." , 


SECT. III. Passages of the Rig-veda, in which the rishis Describe 
themselves as the composers ff the hymns. 


In this section I propose to quote, first of all, 'those passages in 
which the rishis distinctly speak' of themselves -as the authors t>f the 
hymns, and express np Consciousness whatever of deriving assistance 
or inspiration from any supernatural source. I shall then adduce some 
further texts in which, though nothing is directly stated regarding the 
composition of the h^mns, there is at the sanfe time nothing which 
would lead the reader to imagine that the rishis looked upon them as 
anything else than the offspring of their own minds. 

I shall arrange the quotations in which the rishis distinctly claim 
the authorship, according to the particular verb which is employed to 
express this idea. These verbs are (1) kri, "to make," (2) taksh (= 
the Greek Te/rraiVo/^at), "to fabricate," and (3) Jan, "to beget, gene- 
rate, or produce," with others which are less explicit. 

I. I adduce first the passages in which (1) the verb Jtri, "to make," 
is applied to the composition of the hymns. (Compare R.V. vii. 61, > 
already quoted in the last section.) 

R.V. i. 20, 1. Ay am devdya janmane stomo viprebhir dsayd 12 \ ak&ri 
ratna-dhdtamah \ 

" This hymn, conferring wealth, has been made to the divine race, 
by the sages, with their mouth [or in presence of the gods]." 

i. 31, 18. Etena Agne brahmand vdvridhasva saktl vd yat te chaTcrima 
vidd vd | 

" Grow, o Agni, by this prayer which we have made to thee accord- 
ing to our power, or ouv knowledge." 

i.,,47, 2 Kanvaso vam brahma krinvanti adhvare teshdiHi su 

srinutam havam \ , c ' 

" The Kanvas make a prayer to you : hear well their invocation." 

i. 61, 16. Eva te hariyojand suvrikti Indra Irahmdni Gotamdsahalcran \ 

"Thus, o Indra, yoker of steeds, have the Gotamas made hymns for 
thee efiicacio^usly." 

12 See the note on vi. 32, 1, below. 


i. 117, 25. Etdni vdm Aivind vlrydni pra purvydni dyavah avockan \ 
brahma krinvanto ! ? vrishand yuvabhydm suvirdso mdatham a vadema \ 

"These, your ancient exploits) o Asvins, men have declared. Let 
us, who are strong in bald men, making a hymn for you, o vigorous 
gods, utter our offering of praise." 

i. 184, 5. Esh&vdm stomo Asvindv akdri mdnebhir magJiavdnd suvrikti \ 

11 This hymn hae*efficaciously been made to you, o opulent Asvins, 
by the Manas. (Oompri. 1^9, 8; 171; 5; 182, 8; 184, 3.) 

ii. 39. 8. Etdni vdm Asvina vardhandni brahma stomam Gritsama- 


ddsah akran \ 

" These magnifying prayers, [this] hymn, o Asvins, the Gritsamadas 
have made for you." ' 

iii. 30, 20. Svaryavo matibhis tubhyam viprdh Indrdya vdhah Kusi- 
Icdsah akran \ 

"Aspiring to heaven, the sage Kusikas have made a hymn, with 
praises to thee, o Indra." (^The word vdfah is stated by Sayana to be 
= stotra, " a hymn.") 

iv. 6, 11. Akdri Irahma samidhdna tulhyam ityddi \ 

" kindled [Agni], a prayer has been made to thee." 

iv. 16, 20. Eved Indrdya, vrishabhdya vrishne brahma akarma Bhri-* 
yavo na ratham | .... 21. Akdri te harivo brahma navy am dhiyd sydma 
rathyah saddsdh \ 

" Thus have we made a prayer for Indra, the productive, the vigorous, 

as the Bhrigus [fashioned] a car 21. A new prayer has been 

made for thee, o lord of steeds. May we, through our hymn (or rite), 
become possessed of chariots and perpetual wealth." 

vi. 52, 2. Ati vd yo maruto manyate n<\ Irahma vd yah kriyamdnaih 
ninitsdt \ tapumshi tasmai vrijindni santu brahma-dvisham dbhi tarn 
sochatu dyauli \ 

"Whoever, o Maruts, regards himself as superior to us, or reviles 
the prayer which is being made, may burning injuries be his lot; may 
the sky sccrch the enemy of prayer. 14 , 

13 The reader will find Prof. Haug's opiiSon of the s*nse of this phrase in p. 11 f. 
of his German dissertation "on the,, original signification of the word brahma" of 
which the author has heen kind enough to send me a copy, which has reached me as 
this sheet is passing through the press. Prof. Haug mentions R.V. i. 88, 4 ; vii. 
103, 8, as passages (additional to those I have given) in which the exjy^ssion occurs. 

14 Translated by Prof. Haug in the Dissertation abo>'e Deferred to, p. 6. 


vii. 35, 14. Aditydh Rudrdh Vasavo jushanta (the Atharva-veda has 
jushantdm) idam brahma krii/amtinam navlyah \ srinvontu no divydh, pdr- 
thivdso gojdtdh ityddi \ 

" The Adityas, Eudras, and Vasus receive with pleasure this new 
prayer which is being made. May the gods of the air, the earth, and 
the sky hear us." 

vii. 37, 4. Vayam nu te ddsvdmsah sydma brahtr.j r ,krinvantah ityddi \ 

" Let us offer oblations to thpe, making prayers,!' etc. 

vii. 97, 9. lyam vdm firahmanaspate suvriktir' orahma Indrdya vajrine 
aTcdri \ 

" Brahmanaspati, this efficacious hymn, [this] prayer has been made 
for thee, and for Indra, the thunderer." 

viii. 51,4. Ay alii krinavdma te Indra brahmdni varddhand ityddi \ 

" Come, Indra, let us make prayers, which magnify thee," etc. 

viii. 79, 3. JBrahma, te Indra girvanah Tcriyante anatidlJiutd \ imd 
jushasva haryasva yojand ycPte amanmdhi\ 

"Unequalled prayers are made for thee Indra, who lovest hymns. 
Receive favourably, lord of the brown steeds, those which we have 
thought out for thee, to yoke thy horses." 

x. 54, 6 Adha priyam susham Indrdya mamma Irahmakrito 15 

Vrihadukthdd avachi \ 

" . . An acceptable and powerful hymn has been uttered to Indra 
by Yrihaduktha, maker of prayers. " 1B 

x. 101, 2. Mandrd krinudhvam dhiyah d tanudhvam ndvam aritra- 
paranwi krinudhvam \ 

"Make pleasant (hymns), prepare prayers, make a ship propelled by 


It is possible that in many of these passages the verb kri may have 
merely the signification which the word make has in English when we 
speak of "making supplications," etc., in which case it of course means 
to offer up, rather than to compose. But this cannot be the case in such 
passages as E.V. iv. 16, 20 (p. 233), w^here cbe'rishi speaks of making 

15 Compare rishayo manfy-akrito marinshinah in Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 8, 8, 5 ; 
and R.V. ix. 114, 2 : Rishe mantra-kritam stomaihKasyapodvardhayam girah \somam 
namasya rajanam yo jajne vlrudham patih \ " fiishi Kas'yapa, augmenting thy words 
with the praises of the makers of hymns, reverence King Soma, who was born the lord 
of plants." 

16 Prof. Iftug thinks the ,word brahma-Jcrit here refers to hymns, and mentions 
other passages in which it 'occurs : see p. 12 of the Dissertation above referred to. 



the, hymn as the Bhrigus made a chariot. 17 And such an interpretation 
would be altogether inadmissible in the case of the texts which I next 
proceed to cite. i 

II. Passages in which the word tafcsh, " to fashion, or fabricate," is 
applied to the composition of the hymns. 

i. 62, 13. SaTtdyate Gotamah Indra navyam ataltshad Irahma hariyo- 
jandya ityddi \ "* 

" Nodhas, descendant of Orotama, fashioned this new hymn for [thee], 
Indra,^who art of old,' and who yokest thy stoeds," etc. 

i. 130, 6. Imam te vdcham vasuyantah dyavo ratham na dhlrah sva- 
pdh atakshishuh sumndya tvdm atakshishuh \ 

" Desiring wealth,' men have fashioned for thee this hymn, as a skil- 
ful workman [fabricates] a car ; and thus they have disposed (lit. 
fashioned) thee to (confer) happiness." 

i. 171, 2. Esha vah stomo Maruto namasvdn hridd tashto manasd 
dhdyi devdh \ 

" This reverential hymn, o divine Maruts, fashioned by the heart, 
has been presented [or, made] by the mind. [According to Sayana, the 
last words mean, 'let it be received by you with a favourable mind']." 

ii. 19, 8. Evd te Gritsamaddh sura manma avasyavo na vayunani 
takshuh | 

" Thus, o hero, have the Gritsamadas, desiring succour, fashioned, 
for thee a hymn, as men make works." (Sayana explains vayuna by 

ii. 35, 2. Imam su asmai hridah d sutashtam mantram vochema Tcuvid 
asya vedat \ 

"Let us address to him this well-fashioned hymn proceeding from 
the heart ; will he not be aware of it ? " 

v. 2, 11. Etaiii te stomam tuvi-jtita vipro ratham na dhlrah svapdh 
ataksliam \ 

"I, a sage, have fabricated this hymn for thee, o powerful [deity], 
as a skilfal workman fashions a car." 

v. 29, 15. Indra Irahma kriyaiqdnd jusha&va yd te savishtha navyd 
' akarma \ vastreva bhadrd sukritd vasuyuh ratham na dhlrah svapdh 
ataksham \ 

17 See also v. 29, 15, and x. 39, 14, which will be quoted a little further on ; and 
in which the verbs Jcri and taksh are both employed.* 


" mighty Indra, regard with favour the prayers which are mcde, 
the new [prayers] which we- have made for thee. Desirous of wealth, 
I have fabricated them like beautiftu well-fashioned garments, as a 
skilful workman [constructs] a car." (Compare R.V. iii. 39r2; above, 
p. 226.) 

v. 73, 10. Imd brahmdni vardhand Asvibhydm saniu, iantamd \ yd 
takshama ratJidn iva avochdma brihad narnah \ 

" May these magnifying prayers which we have fashioned, like cars, 
be pleasing to the Asvins: we have uttered great adoration." r 

vi. 32, 1 ( S.V. i. 322). Apurvyd purutamdni asmai make vlrdya 
tavase turdya \ mrapsine f vajrine santamdni vachdmsi a dsd 18 sthavirdya 
taksham \ 

"To this great hero, vigorous, energetic, the adorable, unshaken 
thunderer, I have with my mouth fabricated copious and pleasing 
prayers, which have never before existed." 

vi. 16, 47. A te Agne richd havir hridd tashtam bhardmasi \ 

" In this verse, Agni, we bring to thee an oblation fabricated by the 
heart." (Comp. R.V. iii. 39, 1, in p. 226.) 

vii. 7, 6. Ete dyumnebhir visvam dtiranta mantram ye vd aram narydh 
atakshan \ 

11 These manly (Vasishthas), who have skilfully fabricated the hymn, 
have by their energy accomplished all things (?)." 

vii. 64, 4. Yo vdm garttam manasd tdkshad etam urddhvdm dhltim 
krinavad dhdrayach cha \ 

" May he who with his mind fashioned for you (Mitra and Varuna) 
this car, make and sustain the lofty hymn." (The same expression 
urddhvd dhltih occurs in ll.V.ri. 119, 2.) 

viii. 6, 33. Uta brahmanyd vayam tubhyam pravriddha vajrivo viprdh 
atakshma jlvase \ 

"0 mighty thunderec, we, who are sage, have fabricated prayers for 
thee, that we may live." 

x. 39, 14. JStam vdfh stomam Asvindv ckarma'-aiakshdma B'irigavo no, 
ratham \ ni amrikshdma yoshandm n&; rnaryye nityam na sunum tanayam 
dadhdnuh \ 4 

"This hymn, Asvins, we have made for you; we have fabricated it 

18 On the sejise of asd see Prof. Mutter's article in the Journal of Roy. As. Soc. for 
1867, p. 232 f. ; and Bohtlingk'and Roth's Lexicon, s.v. 


as ih,e Bhrigus [constructed] a car; we have decorated it, as a bride for 
her husband, continuing the series [of ouY praises] like an unbroken 
line of descendants." (See iv. ID, 20, above, p. 233.) 

(The foHowing is Sayana's comment on this passage, for a copy of 
which I am indebted to Professor Mu'ller : He Avinau vdm yuvayor etaih 
yathqktam stomam stotrqm akarma akvrma \ Tad etad aha \ Bhrigavo na 
Bhrigavah iva rat'ftam atakshdma vayam stotram samskritavantah \ karma- 
yogdd *P>ilhavo Bhfigabah uchyante \ 'athavd rathakdrdh Bhrigavah \ 
kincha nayam nityam sdsvatam tanayam ydgddmdw karmandm tanitdram 
sunum na aurasam putram iva stotram dadhdndh dhdrayanto martye ma- 
nushye nyamrikshdma yuvayoh stutim nitardm samskritavantah \ " Asvins, 
we have made this preceding hymn or praise of you. He means to say 
this. Like the Bhrigus, we have made a car, we have carefully con- 
structed a hymn. The Ribhus are, in this passage, .... styled Bhri- 
gus ; or Bhrigus are chariot-makers. Moreover, maintaining praise as 
a constant perpetuator (like a legitimate son) of sacrifice and other rites, 
we have polished, i.e. carefully composed a celebration of you among 
men [?]." In this comment the word yoshand is left unexplained. In 
verse 12 of this hymn the Asvins are supplicated to come in a car 
fleeter than thought, constructed for them by the Bibhus a tena ydtam 
manaso javiyasa rat ham yam vdm Rilhavas chakrur Asvina \ .) 

x. 80, 7. Agnaye Brahma Rilhavas tatakshuh \ 

" The Ribhus [or the wise] fabricated a hymn for Agni. 

III. I next quote some texts in which the hymns are spoken of as 
being generated by the rishis. (Comp. R.V. vii. 93, 1, in p. 228.) 

iii. 2, 1. Vaisvdnardya dhishanam ritdvridhe ghritam na putam Agnaye 
jandmasi \ * 

"We gewrate a hymn, like pure butter, for Agni Vaisvanara, who 
promotes our sacred rites." 

vii. 15, 4. JYavam nu stomam Agnaye divah syendya jijanam \ vasvah 
kuvid vandti nah \ ., , 

"I have 1 generated a new hymn to Agni, the falcon of the sky; will 
he not bestow on us wealth in abundance ? " 

vii. 22, 9. Ye cha purve riskayo ye cha nutndh Indra Irahmdni jana- 
yanta viprdh \ 

"Indra, the wise rishis, both ancient and modern, h^aye generated 



vii. 26, 1. Nasomah Indram asuto mamdda na alrakmdno maghavdwam 
sutdsah \ tasmai ukiham jahaye yaj jujoshad nricad *naviyah srinavad 
yathd nah \ 

" The soma exhilarates not Indra unless it be poured ott ; nor do 
libations [gratify] Haghavan when offered .without a prayer. To him I 
generate a hymn such as may please him, that, after the? manner of men, 
he may hear our new [production]." 

vii. 31, 11 Suvriktim Indrdya Irahma fandyanta vipreh \ 

11 The sages generqteti an efficacious ^production and a prayer for 

vii. 94, 1, 2 (S.V. ii. 266). lyam vdm asya manmanah Indrdgnl 
purvya-stutir abhrdd vrishttr na ajani \ srinutam jaritur havam ityddi \ 

" This excellent praise has been generated for you, Indra and Agni, 
from the soul of this [your worshipper], like rain from a cloud. Hear 
the invocation of your encomiast." (Benfey thinks manman, " spirit," 
is to be understood of Soma, whose hymn, i.e. the sound of his drop- 
ping, resembles the falling of rain. The scholiast of the S.V. makes 
manman = stotri, " worshipper ".) 

viii. 43, 2. Asmai te pratiharyate Jdtavedo vicharshane Agne jandmi 
sushtutim \ 

" Wise Agni Jatavedas, I generate a hymn for thee, who receivest it 
with favour." 

viii. 77, 4. A tvd ayam arkah utaye vavarttati yam Gotamdh ajljanan \ 

"This hymn which the Gotamas have generated, incites thee to 
succour us." 

viii. 84, 4, 5. S'rudhi havam TirascJiydh Indra yas tvd saparyati 
suvlryasya gomato rdyah pufdhi mahdn asi \ Indra yas te naviyaslm 
giram mandrdm ajljanat chikitvin-manasaih dhiyam pratndm ritasya 
pipyushlm \ 

"Hear, Indra, the invocation of Tiraschi, thy worshipper; replenish 
him with wealth in strong men and in cattle, for fhou art great. Indra 
(do this for him] who has generated for 6 thee Che newest exhilarating 
hymn, springing from an intelligent mind, an ancient mental product, 
full of sacred truth." 

(These verses occur also in the Sama-veda ii. 233, 234, and are 
translated by Professor Benfey, at pp. 230 and 250 of his edition, 
The hymn referred to in this passage is apparently designated as both 


new.and old. How can it be both ? It may have been an old hymn 
re- written and embellished; ancient in substance, though new in ex- 
pression. 19 Compare St. John's (iospel, xiii. 34, and the First Epistle 
of St. John; ii. 7, 8, and fii. 11.) 

ix. 73, 2 madhor dhardbhir janayanto arlcam it priydm Indra- 

sya tanvam avwr-bUfain \ 

" Generating the-nymn, they have augmented the beloved body of 
Indra with the honied streams." ' 

ix. 95, 1 (= S.Y. i. 530) ato matlr jmiayata svadhdbhih \ 

"Wherefore generate hymns with the oblations." (Professor Benfey 
makes janayata the 3rd person singular of the imperfect middle, and 
applies it to Soma.) - 

x. 7, 2. Imdh Agne matayas tubhyam jdtdh gobhir asvair abhi grinanti 
rddhah \ 

" These hymns, Agni, generated for thee, celebrate thy bounty in 
cows and horses." 

x. 23, 5, 6, 7. Yo vdchd vivdcho mridhravdchah puru sahasrd asivd 
jaghdna \ Tat tad id asya paumsyam grimmasi pita iva yas tavishlm vd- 
vridhe savah \ 6. Stomam te Indra Vimaddh ajljanann apurvyam puruta- 
mam suddnave \ Vidma M asya bhojanam inasya yad d pasum na gopdh 
Icardmahe \ 7. Md Mr nah end sakhyd viyaushus tava cha Indra Vimadasya 
cha risheh \ Vidma hi te pramatim devajdmi-vad asme te santu sakhyd 
sivdni \ 

" 5. Who (Indra) with his voice slew many thousands of the wicked 
uttering confused and hostile cries. We laud his several acts of valour, 
who, like a father, grew in vigour and strength. 6. For thee, o Indra, 
who art bountiful, the Vimadas have geneyated a copious hymn, which 
never before existed (apurvya] ; for we know that it is gratifying to this 
mighty god, when we attract him hither as a cowherd drives his 
cattle. 7. Indra, may that friendship of ours never be dissolved, which 
exists between thee and the rishi Yimada: for we know thy wisdom, 
o god ; mayHhy friendship be favourable to us, like, that of a kinsman." 

x. 67, 1. Imam dhiyam sapta-slrshvim pita naji ritaprajdtdm Irihatlm 
avindat \ turlyam svij janayad visvajanyo Aydsyah uktham Indrdya 

19 As Prof. Aufrecht expresses it : " Gir is opposed to dhl, as form, to substance 
a new utterance, but a primordial homage." 


" Our father hath discovered [or invented] this great, seven-headed 
hymn, born of sacred trutk ; Ayasya, friend of alt men, celebrating 
Indra, has generated the fourth song of praise." (In his Lexicon, Both 
gives Ayasya as a proper name; but says it may also be aa adjective 
with the sense of "unwearied.") ^ 

x. 91, 14. Klldlu-pe soma-prishtdya vedhase hriddj.tatim janaye chd- 
rum Agnaye \ 

""With my heart I generate u beautiful hymn fur Agni, thp drinker 
of nectar, the soma-sprinkled, the wise." (See also R.Y. i. 109, 1, 2, 
which will be quoted below.) 

IY. In the following texts the verbal root ri, "to move, send forth," 
etc., used with or without a preposition, is applied to the utterance or 
(it may even mean) the production of hymns. 

i. 116, 1. Ndsatydlhydm larhir iva pravrinje stomdn iyarmi abhriyd 
iva vdtah \ ydv arlhagdya Vimaddyajdydm sendjutd ni uhatuh rathena \ 

" In like manner as I spread the sacrificial grass to the Nasatyas 
(Asvins), so do I send forth to them hymns, as the wind [drives] the 
clouds ; to them (I say), who bore off to the youthful Vimada his bride 
in a chariot swift as an arrow." 

vii. 61, 2. Pro, vain sa Mitrd-Varunau ritdvd vipro manmdni dlrgha- 
srud iyartti \ Yasya brahmdni suJcratu avdthah d yat kratvd na saradah 
prinaithe \ 

" The devout sage, heard afar off, sends forth his hymns to you, o 
Mitra and Yaruna. Do you, mighty gods, receive his prayers with 
favour, so that for (many) autumns ye may not be satiated with his 
fervour." (See Bb'htlingk and Eoth's Lexicon, s.v. d + ^r*0 

viii. 12, 31. Imam te Indra sushtutim viprah iyartti dhltilhih \jdmim 
padd iva pipratlm pia adhvare \ 

" In the sacrifice the sage, with praises, sends forth to thee this hymn, 
which is of kin to theo, and, as it were, supplies the places (of others ?) 

viii. 13, 26 Ritdd iyarmi te dhiyam manoyujam \ 

" . . . . From theirSacred ceremony I r send forth a prayei which will 
attract thy heart." . 

x. 116, 9. Pra Indrdgnilhydm suvachpsydm iyarmi sindhdv iva prera- 
yam ndvam arlcaih \ 

"I send forth a [hymn] with beautiful words to Indra and Agni; 
with my praises I have, 'as it were, launched a ship on the sea." 


(Compare B..V. ii. 42, 1, spoken of Indra in the form of the bird 
called Kapinjala, # sort of partridge : lyartti vdcham ariteva ndvam \ 
" It sends forth a voice, as a rower propels a boat." See also R.V. x. 
101, 2, quoted above, p. 234.) 

.x. 4, 1. Pro, te ydkshi prq te iyarmi manma Ihuvo yathd vandyo no 
haveshu \ dhanv?n iva prapd asi tvam Agm iyaka'ha'ee purave pratna 
rdjan \ ""* 

" I offer thee worship, I send forth to thee a meditation, that thou 
mayest Jbe accessible to adoration in our invocations. For thou, Agni, 
ancient king, art like a trough of water in the desert to the man who 
longs for thee." 

Y. In the following passages other verbs are employed to denote the 
composition or presentation of hymns : 

i. 61. 2. Indrdya hridd manasd manlshd pratndya patye dhiyo marja- 

" To Indra, the ancient lord, they prepared [or polished] hymns [or 
ceremonies] with the heart, mind, and understanding." 

i. 61, 4. Asmai id u stomam saihhinomi ratham na tashtd iva ityddi \ 

" To him (Indra) I send forth a hymn, as a carpenter a car," etc. 

i. 94, 1 (= S.V. i. 66). Imam stomam arhate Jdtavedase ratham iva 
sam mahema mariishayd \ lhadrd hi nah pramatir asya samsadi Agne 
salchye md rishdma vayam tava \ 

" Let us with our intellect construct (or, send forth] this hymn for 
the adorable Jatavedas like a car, for his wisdom is favourable to us in 
the assembly. Agni, in thy friendship may we never suffer." (The 
root mah means to honour or worship. 20 The reader may compare 
Benfey's translation.) * 

There is to be found in the hymns a great multitude of passages in 
which the rishi speaks of presenting his hymns and prayers to the 
various deities who are the objects of his worship, without directly 

claiming for himself the ftuthorship of those compositions. The natural 

^ i p 

inference to be drawn from the- expressions which, we shall find to be 

employed in most of the cases to whfch I refer,, would, I think, be that 
the personality of the rishi hjnaself was uppermost in his mind, and 
that he was not conscious that the praises which he was uttering to 

20 See, however, the various reading suggested by Bothlingk and Rqth i.v. mah + 
sam and ah + sam. " . 



the gods proceeded from any other source than his own unaided fa#ul- 
ties. Of this description are the following texts, "which represent a 
manner of thinking and speaking very" prevalent in the hymns : 

i. 60, 5. Tarn tvd vayam patim Ague raylridm prasamsam) matibhir 
Gotamdsah \ 

" We, the Gotamas, praise with hymns thee, Agni, t>,.e lord of riches." 

i. 77, 5. Eva Agnir Gotamebhir ritdvd viprebhir'aito&htajdtavedah \ 

"Thus has the holy Agni Jatavedas been celebrated by r tlie sage 
Gotamas." * f 

i. 78, 5. Avochama Rahuganah Agnaye madhumad vachah \ dyumnair 
abhi pra nonumah \ 

" "We, the Eahuganas, have uttered to Agni" honied speech ; we in- 
cessantly laud him with eulogies." 

i. 91, 11. Soma glrbhis tva vayam vardhaydmo vacho-vidah \ sumrillko 
nah aviso, \ 

" Soma, we who are skilled in speech magnify thee with praises ; do 
thou enter into us, full of kindness." 

i. 102, 1. Imam te dhiyam prabhare maho mahlm .... 

" I present to thee joyfully this great hymn ..... 

i. 183, 6. Atdrishma tamasas pdram asya prati vdm stomo Asvindv 
adhdyi \ 

""We have crossed over this darkness; a hymn, o Asvins, has been 
addressed to you." 

iii. 53, 2. Pitur na putrah sicJiam d rabhe te Indra svddishthayd gird 
sachlvah \ 

" Powerful Indra, I lay hold of thy skirt (as a son does that of his 
father), with a very sweet hymn." 

iv. 3, 16. Etd visvd vidushe tubhyam vedho nlthdni Agne ninyd va- 
chdmsi | ntiachand kavaye kdvydni asamsisham matibhir viprah ukthaih \ 

"Intelligent Agni,oto thee, who knowest, [have I uttered] all these 
songs and mysterious words ; to thee, who art a bard, have I, a sage, 

' t ^ 

uttered these hymns, these poems, witk meditutions and piuises." 
iv. 32, 12. Avlvridhpnta GotatKdh Indra tve stoma-vdhasah \ 
" The Gotamas, Indra, bringing hymns to thee, have magnified thee." 
v. 11, 5. Tubhya idam Agne madhumattamam vachas tubhyam manlshd 

^yam astu sam hride \ Tvdm girah sindhum iva avamr mahlr d prinanti 

savasd vardhayanti cha f \ ' 


'Agni, may this sweetest of prayers, may this mental production 
be pleasant to thy 1 heart. As great rivers fill the ocean, so do the words 
of praise fill thee, and augment thee with strength." 

v. 22, 4.' Ague chikiddhi asya nah idam vacJiah scthasya \ Tarn tvd 
susipra dampate stomair vardkanti Atrayo girlihih sumlJianti Atrayah \ 

" Yigorous AgH : , observe these oiuwvords; thee, with the beautiful 

* *fc 

nose, the lord of the house, the Atris magnify with praises, the Atris 

decorate with hymnS." " 

v. 45,4. Suktebhir vo vacholhir deva-jusMair*In$ra nu Agni avase hu- 
vadJiyai \ 

" Let me invoke you for help, o Indra and Agni, with well-spoken 
words, such as are acceptable to the gods. 

vi. 38, 3. Tarn vo dhiyd paramayd purdjdm ajaram Indram abhi 
anushi arkaih ityddi \ 

" I adore thee, the ancien^;, imperishable Indra with an excellent 
hymn and with praises." 

vii. 67, 5. PrdcJilm u devd Asvina dhiyam me amridhram sataye 
kritam vasuyum \ 

"0 divine Asvins, bring to fulfilment my unwearied prayer which 
supplicates wealth." 

vii. 85, 1. Punlshe vdm arakshasam manlshdm sornam Indrdya Varu- 
nayajuhvat \ ghrita-pratlkdm Ushasatn net devlrn ityudi \ 

" Offering soma to Indra and Varuna, I prepare for you twain the 
sincere hymn, like the goddess Ushas, with glittering face." 21 

viii. 5, 18. Asmukam adya vdm ay am stomo vdftishtho antamah \ yuvti- 
bhyaih bhutu Asvina \ 

" May this hymn of ours approach near fo you, to-day, o Asvins, and 
be effectual in. bearing you hither." 

viii. 8, 8. Kim anye parydsate asmat stomelhir Asvina \ putrah Kan- 
vasya vdm risJiir glrbhir Vatso avlvridhat \ 

" Asvins, do others tfyan^ we sit round you with songs ? Vatsa, the 
son of Kanva", has magnified you'by his hymns." * 

viii. 27, 8. A pra ydta Maruto 'fashno Asvina PusJian mdklnayd 
dhiyd | 11. Ida hi vah upastutjm idd vdmasya lhaktaye upa vo visva- 

vedaso namasyur dsrikshi \ 

21 Compare vi. 8, 1. Vaisv anarciya inatir navyasi sucJiih somah iva private chariu 
Agnaye \ " A new and bright hymn is purified, like beautiful soma, for Agni Vais- 

vunnvu '* 


" 8. Come, o Maruts, Vishnu, Asvins, Pushan, at my hymn. ll.JFor 
now, possessors of all riches, now, in order to obtaki wealth, have I, 
full of reverence, sent forth to you a 'hymn." 

viii. 44, 2. Ague stomam jushasva me vardhasva anena wanmand \ 
prati sulctdni harya nali \ 22. Uta tvd tfhltayo mama giro varddhantu 
visvahd \ Agne sakhyasya lodhi nph \ 26. Yuvdnamjf<.spatim fcaviih vis- 
vddam puru-vepasam \ Agnim sumlhdmi manmalhify ( \ 

" 2. Agni, receive my hymnV grow by' this prochict of my, thought : 
rejoice in our beautiful 'words. 22. And may my thoughts apd words 
always augment thee ; Agni, think of our friendship. 26. With my 
mental productions I adorn Agni, the young, the lord of the people, 
the sage, the all-devouring, the very restless."' 

x. 42, 1. Astd iva suprataram lay am asyan bhushann iva prabhara sto- 
mamasmai\ vdchdviprdstaratavdcham aryo niramayajaritahsomelndram \ 

"Like an archer discharging his far-shooting arrow, with zeal pre- 
sent the hymn to Indra. Sages, by your song, overcome the song of 
the enemy; worshipper, arrest Indra at the soma." 

x. 63, 17. Eva Plateh sunur avivridhad vo visve Aditydh Adite mani- 
thl | isdndso naro amartyena astdvijano divyo Gayena \ 

" Thus, all ye Adityas, Aditi, and ye ruling powers, has the wise 
son of Plati magnified you. The celestial race has been lauded by the 
immortal Gay a." 

x. Ill, 1. Manlshinah pralharadhvam mariishtim yathd yathd mata- 
yah santi nrinam \ Indram satyair d Iraydma kritebhih sa hi vlro gir- 
vanasyur viddnah \ 

"Sages, present the prayer, according as are the various thoughts 
of men. Let us by our sincere rites stimulate Indra, for he is a hero, 
he is wise and loves our songs." 

In the following verse, from a hymn in praise of liberality, it is said, 
though no doubt only figuratively, that the true rishi is the prince who 
is Bountiful to the priesthood. 

x. 107, 6. Tarn era rishim tarn u br&hmdnam dJiur yajrfanyam sdma- 
gdm ulethasasam \ sa subrasya tanfo veda tisro yah prathamo dakshinayd 
rarddha \ , 

"He it is whom they call a rishi, a priest, a pious sacrificer, a 
chaunter of prayers, a reciter of hymns ; he it is who knows the three* 
bodies of the brilliant\A.gni), the man who is most prominent in be- 
stowing gifts." 


SECT. IV. Passages of the Rig-veda in which a supernatural character 
is ascribed to the rishis or the hymns. 

In, the preseru section I propose $o collect the" most distinct indi- 
cations which I haVe noticed in the Vedic hymns of any supernatural 
attributes attaching} in' the opinion of the authors, either to the rishis 
themselves, or to their compositions. We shall, see in the course of 
this enquiry (1) that a certain superhuman character was ascribed by 
the later rishis, who composed the hymns, to some of their prede- 
cessors ; (2) that expressions are occasionally employed by the rishis 
which appear to ascribe their compositions to a divine influence gene- 
rally ; while there is a still more numerous set of texts in which the 
hymns are attributed in various forms of phraseology to the agency of 
one or more particular and specified deities ; and (3) that there is a 
considerable number of passages in which a mysterious or magical 
power is ascribed to the hymns or metres. 

I proceed to furnish specimens of these several classes of quotations. 

I. I adduce some passages which ascribe a superhuman character or 
supernatural faculties to the earlier rishis. 22 These are the following : 

R.V. i. 179, 2. Ye chid hi purve ritasdpah dsan sdkam devebhir ava- 
dann ritdni \ te chid avdsur ityddi \ 

" The pious sages who lived of old, and who conversed about sacred 
truths with the gods, led a conjugal life," etc. 

vii. 76, 4. Te id devdndm sadhamddah dsann ritdvdnah Icavayah pur- 
vydsah \ gulham jyotih pitaro anvavindan satyamantrdh ajanayann 
ushdsam \ ^ 

" They were the associates of the gods, those ancient pious sages. 
The fathers found out the hidden light ; with true hymns they gene- 
rated the dawn." , 

x. 14, lo\ Yamdya madhumdttamafh rujne havyum juhotana \ idam 
namah rishibhyah purvajebhyah purvebhyah patkikridbhyah \ 

"Offer to king Yama a meet sweet oblation. (Let) this reverence 
(be paid) to the rishis born of old, who were the earliest guides." 

23 Compare A.V. s. 7, 14, quoted a^ore in p. 3. 


The sixty- second hymn of the tenth Mandala contains the following 
passage regarding the Angirases (see above, p. 223) :, 

1. The Angirases. x. 62, 1, 3. Ye yajnena dakshinayd samaktdh In- 
drasya sakhyam amritatvam dnasa \ tebhyo bhadram Angiras^ vah astu 
prati grilhnlta mdnavam sumedhasah \ 3. Ye ritena suryam arohayan 
divi aprathayan prithivlm mdtaram m ityddi \ ^, 

" 1. Blessings be on you, Angirases, who, sanctioed by sacrifice and 
liberality, attained the friendship of India and, immortality. -Do ye, 
o sages, graciously receives the man (who addresses you). 3. Ye who by 
sacrifice caused the sun to ascend the sky ; and spread out our mother 
earth," etc. 

This is succeeded by the following verses : . 

x. 62, 4. Ayarn Ndbhd vadati valguvo grihe deva-putrdh rishayas tat 
srinotana . . . | 5. Virupdsah id rishayas te id gambhira-vepa&ah \ Angi- 
rasah sunavas te Agneh parijajnire \ 

"This Nabhan addresses you, brilliant beings, within the house. 
Hear this, ye rishis, sons of the gods. ... 5. The Yirupas are rishis, 
profound in emotion ; they are the sons of Angiras ; they have been 
born from Agni." 

(The fifth verse is quoted in the Kirukta, xi. 17. See Roth's illus- 
trations of the passage.) 23 

2. Vasishtha. A supernatural character is attributed to Vasishtha 
also in the following passage (which has been already quoted and 
illustrated in Vol. I. pp. 318 ff.). 

vii. 33, 7 ff. Trayah Icrinvanti Ihuvanasya retas tisrah prajdh drydh 

jyotir-agrdh \ trayo gharmdsah ushasam sachante sarvdn it tan ami vidur 

Vasishthdh \ 8. Suryasyeva vajcshatho jyotir eshdm samudrasyeva mahimd 

galhlrah \ vdtasyeva prajavo na anyena stomo Vasishthdh anu etave vah \ 

23 The next verse (which, with the sequel, is quoted in my article " On the relations 
of the priests to the other classes of Indian society in the Vedic age," Journ. Roy. As. 
Soc. for 1866, p. 276) is as follows : 6. Te Agneh pan jgjnire Virupaso divas pari \ 
Navugvo nu Dasagvo Angirastamah sacha deveshu mamkatd \ "The Virupas who were 
produced from Agni, froift Dyaus, the Navagva, the Das'agva, who is a most eminent 
Angiras, lavishes gifts along jvith the gos." Here the Virupas would seem rather 
to be princes than rishis : and the same is the case in the following passage also : 
iii. 53, 6. Ime bhojah Angiraso Virupah divas putraso asurasya vlrah \ Visvcimitraya 
dadato maghani sahasrasave pro, tiranta ayuh \ "These liberal Virupas of the race of 
Angiras, heroic sons of the divine Dyaus (the sky), bestowing gifts on Vis'vamitra at 
the ceremony with a thousand libations, have prolonged their lives." (See Vol. I. 
p. 341 f.) 



9. Te id ninyam hridayasya praketaih sahasra-valsam ablii sancharanti \ 
yamlna tatam paridhim vayantah apsarasah upa sedur Vasishthdh \ 10. 
Vidyuto jyotih parisanjihdnam Mitrd-Varund yad apaiyatdm tvd \ tat te 

janma uta^ekam Vasishtha Agastyo yat tvd visah djabhdra \ 11. Utdsi 
Maitrdvaruno Va&ishtha Urvaiydh brahman manaso 'dhi jdtah \ drapsam 
sJcannam brahmcfid daivyena visve devdh pushlcare ivy adadanta \ 12. Sa 

praketah ubhayasys, pravidvdn, sahast'a-ddnah uta vd saddnah \ yamena 
tatam yaridhim v^ishyan apearasah parijajne Vasishthah \ 13. Satre ha 

jdtdv isKitd namolhih jumbhe retail sisichituh samdnam \ tato ha Mdnah 
udiydya madhydt tatojdtam rishim dhur Vasisht/iam \ 

"7. Three [gods] create the fecundating principle in (all) existences ; 

'[there exist] three excellent productions of which light is the first: 
three fires attend upon the dawn : all these the Vasishthas know. 8. 
The splendour of these [sages] is like the full glory of the sun ; their 
grandeur is profound as that of the ocean ; like the swiftness of the 
wind, your hymns, o Vasi-shthas, cannot be followed by any other 
bard. 9. Through the intuitions of their hearts they seek out the 
mystery with a thousand branches. "Weaving the envelopment ex- 
tended by Yama [Agni ? see E.V. i. 66, 4] the Vasishthas sat near the 
Apsaras. 10. When Mitra and Yaruna saw thee quitting the gleam of 
the lightning, that was thy birth, Yasishtha, and [thou hadst] one 
[other], when Agastya brought thee to the people. 11. And, Yasish- 
tha, thou art the son of Mitra and Yaruna, born, o priest, from the 
mind of TTrvasI ; all the gods placed thee the drop fallen through 
divine contemplation in the vessel. 12. He the wise, knowing both 
[worlds ?], with a thousand gifts, or with gifts, Yasishtha, being about 
to weave the envelopment extended by Yama, was produced from the 
Apsaras. 13. Born at the sacrifice, and impelled by adorations, they 
[Mitra and Yaruna] let the same equal procreative energy fall into the 
jar; from the midst of this Mana (Agastya) issued forth; from this 
men say the rishi Yagishtha was produced." 

Two of .these verbfes, are quoted in the Nirukta, verse 8, in xi.- 20, 
and verse 11, in v. 14. See also^ Prof. Roth's Illustrations of that 
work, p. 64, where he states his opinion that the foregoing verses 
which describe the miraculous birth of Yasishtha in the style of the 
epic mythology, are a later addition to an older hymn. See the note 
in p. 321 of the First Volume of this work. 



The two following passages also have reference to knowledge super- 
naturally communicated, or f favours divinely conferred on Yasishtha. 
See Vol. I. p. 325 S. 

vii. 87, 4. Uvdcha me Varuno medhirdya tvih sapta ndrya aghnyd 
bibhartti \ vidvdn padasya guhyd na vochad yugdya viprah upardya 
Sikshan \ fl < ; 

"Yaruna said to me, the intelligent, 'the cow,. has thrice seven 
names.' The wise [god], though he know* them, Ijab not declared the 
mysteries of the word, which he desires to reveal Co a later generation." 

vii. 88, 4. Vasishthdm ha Paruno'ndvi d adhdd rishim chakdra svapdh 
mahobhih \ stotdram viprah sudinatve ahndm ydd nu dydvas tatanan ydd 
ushasah \ , l 

" Varuna took Yasishtha into the boat ; by his' mighty acts, working 
skilfully he (Yaruna) has made him a rishi ; the wise (god) has made 
him to utter praises in an auspicious time, that his days and dawns 
may be prolonged." (See Yol. I. p. 325 f.', and compare E.Y. x. 101, 
2, and x. 116, 9, in pp. 234 and 240, above.) 

3. Visvdmitra. In one or more of the texts which I shall next 
produce, a superhuman character is ascribed to Yisvamitra, if not to 
the Kusikas. 

iii. 29, 15. Amitrdyudho marutdm iva praydh prathamajah brahmano 
visvam id viduh \ dyumnavad brahma JZusikdsah erire ekah eko dame 
Agniih samldhire \ 

" Combating their foes, like hosts of Maruts, (the sages) the first- 
born of prayer are masters of all knowlege ; the Kusikas have uttered 
an enthusiastic prayer; each of them has kindled Agni in his house." 
(See Yol. I. p. 347.) 

iii. 43, 5. Kuvid md gopdm karase janasya kuvid rdjdnam Maghavann 
rijlshan \ kuvid ma rishim papwdmsam sutasya kuvid me vasvah amri- 
tasya sikshah \ 

11 Dost thou not make me a shepherd of the people ? dost thou not 
make me a king, o impetuous Maghavan? dost 'thou not rpake me a 
rishi, a drinker of the soma ? wilt ^,hou not bestow upon me imperish- 
able wealth ? " (See Yol'. I. p. 344.) 

iii. 53, 9. Mdhan rishir devajdh devajutah astalhndt sindhum arnavam 
nricltakshdh \ Visvdmitro yad avahat Suddsam a/priydyata Kusikebhir 
Indrah [ 


great rishi (Visvamitra), leader of men, god-born, god-im- 
pelled, stemmed the watery current. "When Visvamitra conducted 
Sudas, Indra was propitiated through the Kusikas." (See Vol. I. 
pp. 342. Indra himselfis called a Kausika in E.V. i. 10, 11. See 
Vol. I. p. 347.) 

According to*Jx. 87, 3, of which. Usanas is the traditional rishi, 
certain mysterious iknowledge is said to have been possessed by that 
personage: . 

Rishir viprah pura-^td jandndm ribhur dhirah Usand kdvyena \ sa 
chid viveda nihitam yad dsdm aplchydm guhyam ndma gondm \ 

" A wise rishi, a leader of men, skilful, and prudent, is Usanas, 
t"hrough his insight as*a seer; he has known the hidden mysterious 
name applied to these cows." 

Again in ix. 97, 7, it is said : Pro, kdvyam Usaneva Iruvdno devo 
devdndm janimd vivalcti \ 

11 Uttering, like Usanas, the wisdom of a sage, the god (Soma) de- 
clares the births of the gods." 

In a hymn of the tenth Mandala, the rishis are spoken of as 
"seeing" the objects of their contemplation in a way which seems to 
imply a supernatural insight (see above, pp. 116, 118, 125 ff.) ; in this 
hymn, x. 72, 1, 2, it is said : 

Devdndm nu vayam jdnd pravochdma vipanyayd \ uktheshu sasyamd- 
neshu yah pasydd uttare yuge \ Brahmanaspatir eta. sam Jcarmdrah iva 
adhamat \ devdndm purvye yuge asatah sad ajdyata \ 

"Let us, from the love of praise, celebrate in recited hymns the 
births of the gods, any one of us who in this later age may see 
them. Brahmanaspati has kindled these births, as a blacksmith [blows 
a flame] : in the earliest age of the gods, the existent sprang from the 
non-existent." 24 (See Vol. I. p. 46.) 

Another not less decided instance of this usa of the verb to see, in 
the sense of supernatural insight, may be found in the verse of the 
Valakhilya already quo4e*d in ,Vol. II. p. 220, which will be ciled 
below. See also x. 130, 6, which will be quoted further on. 

The next two passages speak of the radiance of the rishis. 

viii. 3, 3 (=S.V. i. 250, and Vaj. S. 33, 81). Imdh u tvd puruvaso 

24 TJie first of these verses is translated by Prof. Beiifey in Ms Glossary to the 
Sama-veda, p. 154. , 


giro vardhantu yah mama \ pdvalca-varndh swhayo vipaschitah abhi sto- 
mair anushata \ 

" Lord of abundant wealth, may these prayers of mine magnify thee ! 
Pure sages of radiant appearance have celebrated thee with hymns.'' 

viii. 6, 10. Aham id hi pituh pari medhdm ritasya jagrabha \ aham 
suryah iva ajani \ 

"I have acquired knowledge 'of the Ceremonial 'irom [my] father; 
I have become like the sun." (Is Indra tl*e father .here referred to r) 

The following texts, which occur in the last' 'book of the Rig-veda, 
spea,k of tapas (" fervour " or "austerity") being practised by the 
rishis much in the same way as the later epic literature does. This use 
of the word is not known in the earlier books of ihe R.Y. (See Boeht- 
lingk and Roth's Lexicon, under the word tapas:} 

x. 109, 4. Devdh elasydm avadanta purve sapta rishayas tapase ye 
nisheduh \ 

l< The ancient gods spoke of her, the seven rishis who sat down for 
austere-fervour." (See my article " On the priests of the Yedic age " 
in the Journ. Roy. As. Soc. for 1866, p. 270.) 

x. 154, 2. Tapasd ye anddhrisyds tapasd ye svar yayuh \ tapo ye cha- 
krire mahas tdms chid eva api gachchatdt \ 5. Sahasra-nlthdfy kavayo ye 
gopdyanti suryam rishlms tapasvato Yama tapojdn api gachhatdt \ 

" Let him (the deceased) go to those who through austere-fervour 
are invincible, who by austere-fervour have gone to heaven, who have 
performed great austerity. 5. Let him go, Yama, to the sages of a 
thousand songs who guard the sun (see Wilson, Vish. Pur. vol. ii. 
pp. 284 ff.), to the devout rishis, born from fervour." (See my article 
" On Yama " in the Journ. Roy. As. Soc.) 

x. 190, 1. Ritam cha satyam cha abhzddhdt tapaso adhyajdyata \ tato 
rdtrl ajdyata tatah samudrah arnavah \ 

"Right and truth r sprang from kindled austerity; thence sprang 
night, thence the watery ocean." 

In x. 16 7-, 1, it is even said that Indr r a attaiped heaven b,y austerity : 

Tvaiti tapah paritapya ajayah svah \ 

"By performing austerity thou didst conquer heaven." 

In some places the gods are said to possess in the most eminent 
degree the qualities of rishis, or Icavis. This may possibly imply, e con- 
verso, that the rishis were conscious of a certain affinity with the divine 



nature, and conceived themselves to participate in some degree in the 
superior wisdom and knowledge of the defies. 

E.V. i. 31, 1. TV am Agne prat'namo Angirdh rishir devo devdndm alha- 
vah sivah ^a/chd ityadi | 2. Tvam Agne prathamo Angirastamah kavir 
devdndm paribhushasi vratam \ 

"1. Thou, Agi, the earliest rishi Angiras, a god, hast been the au- 
spicious friend of the gods. . , . . 2.^Thou, Agni, the earliest and most 
Angiras-like sage* a,dministei H est the ceremonial of the gods." 

i. 66,^2. . . . Rishtf na stubhvd vikshu prasastah ityadi \ 

" Like a rishi, who praises [the gods], he (Agni) is famous among 
the people," etc. 

iii. 21, 3. . . . Rishfy sreshthah samidhyase yajnasya pra avitd bhava \ 

"Thou, Agni, the most eminent rishi, art kindled; be the protector 
of the sacrifice." 

v. 29, 1. . . . Archantitvd marutah puta-dak^fis tvam eshdm rishir 
Indra asi dhlrah \ 

" The Maruts, endowed with pure dispositions, worship thee; thou, 
Indra, art their wise rishi." (Sayana, however, here renders rishi by 
drashtu, ' ' beholder. ' ' ) 

vi. 14, 2. Agnir id hi prachetdh Agnir vedhastamah rishi h \ 

"Agni is wise; Agni is a most sage rishi." 

viii. 6, 41. Rishir hi purvaja asi ekah Isanah oj'asd \ Indra cJwsh- 
kuyase vasu \ 

" Thou art an anciently -born risht, who alone rulest by thy might ; 
Indra thou lavishest riches." 

viii. 16, 7. Indro brahmd Ind)*ah rishir Indrah puru puru-hutah \ 
mahdn mahllhih sachllhih \ , 

" Indra is a priest, Indra is a rishi, Indra is much invoked ; he is 
great through his great powers." 

ix. 96, 18 (= S.V. ii. 526). Rishi-mand yah ri$hi-krit svarshdh sahas- 
ranlthah padamh kavindm \ 

"Soma, ^ishi-minded^ishi-mflTcer, bestower of good, master of a tHou- 
sand songs, the leader of sages," etc> 

ix. 107, 7. . . . Rishir vipro vichakshanah \ tvam kavir abhavo deva- 
vltamah ityadi \ 

"A rishi, a sage, intelligent, thou (Soma) wast a poet, most agreeable 
to the gods," etc. 


x. 27, 22. . . . Indrdya sunvad rishaye cha sikshat \ 

"... Let [men] present libatiSns to Indra, and offerings to the rishi" 

x. 112. 9. Ni shu sida ganapate ganeshu tvdm dhur vipratamam Tcavl- 
ntim | na rite tvat kriyate kinchana are mahdm tirkam Maghavajis chitram 
archa \ 

" Sit, lord of multitudes, amon our multitudes ; thc)y call thee the 
greatest of sages [or poets] ; noth'ing is "done witho-nt, or apart from, 
thee j sing, Maghavan, a great and beautiful hymn*"" 

x. 115, 5. Agnih kanvetamah kanva-salchd ity&di \ 

" Agni is the greatest of the Kanvas, the friend of Kanva," etc. 

II. The Yedic rishis, as we have seen, expected to receive from their 
gods every variety of temporal blessings, strength, long life, offspring, 
riches, cattle, rain, food, and victory, and they also looked for forgiveness 
of their offences, and sometimes for exaltation to paradise, to the same 
benefactors. Hence $ would be nothing more than we might have an- 
ticipated, if we should further find them asking their different deities to 
enlighten their minds, to direct their ceremonies, to stimulate their devo- 
tion, to augment their powers of poetical expression, and to inspire them 
with religious fervour for the composition of their hymns. I think the 
following passages will justify this expectation by showing that the rishis 
(though, as we have seen, they frequently speak of the hymns as their 
own work) did also sometimes entertain the idea that their prayers, 
praises, and ceremonies generally, were supernaturally suggested and 
directed. One of the modes (if not the most important) in which this 
idea is expressed is, as we shall discover, the personification of speech 
under different appellations. The following are the passages to which 
I refer : they are r 

First, such as refer to the gods generally : 

E.Y. i. 37, 4. Pravah sardhaya ghrishvaye tvesha-dyumndya sushmine \ 
brahma devattam gdyata \ 

" To your vigorous, overpowering, energetic, host [of Maruts] sing 
the god-given prayer." 

S.Y. i. 299. Tvashtd no daivyafa vacliah Parjanyo Brahmanaspatih \ 
putrair Ihratrilhir Aditir nu putu no dushtaram trdmanam vachah \ 

" May Tvashtri, Parjanya, and Brahmanaspati [prosper] our divine 
utterance : may Aditi with her [?] sons and brothers prosper our in- 
vincible and protective utterance." 


Jn the next passage, the hymn or prayer is spoken of as inconceivable. 

K.Y. i. 152, 5t Ackittam brahma jujushur yuvdnah ityddi \ 

"The youths received with joy the incomprehensible prayer," etc. 

In R.Y x. 20, 10, Yimada, a rishi, is connected with the immortals : 

Agne Vimado manlshdm iyrjonapdd amritebhih sajoshdh girah dvakshat 
sumatlr iydnah*ityddi \ 

" Agni, son* of strength, Yimada, united with the immortals, 
hastening, has brought to thee a product of thought, and beautiful 

In the two following texts the gods are said to have generated the 
hymn or prayer : 

x. 61, 7. ... Svdcfttgo ajanayan brahma devdh Vdstoshpatim vratapdm 
niratakshan \ 

11 The thoughtful gods generated prayer : they fashioned Yastoshpati 
the protector of sacred rites." 

x. 88, 8. Sukta-vdlcam prathamam dd id Agnim dd -id havir ajana- 
yanta devdh \ sa esMm yajno abhavat tanupdh tarn dyaur veda tarn pri- 
thivl tarn dpah \ 

"The gods first generated the hymn, then Agni, then the oblation. 
He was their sacrifice, the protector of their life. Him the Sky, the 
Earth, and the "Waters know." 

In the latter of the two following verses, Vach (speech) is said to be 
divine, and to have been generated, by the gods. Though speech is here 
spoken of generally, and nothing is said of the hymns, still these may 
have already come to be connected with her in the minds of the Yedic 
bards, as they were afterwards regarded as her most solemn and im- 
portant expression. . 

E.Y. viii. 89, 10. Yad vdg vadantl avichetandni rdsJitri devdndm nisha- 
sdda mandrd \ chatasrah urj'am duduhe paydmsi leva svid asydh paramam 
jaguma \ 11. Devim vacham ajanayanta devdstdm visvarupdh pasavo 

vadanti \ sd no mandrd isham urjam duhdnd dhenur vdg asmdn upa 

sushtutd a?etu \ , 

" When Yach, speaking unintell?gible things, queen of the gods, sat 
down, melodious, she milked^ forth sustenance and waters towards the 
four quarters : whither has her highest element departed ? The gods 
generated the divine Yach ; animals of all kinds utter her ; may this 
melodious cow Yach, who yields us nourishin^nt and sustenance, ap- 
proach us, when we celebrate her praises. 


The last verse (as well as R.V. viii. 90, 16, which will be quoted 
below), derives some illustration from the following passage of the 
Brihad Aranyaka TJpanishad, p. 982 (p. 251 English transl.), in which 
also Yach is designated as a cow : *. 

Vacham dhenum updslta \ tasyds chalvdrah standh svdhd-kdro vashat- 
kdro hanta-Icdrah svtidhd-kdrah \ lasydh dvau stanau devdh upajlvanti 
svdhd-kdram cha vashat-kdram cha hanta-ktiram manushydh svadhd-kdram 
pitarah \ tasydh prdnah rishabho >mano vatsah \ ' 

"Let a man worship the cow Yach. She has four udders, the for- 
mulae svdhd, vashat, hanta, and svadhd. The gods live upon her two 
udders, svdhd and vashat ; men upon hanta ; and the fathers upon 
svadhd. Breath is her bull ; the mind, her calf/-' 

The two verses, E.Y. viii. 89, 10, and 11, occur in the Nirukta, xi. 
28, 29. Roth (in his Illustrations of that work), p. 152, says the un- 
intelligible utterance of Yach in verse 10, means thunder. "Whether 
this be the case, or not, the word appears to have a more general signi- 
fication in the next verse, and to refer to speech in general, personified 
as a divine being. The speech which all the animals utter cannot of 
course be thunder. 

In some of the preceding verses of this hymn there is a curious refer- 
ence made to some sceptical doubts regarding the existence of Indra ; 
which I quote here, though unconnected with the present subject. 

R.Y. viii. 89, 3, 4. Pra su stomam bharata vdjayantam Indruya sat- 
yam yadi satyam asti \ na Indro asti iti nemah u tvah aha leak im da- 
darsa ham ablii stavdma \ Ayam asmi jaritah pasya md ilia visvd jdtdni 
abhi asmi mahnd \ ritasya md pradiso varddhayanti ddardiro Ihuvand 
dardarlmi \ , 

" Present to Tndra a hymn soliciting food, a true [hymn] if he truly 
exists. ' Indra does not exist,' says some one : ' who has seen him ? 
whom shall we praise ? ' ' I am here, worshipper ' [answers Indra] ; 
' behold me, I surpass all creatures in greatness : the directors of the 
sacrifice augment me; crushing, I destroy the worlds.' " 

Second : the next set of passagei which I shall bring forward either 
refer to Sarasvati, Yach, etc. (various names of the goddess of speech, 
or different personifications of speech, or of prater), or at least speak 
of prayer as divine. 

H.Y. i. 3, 11, 12. Chqdc.yitri sunritdndm chetantl sumatindm \ yaj- 
nam dadhe Sarasvati | . . . . dhiyo visvd virdjati \ 



^ SarasvatI, who furthers our hymns, and who is cognizant of our 
prayers, has sustained our sacrifice She enlightens all intellects." 

i. 22, 10. A gndh Agne iha avase Hbtrtim yavishtha JBhdratlm \ Varu- 
trlm Dhiskandm vaha \ ' 

"Bring here, youthful -^gni, to our help, the wives [of the gods], 
Hotra, BharatI,*Varutri, and Dhishaga." 

( Par&tri, " the, eligible," may be merely an epithet of Lhishana 
which,* according *t Sayana, at least/ is = vdg-devl, "the goddess of 
speech." ) 

i. 31, 11. Hum akrinvan manusficfsya Sdsanlm *tyddi \ 

" The gods made Ila to be the instructress of men." (See Professor 
Wilson's note on this passage, p. 82 of his translation of the E.Y. vol. i.) 

ii. 3, 8. SarasvatI sddhayanti dhiyam nah lid devi Bhdratl visvaturt- 
tih | Tisro devlh svadhayd larhir edam achhidram pdntu iaranam ni- 
shadt/a \ 

" May SarasvatI, perfecting our hymn, may the divine Ila, and the 
all-pervading BharatI j may these three goddesses, seated on the place 
of sacrifice, preserve by their power the sacrificial grass uninjured." 
(See Prof. Miiller's translation of part of the verse in the Journ. Roy. 
As. Soc. for 1867, vol. iii. p. 224.) 

iii. 18, 3 Ydvad Ise Irahmand vandamdnah imam dhiyam &ata- 

seydya devlm \ 

" Worshipping thee with a prayer according to the best of my power, 
in this divine hymn, to obtain unbounded wealth." 

iv. 43, 1. Ka u sravat Jcatamo yajniydndm vanddru devah katamo 
jushdte | Jcasya imam devlm amritesJiu preshthdm hridi sreshydma sush- 
tutim suhavydm \ 

" Who will hear us ? which of all the objects of adoration ? which 
of all the gods will be gratified by our praises ? In the heart of whom 
among the immortals can we lodge this our divine and dearest hymn 
of praise and invocation ? " 

vii. 34, 1. Pro, suJcrS, etu devi mariishd asmat sutashto ratho na vdfi \ 

"May prayer, brilliant and divide, proceed from us, like a well- 
fabricated chariot drawn by steeds." 

vii. 34, 9. Abhi vo devlm dfiii/am 25 dadidhvam pro, vo devatrti vdcham 
krinudhvam \ 

25 Compare the same phrase dhiyam devlm in A.V. jii. 15, 3, and flalvya vacha in 
A.V. viii. 1, 3. 


" Receive towards you the divine hymn ; proclaim the song for your- 
selves among the gods." i 

viii. 27, 13. Devam devam huvema vcijasdtaye grinanto devyd dhiyd \ 

" Let us invoke each of the gods to bestow riches, praising, them with 
a divine hymn." 

viii. 90, 16. Vacho-vidam vdchqm udlrayantlm visvdlhir dhllhir upa- 
tishthamdndm \ devlm devebhyah pari eymhlm gum d ma avrikta marttyo 
dalhrachetdh \ 

" Let not any mortal of little intelligence do Violence to the c.ow, the 
divine Yach, who is skilled in praise, who utters her voice aloud, who 
arrives with all the hymns, and who has come from the gods." 

ix. 33, 5. Abhi brahmlr anushata yahvlr ritasya mdtaro marmrijyante 
divah sisum \ 

" The great and sacred mothers of the sacrifice have uttered praise : 
they decorate the child of the sky." 

x. 71, 1. Brihaspate prathamam vdcho agraih yat prairata ndmadhe- 
yam dadhdndh \ yad eshdm sreshtham yad aripram dslt prend tad eshdm 
nihitam guha dvih \ 2. Saktum iva titaund punanto yatra dhlrdh manasd 
vdcham akrata \ atra salchdyah sakhydni jdnate bhadrd eshdm lakshmlr 
nthitd adhi vdchi \ 3. Yajnena vdchah padavlyam dyan tdm anvavindann 
ri&hishu pravishtdm \ tdm dbhritya vyadadhuh purutrd tdm sapta relhdh 
abhi sannavante \ 4. Uta tvah pasyan na dadarsa vdcliam uta tvahsrinvan 
na srinoti endm \ uto tvasmai tanvam visasre jdyeva patye usatl suvdsdh \ 
5. Uta tvam sakJiye sthirapltam dhur nainam hinvanty api vdjineshu \ 
adhenvd charati mdyayd esha vdcham susruvdn aphaldm apushpdm \ 6. 
Yas titydja sachi-vidam sakhdyam na tasya vdchi api Ihdgo asti \ yad im 
srinoti alakaih srinoti na hi praveda sukritasya panthdm \ 

" 1. When, o Brihaspati, men sent forth the first and earliest utter- 
ance of Yach (speech), giving a name (to things), then all which was 
treasured within then?, the most excellent and spotless, was disclosed 
through love. 2. "Wherever the wise, cleansing, as it were, meal with 
a sieve, have uttered speech with intelligence) there friends recognize 
[theirl friendly acts ; an auspicious fortune is impressed upon their 
speech. 3. Through sacrifice they followed the track of Yach, and 
found her entered into the rishis : 26 taking, theyklivided her into many 
portions : her the seven poets celebrate. 4. One man, seeing, sees not 

26 See the use made by S'ankara of this text, above, p. 105. 


another, hearing, hears her not; to another she discloses her 

I * 

form, as an elegantly attired and loving wife displays her person to her 
husband. 5. They say that one man has a sure defence in [her] friend- 
ship ; men'cannot overwhelm him even in the conflicts (of discussion) ; 
but that man consorts with* an unprofitable delusjon who has [only] 
heard, speech [Vach] which is to hinf] without fruit or flower. 6. He 
who has abandoned/his discerning friend, has no portion in Vach ; what- 
ever he hears he hears iji vain ; he knows not the path of virtue." 

The second, fourth, and fifth versee of this obsSure hymn are quoted 
in the Nirukta, iv. 10 ; i. 19, 20 ; and are explained in Professor Roth's 
Illustrations. Verses % and 4 are also quoted and interpreted in the 
Mahabhashya ; see pp.. 30 and 31 of Dr. Ballantyne's edition. The 
verse which is of most importance for my present purpose, is, however, 
the third, which speaks of Vach having " entered into the rishis." See 
the First Volume of this work, pp. 254 f. The idea of Vach being 
divided into many portions will be found again below in R.V. x. 125, 3. 

x. 110, 8 (=Vaj. S. 29, 33). A no yajnam Bhdratl tuyam etu Ila 
manushvad ika chetayantl \ tisro devlr barhir a idam syonam Sarasvatl 
svapasah sadantu \ 

"Let Bharat! come quickly here to our sacrifice, with Ila, who in- 
structs us like Manush [or like a man], and with Sarasvatl : let these 
three goddesses, skilful in rites, sit down upon this beautiful sacrificial 

x. 125, 3. Aham rdshtrl sangamanl vasundm chilcitushl prathamd 
yajniydndm \ tarn ma devd vyadadhuh purutrd Ihuristhdtrdm bhuri 
dvesayantlm \ 4. Maya so annam atti yo vipasyati yah prdniti ya 1m 
srinoti uktam \ amantavo mum te upa hshiyanti srudhi sruta sraddhivam 
te vaddmi \ 5. Aham eva svayam idam vaddmi jushtam devebhir uta md- 
nushebhih \ yam kdmaye tarn tarn ugram knnomi tarn brahmunam tarn 
rishim tarn sumedhdm \ 

" 3. I am the queen, ihe^ centre of riches, intelligent, the first of ttie 

"* * 4 

objects of adoration : the gods have separated me into many portions, 
have assigned me many abodes, and made me widely pervading. 4. He 
who has insight, he who lives, he who hears [my] sayings, eats food 
through me. These mSn dwell in my vicinity, devoid of understand- 
ing. Listen, thou who art learned, I declare to thee what is? worthy of 
belief. 5. It is even I myself who make known this which is agreeable 



both to gods and men. Him whom I love I make terrible, [I make] 
him a priest, [I make] him a rishi, [I make] him intelligent." *" 

x. 176, 2. Pro, devam devyd dhiyd lharata Jdtavedasam havyd no 
vakshad dnushak \ 

"By divine praygr bring hither Jataveaas : may he present our ob- 

if- ^ 

lations in order." 

x. 177, 1. Patangam aktam asurasya may ay a hridd pasyanti manasd 
vipaschitah \ samudre t antah Jcavayo vichalcsfyflte marlchlndm padam 
ichhanti vedhasah \ 2'. Patango vdcham manasd bibhartti turn Grandharvo 
avadad garbhe antah \ tdm dyotamdndm svaryam mamshdm ritasya pade 
kavayo nipdnti \ 

" 1. Sages behold with the heart and mind the Bird illuminated by the 
wisdom of the Asura : the wise perceive him in the (aerial) ocean : the 
intelligent seek after the abode of his rays. 2. The Bird cherishes 
speech with his mind : the Gandharva huth uttered her in the womb : 
the bards preserve in the place of sacred rites this shining and celestial 
intellect." (See also x. 189, 3, vdk patangdya dhlyate.) 

Third : I shall now adduce the passages in which other Yedic deities, 
whether singly or in concert, are spoken of as concerned in the pro- 
duction of the hymns : 

Aditi. In K.V. viii. 12, 14, Aditi is mentioned as fulfilling this 
function : 

Yad uta svardje Aditih stomam Indrdya jljanat puru-prasastam utaye 
ityddi \ 

" When Aditi generated for the self-resplendent Indra a hymn abound- 
ing in praises, to supplicate succour," etc. 

Agni. R.Y. i. 18, 6, 7. Sadasaspatim adlhutam priyam Indrasya 
kdmyam \ sanim medhdm aydsisham \ yasmdd rite na siddhyati yajno 
vipaschitas chana \ sa dhlndm yogam invati \ 

" 6. I have resorted, for wisdom, to Sadasaspati (Agni), the wonder- 
ful, the dear, the beloved of Indra, the beneficent ; (7) without whom 

27 This passage, which is commonty understood of Vach, occurs also in the Atharva- 
veda, iv. 30 , 2 ff., but with some various readings, as avesayantah for avesayanfim, 
and iraddheyam for sraddhivam, etc. The 'hymn is translated by Mr. Colebrooke, 
Ess. i. 32, or p. 16 of Williams and Norgate's edition. Professor Whitney, as I learn 
from a private communication with which he has favoured me, is of opinion that 
there is notning in the language of the hymn which is specially appropriate to Vach, 
so as to justify the ascription of it to her as the supposed utterer. 



the.sacrifice of the wise does not succeed : he promotes the course of 
our hymns." * 

iv. 5, 3. Sdma dvi-larhdh maJii tigma-lhrishtih sahasra-retdh vrishabhas 
tuvishmdn 4 padam na got apagulham vivid/van Agnir mahyam pro, id u 
voehad manlshdm \ 6. Idam me Agne Jciyate pdvaka aminate gurutn bhd- 
ram na manma \ *Brihad dadhdtha dhriehatd galhlrafh yahvam prishtham 
prayasd saptadhdtu t \ 

" Agni occupying two positions, tlie fierce-flaming, the infinitely 
prolific, ,the vigorous, tAe powerful, who knows tjie great hymn, mys- 
terious as the track of a [missing] cow, has declared to jne the know- 
ledge [of it]. 6. To me who am feeble, though innoxious, thou, o Agni, 
the luminous, hast givea, as a heavy load, this great, profound, and ex- 
tensive Prishtha hymn, of seven elements, with efficacious oblations." 

iv. 6, 1. Tvam hi visvam abhi a&i manma pra vedhasai chit tirasi 
manlshdm \ 

" Thou presidest over all thoughts [or prayers] ; thou augmentest the 
intelligence of the sage." 

iv. 11, 3. Tvad Agne Tcdvyd tvad manlshds tvad ulcthd jdyante 
rddhydni \ 

"From thee, Agni, are generated poetic thoughts; from thee the 
products of the mind ; from thee effective hymns." 
x. 21, 5. Agnir jdto Atharvand vidad visvdni Jcqvyd \ 
"Agni, generated by Atharvan, is acquainted with all wisdom." 

x. 91, 8 Medhdltdram vidathasya prasddhanam Agnim ityddi \ 

"Agni, the giver of understanding, the accomplisher of sacrifice." 
x. 4, 5. Yad vo vayam pramindmo vratani vidushdm devdh avidusta- 
rdsah \ Agnis tad visvam dprindti mdvan*yebhir devdn ritubhih kalpa- 
ydti | Yat pdlcatru manasd ddna-dakshdh na yajnasya manvate martyd- 
sah | Agnis tad hotd Icratuvid vijdnan yajishtho devdn rituso yajdti \ 

" When, o [ye] gods, we, the most unwise among the wise, transgress 
the ordinances of your worship, the wise Agni completes them all^at 
the stated seasons which-Ee assigns to the gods. ^When men, devoted 
to sacrifice, do not, from their ignorance, fightly comprehend the mode 
of worship, Agni, the skilful sacrificer, and most eminent of priests, 
knowing the ceremonial, worships the gqds at the proper seasons." 

(As rites and hymns were closely united in the practice of^ the early 
Indians, the latter finding their application at*tke former; if Agni was 


supposed to be the director of the one, viz., the oblations, he might eerily 
come to be also regarded as aiding in the production of the other the 
hymns. Verse 4 occurs also in the A.V. xix. 59, 1, 2, where, however, 
dprindtu is read instead of dprindti, and in place of the words yebhir 
devdn, etc., at the close of the verse, we have, somas cha yo brdhmandn 
d vivesa I "and Soma, who entered into the priests.") 

Brahmanaspati. R.V. i. 40, 5, 6. Pro, nunam Bmhmanaspatir man- 
tram vadati ulcthyam \ yasminK Indro Varuno Mitrah Aryamd devdh 
okdrnsi chakrire \ Tarn, ici vochema vidatheshu sambhuvam mantram devdh 
anehasam ityddi \ 

" Brahmanaspati (abiding in the worshipper's mouth, according to 
the scholiast) utters the hymn accompanied with praise, in which the 
gods, Indra, Varuna, Mitra, and Aryaman, have made their abode. Let 
us utter, gods, at sacrifices, that spotless hymn, conferring felicity." 
(Roth in his Lexicon considers okas to mean "good pleasure," " satis- 
faction." See also his Essay on Brahma and the Brahmans, Journal of 
the Germ. Or. Soc. i. 74.) 

Brihaspati. R.V. ii. 23, 2. Usrdh iva suryo jyotisM maho visvesham 
ij janitd brahmandm asi \ 

" As the sun by his lustre instantly generates rays, so art thou (Bri- 
haspati) the generator of all prayers." 

x. 36, 5. A Indro barhih sidatu pinvatdm lid Brihaspatih sdmabhir 
rikvo archatu \ 

11 Let Indra sit upon the sacred grass ; let Ila abound in her gifts ; 
let the bard Brihaspati offer praise with hymns." 

Gandharva. According to Professor Roth (see under the word in his 
Lexicon) the Gandharva is 'represented in the Veda as a deity who 
knows and reveals the secrets of heaven, and divine truths in general ; 
in proof of which he quotes the following texts : 

R.V. x. 139, 5. Visvdvasur abhi tad no grindtu divyo Gandharvo 
rajaso vimdnah \ Yad vd ghd satyam uta yad na vidma dhiyo hinvdno 
dliiyah id, nah avydh 

" May the celestial Gandharva Visvavasu, who is the measurer of 
the atmosphere, declare to us that which is true, or which we know 
not. May he stimulate our hymns, and may he prosper our hymns. 

A.V. ii. 1, 2. Pra tad voched amritasya vidvdn Gandharvo dhdma^para- 
mam guild yat \ 


"May the Gandharva, who knows the (secret of) immortality, de- 
clare to us that supreme and mysterious abotle." 

Indra. R.V. iii. 54, 17. Mahat tad vah kavayas chdru ndma, yad ha 
devdh lhavaiha visve Indre \ sakhd Ribhulhih puruhuta priyebhir imam 
dhiyam sdtaye takshata nali \ 

" Great, o sage deities, is that cherished distinction of yours, that 
ye are all associated with Indra. Do thou, much invoked (Indra), our 
friend, with the beloved Eibhus, fabricate (or dispose) this hymn for 
our welfare." (This may merely mean that Indra, was asked to give a 
favourable issue to the prayer of the worshipper, not to compose his 
hymn for him. See Roth's. Lexicon, under the word tafoh, 3.) 

vi. 62, 3. Tvam ]cavim"chodayah arkasdtdv ityddi \ 

" Thou (Indra) didst stimulate the poet in the composition of his 
hymns," etc. (Sayana renders arkasdtau, "for the sake of finding 

vi. 18, 15. Erishva Jcritno akritam yat te asti uktham navlyo jana- 
yasva yajnaih \ 

" Energetic (Indra), do what thou hast never yet done ; generate a 
new hymn with the sacrifices." 

vi. 34, 1. Sam cha tve jagmur girah Indra purvir vi cha tvad yanti 
vtbhvo manlshdh \ 

" Many hymns are congregated in thee, o Indra^ and numerous pro- 
ducts of the mind issue from thee." (This half-verse has been already 
quoted in p. 227.) 

vi. 47, 10. Indra mrila mahyam jwdtum ichcha cliodaya dhiyam ayaso 
na dhardm \ Yat Mncha aham tvdyur idam vaddmi taj jushasva kridhi md 
devavantam \ 

" Indra, gladden me, decree life for me, sharpen my intellect like 
the edge of an iron instrument. "Whatever I, longing for thee, now 
utter, do thou accept ; give me divine protection.'* (Compare with the 
word chodaya the use of ,,the word prachodaydt in the Gayatrl, R. V. iy. 
62, 10, whic3 will be given below.) 

vii. 97, 3. Tarn u namasd Jiavirlhih susevajn Brdhmanaspatim grinlshe \ 
Indram sloko maJii daivyah sishqjctu yo Irahmano devakritasya rdjd \ 5. 
Tarn d no arkam amritdya jushtam ime dhti&ur amritdsah purdjdh ityddi \ 

" 3*1 invoke with reverence and with offerings the benefi^nt Brah- 
manaspati. Let a great and divine song celebrate Indra, who is king 


of the prayer made by the gods. 5. May these ancient immortals make 
this our hymn acceptable to "the immortal," etc. 

viii. 13, 7. Pratna-vaj janaya girah srinudhi jaritur havam \ 

" As of old, generate hymns ; hear the invocation of thy worshipper." 

viii. 52, 4. Sa pratnathd kavi-vridhah Indro vdkasya vakshanih \ 

"Indra was of old the promoter of the poet, and the augmenter of 
the song." <- 

viii. 78, 6. Yaj jdyathd apurtiya Maghavan V'/ritfra-hatydya, \ 'tat pri- 
thivlm aprathayas tad ,isiabhndh. uta dydm \ 7. Tat te yajno ajuyata tad 
arJcali uta haslcritih \ tad vivam abhibhur asi yaj jdtam yach chajantvam \ 

" When, o unparalleled Maghavan, thou wast born to slay Vrittra, 
thou didst then spread out the earth (the brdad one) and sustain the 
sky : then thy sacrifice was produced, then the hymn, and the haskriti : 
(since) then thou surpassest everything that has been, or shall be, born." 

Here therefore the hymn is asserted to be as old as Indra ; though 
nothing more need be meant than that hymns then began to be pro- 
duced. The hymn in which this verse occurs is not necessarily meant. 

x. 112, 9. Ni shu sida ganapate ganeshu tvdm dhur vipratamam kavl- 
ndm | na rite tvat kriyate kinchana are mahdm arkam Maghavan chitram 
archa \ 

" Lord of assemblies, sit amid our multitudes ; they call thee the 
wisest of poets. Nothing is done without, or apart from thee ; sing, o 
Maghavan, a great and beautiful hymn." (Already quoted in p. 252.) 

Indra and Vishnu. R.V. vi. 69, 2. Yd visvdsdni janitdrd matlndm 
Indrd- Vishnu kalasd soma-dhdnd \ Pra vdm girah sasyamdndh avantu 
pra stomdso glyamdndsah arTcaih \ 

"Indra and Vishnu, ye wlio are the generators of all hymns, who 
are the vessels into which soma is poured, may the praises which are 
now recited gratify you, and the songs which are chaunted with en- 

Indra and Varuna. The following passage i not, properly speaking, 
a portion of the Rig^-veda, as it is part 'of one off the Yalakhilyas or apo- 
cryphal additions (described,- in Vol. II. p. 210), which are found in- 
serted between the 48th and 49th hymn? of the 8th Mandala. From its 
style, however, it appears to be nearly as old as some parts of the E.V. 

xi. 6. fydrdvarund yad rishilhyo manlshdiii vdcho tnatiiti &utam 
adattam agfe \ ydni stKdndny asrijanta dhlrdh yajnaiiii tanvdnds tapasd 
'bhyapasyam \ 


" Indra and Yaruna, I have seen through austere-fervour that which 

ye formerly gave to the rishis, wisdom, understanding of speech, sacred 

lore, and all the places which the sages created, when performing sacri- 
fice." (See Yol. II. p. 320.) 

The Maruts. R.Y. viii. 78, 3. Pra vah Indrdya Irihate Maruto Irah- 

ma archata I 

"Sing, Maruts, your hymn to the great Indra." (Compare verse 1, 
of the ^ame hymm, and the words brahmakritd Mdrutena ganena in 
iii. 32, 2.*) ", 

Pushan. R.Y. x. 26, 4. Mamslmahi tvd vayam'asmdkam deva Pushan 
matlndm cha sddhanam viprdndm cha ddhavayi \ ' 

'" We have called thee to mind, divine Pushan, the accomplisher of 
our hymns, and the stimulator of sages." (The first clause of this, how- 
ever, may merely mean that the god gives effect to the wishes expressed 
in the hymns. Compare vi. 56, 4 : Yad adya tvd purushtuta Iravdma 
dasra mantumah \ tat su no manma sddhaya \ " Accomplish for us the 
(objects of the) hymn, which we utter to thee to-day, o powerful and 
wise god." 

Savitri.R.'V. iii. 62 (= S.Y. ii. 812, and Yaj. S. iii. 35). Tat Sa- 
vitur varenyam lhargo devasya dhlmahi \ dhiyo yo nah prachodaydt \ 

" We have received that excellent glory of the divine Savitri ; may 
he stimulate our understandings [or hymns, or rites]." 

(This is the celebrated Gayatrl, the most sacred of all the texts in 
the Yeda. See Colebrooke's Misc. Ess. i. pp. 29, 30, 127, and 175; or 
pp. 14, 15, 78, and 109 of Williams and Norgate's ed. Benfey (S.Y. 
p. 277) translates the Gayatri thus: "May we receive the glorious 
brightness of this, the generator, of the god who shall prosper our 
works." On the root from which the word dhlmahi is derived, and its 
sense, see also Bohtlingk and Roth's Lexicon, s.vv. dhd and dhl ; and 
compare my article " On the Interpretation of the Yeda," Journ. Roy. 
As. Soc. p. 372. 

The Linga Purana (Tart II. sec. 48, 5 ff., Bombay lithographed ed.) 
gives the following "varieties" of, the Gayatri? adapted to modern 
S'aiva worship : 

Gdyatri-lheddh \ TatpuruShdya vidmahe vdg-visuddhdya dhlmahi \ 
Tan nah S'ivah prachodaydt \ Gandmbiktiyai vidmahe karma-siddhyai 
cha dhlmahi \ Tan no Gaurl prachodaydt \ Tatpurushdya vidmahe Mahd- 


devaya dhlmahi \ Tan no Rudrah prachodayut \ Tatpurushdya vidmahe 
Vaktratunduya dhlmahi \ Tan no Dantih prachodaydt \ Mahdsendya vid- 
mahe vdg-visuddhdya dhlmahi \ Tan nah Skandah prachodaydt \ Tllcshna- 
sringdya vidmahe Vedapdddya dhlmahi \ Tan no Vrishah p^achodaydd 
ityddi \ 


" 1 . We contemplate That Purusha, we meditate K hiir. who is pure in 
speech ; may That S'iva stimulate' us. 2, We contemplate Ganambika, 
and we meditate Karmasiddhi [the accomplishment of works); may 
That Gauri stimulate us. 3. We contemplatecThat Purusha, and we 
meditate Hahadeva ; may that Rudia stimulate us. 4. We contemplate 
That Purusha, and we meditate Vaktratunda (Ganesa) ; may That 
Danti (the elephant) stimulate us. 5. ^Ve ,con template Mahasena 
(Kartikeya, and we meditate him who is pure in speech; may That 
Skanda stimulate us. 6. We contemplate Tikshnasringa (the sharp- 
homed), and we meditate the Yeda-footed; may Yrisha (the bull) 
stimulate us." 

Soma. K.Y. vi. 47, 3. Ayam me pltah udiyartti vacham ayam manl- 
shum usatlm ajlgah \ 

"This [soma], when drunk, stimulates my speech [or hymn] ; this 
called forth the ardent thought." 

It may be said that this and the other following texts relating to 
Soma, should not be quoted as proofs that any idea of divine inspiration 
was entertained by th'e ancient Indian bards, as they can mean nothing 
more than that the rishis were sensible of a stimulating effect on their 
thoughts and powers of expression, produced by the exhilarating 
draughts of the juice of that plant in which they indulged. But the 
rishis had come to regard Soma as a god, and apparently to be passion- 
ately devoted to his worship. See the Second Volume of this work, 
pp. 470 ff., and especially pp. 474, 475 ; and my account of this deity 
in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1865, pp. 135 ff. 

Compare what is said of the god Dionysus (or Bacchus) in the Bacchas 
of Euripides, 294 : r 

MONTIS S'<5 Saifuav Zi^e' rb yap ^aKxeiifft/Jiov 
Kal rb faviiaSec- fj-avriK^v troXX^v e^f . 
"Orav yap 6 0eJ>s 'us rb croi/i' f\6ri iro\vs, 
Afyeiv rb jueAAov rovs fji(fj.r\v6ras iroiei. 

28 I retain here this sense of the word, which is probably the most commonly 


" And this deity is a prophet. For Bacchic excitement and raving have in them 
muc'h* prophetic power. For when this god enters in force into the body, he causes 
those who rave to foretell the future." , 

*R.Y. viii. 48, 3. Apdnia somam amritdh abhuma aganma jyotir avi- 
ddma devdn \ kim nunam asmdn krinavad arutih kim u dhurttir amrita 

"We have drunk the soma, we lave become immortal, we have 


entered into light, we have known the gods ; what can an enemy now 
do to us> what can the^ malice of any mortal effect, o immortal god?" 29 

(This* passage is quoted in the commentary t>f Graudapada on the 
Sankhya Karika, verse 2, and is translated (incorrectly Ss regards the 
last clause), by Prof. Wilsn, in p. 13 of his English version.) 

A curious parallel io this last Vedic text is to be found in the 
satirical drama of Euripides, the Cyclops, 578 ff. ; though there, of 
course, the object is merely to depict the drunken elevation of the 
monster Polyphemus : 

'O 8' ovpavds fj.01 Sojcet 
Tp 7^ <pepeff6ai, rov At6s re rbv Bpovov 
A.e6ffff(o rb irat> re Saifj.6vtai> ayvbv (re'/Sas. 

" The sky, commingled with the earth, appears 
To whirl around; I see the throne of Jove, 
And all the awful glory of the gods." 

R.V. ix. 25, 5. Arusho janayan girah Somah pavate ayushag Indram 
gachchan kavikratuh \ 

" The ruddy Soma, generating hymns, with the powers of a poet (or 
with the understanding of a sage), united with men, is purified, resort- 
ing to Indra." 

ix. 76, 4 Pita matlnum asamashta-kavyah \ 

11 [Soma] father of our hymns, of incomparable wisdom." 
ix. 95, 2. Harih srijunah pathyam ritasya iyartti vdcham ariteva 
ndvam \ devo devdnum guhyani ndma dvishkrinoti larhishi pravdche \ 

29 This text may he versified as follows : 

"VT'eWe quaffed the soma bright, 
And are immortal^grown ; 

We've entered into light, , 
And all the gods have known. 
"What foeman now can harm, 
Or mortal vex us, more ? 

, Through thee, beyond alarm, 

Immortal god, we soar. , 


" The golden [Soma] when poured out along the path of the cere- 
mony, sends forth his voic.e, as a rower propels a .boat. A god, he 
reveals the mysterious natures of the gods to the bard upon the sacred 
grass." (See E.Y. ii. 42, 1, and x. 116, 9, quoted in p. 240^) 

ix. 96, 5 (= S.Y. ii. 293-5). Somah pavate janitd matlndm janitd 
divo janitd prithivyeh \ janitd Aaner janita suryasya janitd Indrasya 
janitd uta Vishnoh \ 6. Brahma devandm padavlh Ttavmdm rishir viprdndm 
maJiisho mrigdndm \ syeno gridhrdndm svadhitir,-vanandm Somafr pavi- 
tram ati eti relihan \ 7. Prdvlvipad vdchah uftnim no, sindKur girah 
somah pavamdno manuhdh ityddi \ " 

" Soma is purified, he who is the generator of hymns, of Dyaus, of 
Pr.itb.ivi, of Agni, of Surya, of Indra, and of Yishnu. 6. Soma, who 
is a brahman-priest among the gods (or priests), 30 a leader among the 
poets, a rishi among sages, a buffalo among wild beasts, a falcon among 
vultures, an axe amid the forests, advances to the filter with a sound. 
The purified Soma, like the sea rolling its waves, has poured forth 
songs, hymns, and thoughts," etc. (See Benfey's translation of this 
passage in his Sanaa- veda, pp. 238 and 253; and Nirukta-parisishta, 
ii. 12, 13.) 

Varuna. E.Y. viii. 41, 5, 6. Yo dharttd Ihuvandndm yah usrdndm 
aplchyd veda ndmdni guhyd \ sa kavih Jcdvyd puru rupam dyaur iva 
pushyati . . . . | Yasmin visvdni Icdvyd chalcre ndbhir ivi sritd ityddi \ 

" He who is the upholder of the worlds (Yaruna), who knows the 
secret and mysterious natures of the cows, he, a sage [or poet], manifests 

sage [or poetical] works, as the sky does many forms In him all 

sage works abide, as the nave within a wheel," etc. (See E.Y. vii. 
87, 4, in p. 248, and ix. 95, $, above, in this page.) 

Varuna, Mitra, and Aryaman. E.Y. vii. 66, 11. Vi ye dadhuh sara- 
dam mdsam da ahar yajnam aktwn cha dd richam \ anapyam Varuno 
Mitrah Aryamd kshatram rdjdnah dsata \ 

11 The kings, Yaruna, Mitra, and Aryaman, who made the autumn, 
the' month, and then the day, the sacrifice, night, and then the Eich, 

possess an unrivalled power." 31 fl 
* < 

80 It appears from Prof. Benfey's note on SA r . ii. 294 (=R.V. ix. 96, 6, quoted 
here), that the scholiast on that passage makes devanam = ritvijam, "priests." 

31 As this verse ascribes the formation of the Rich to the gods who are named in 
it, my remark, 1 in p. 3 above, that the Purusha Sukta contains " the only passage in 


ffhe following passage of the Big- veda has (as we have seen above, 
p. 69, note 79, a!hd p. 75) been^ quoted by Indian commentators and 
aphorists to prove the eternity of the Veda, on its own authority : 

R.V. vKi. 64, 6. Tasmai ,nunam abhidyave vdchd Virupa nityayd \ 
vrishne chodasva sushtutim [. 

"J3end forth" praises, Yirupa, tojthis heaven-ftspiring and prolific 
Agni, with perpetual voice." (See i. 45, 3, etc., quoted above, p. 220.) 

The*re, is, howe\^r,*no reason whatever to suppose that the words 
nityayd vdchd mean anything more than perpetual voice. There is no 

9 ' 

ground for imagining that the rishi entertained any such conception as 
became current among thj3 systematic theologians of later times, that 
his words were etermfl. The word nitya is used in the same sense 
"perpetual" in B.Y.'ix. 12, 7 (= S.V. ii. 55, 2), where it is said of 
Soma: nitya-stotro vanaspatir dhlndm antar ityddi \ " The monarch of 
the woods, continually-praised, among the hymns," etc., as well as in 
the two following texts : 

R.V. ix. 92, 3. Somah pundnah sadah eti nityam ityddi \ 

11 The pure Soma comes to his perpetual abode [or to his abode con- 
tinually^, etc. 

x. 39, 14 (quoted above, p. 236). Nityam no, sunum tanayam da- 
dhdndh \ 

"Continuing the series like an unbroken line oj: descendants." 

The tenor of the numerous texts adduced in this Section seems 
clearly to establish the fact that some at least of the ancient Indian 
rishis conceived themselves to be prompted and directed, in the com- 
position of their hymns and prayers, bysupernatural aid, derived from 
various deities of their pantheon. It may add force to the proof de- 
rived from these texts, and show that I am the less likely to have mis- 
understood their purport and spirit, if I adduce some evidence that a 
similar conception was not unknown in another region of the ancient 
Indo-Eur<Jpean worldf *and ttat the expressions in which the "early 

Grecian bards laid claim to an inspiration emanating from the Muses, 

or from Apollo, were not mere figures of speech, but significant, origin- 
ally, of a popular belief. Most of the following passages, from Hesiod 

thehymns of the E.V. in which the creation of the Yedas is described," requires some 
qualification. , 


and Homer, in which this idea is enunciated, are referred to in Mr. 
Grote's History of Greece, i. 478. 

Hesiod, Theogony, 22 : 

"At vv iroff 'KfftoSov na\))v eSiSa^v aoiS^v 
"Apvas iroifj.aivovB'' "EAi/coivos Siro adfoio. 
TJvSe 8,6 fte irp&THTTa. deal irpbs favdov eejirow, <i 
Movcrai 'O\vfj.irtd$fs, K( vpai Alas aiyioxoio. 

es &ypav\ot, KO.K' e\eyxfa, yairrepes Ztuv, 

*l8(j.ei> 8', evr' M&w/tcv, a\ri6fa pvOJiffairtai. 
a flj f<paffl*:i> Kovpai fj-eyd^v Alos apTifTfetai' 
,Ka fj.oi (TKriiTTpov HSov, 8d<j>fr]$ fpiOrj\fos fi^ov, 
Apefyaffai 6t\t\Tdv tveirvevffav Se [ioi avS^jv 
Qflriv, us K\eioi/j.i rd T' Iffffdfieva, irpd T' 't6vra, 
Kcu /xe KfKovS 1 vfive'iv fj.aKdptav yfvos,-eovT<av, 
5^>Ss T' auras itptarAv re Kal vffrfpov atev delSeiv. 

" The Muses once conferred the dower 
On Hesiod of poetic power, 
As underneath the sacred ste^p 
Of Helicon he fed his sheep. 
And thus they spake, ' Inglorious race 
Of rustic shepherds, gluttons base, 
Full many fictions we can weave 
Which by their truthlike air deceive ; 
But, know, we also have the skill 
True tales to tell, whene'er we will.' 
They spake, and gave into my hand 
A ffir luxuriant laurel wand ; 
And breathed into me speech divine, 
That two-fold science might be mine ; 
That future scenes I might unveil, 
And of the past unfold the tale. 
They hade me hymn the race on high 
Of blessed gods who never die ; 
And evermore begin my lays, 
And end them, with the Muses' praise." 

Hesiod, Theogony, 94: 

'E/c yap Movffdcov Kal KTi$6\ov 'AiroXAwi'os 
"AvSpes dotSol taaiv eirl ^Bova, Kal Kidapiarai, 
'EK 8e 

" The bards who strilf? the lyre and sing, 
From Phoebus and the Muses spring : 
From Jove's high race descends the king." 

The following are the words in which the author of the Iliad invokes 
the aid of the Muses, to qualify him for enumerating the generals, of 
the Grecian ho'st (Iliad, ii. 484) : 


vvv fioi MoGcrcu O\6/j.iria SufjLdr' <*x ovffal > 
e'is yap Oeai <rre irdptffTe re Jfcrre re irdvra, 
6?$ 8e K\fos fiiov d.KOVo/j.ev 6u8e n 1S(j.fv. 

" Tell me the truth, ye Muses, tell, 
Ye wlio on high Olympus dwell ; 

For, omnipresent, ye can scan 
^ Whate'ever on earth is done by man, 
, Whilst we vague rumours only learn 

And nothing certain can discern." 

Bufr the Muses* c^uld also take away, as well as impart, the gift of 
song, a,s appears from Iliad, ii. 594 ff. : . 

"Ev9a re Vlovffai 

'fiVTOfJLevai dfjivpiv rbv p^'iKa na.vaa.v doiSfjs' 
SreOro yapJ-vxo/Mfvos viKijo'efiev, Unrep &/ aural 
Mot/<rafcei'8oie', Kovpai Albs aiyi&xoio. 
'At 5e \o\wff<ifj.ft>ai irijpbv Bfffai', dvrap aoi5?;i' 

t( "Twas there the Muses, we are told, 

Encountered Thamyris of old. 

He boastea that the minstrel throng 

To him must yield the prize of song ; 

Yes, even although, among the rest, 

The Muses should the palm contest. 

Aware of his presumption, they 

Both took his skill in song away, 

And power to wake the tuneful lyre ; 

And struck him blind, in vengeful ire." 

The following passages from the Odyssey refer to Demodocus, the 
bard who sang at the court of Alcinous, King of the Phseacians (Odys- 
sey, viii. 43 ff.): 

KaA.eVao-06 5e Qeiov do$6v, 
Ar)fi6$OKoV T<$ ydp pa. Qebs irtpi S&KfV doiSriv, 
Tepiretv, Sirirri tiroTpvvriffiv deiSeu>. 

l( And go, the bard divine jpvite : 
The god hath given him skill 
By song all others to delight, 
Whenever he may will. 
Odyssey, viii. 62 ff. : , 

K7Jpu| 5' eyyv6fv ?i\dV &ycav tpi-fipov doidbv 

Tbv TTfpi Mover' f<pi\rja'e SiSov 8' dya.6&v re Kaicov re, , 

'Ocj)9a\/J.(at [j.i> S/xt^wre 8i'5ou 8' TjSe'ia.v doIS^j/. 

" The herald came, and within him brought 
The bard whom all with longing sought. 
The Muse's cfarling, he had good 
As well as ill from her received ; 

With power of dulcet song endued, . 

But of his eyesight too bereaved^" * 


Here the Muse is described as the arbitress of the bard's destiny^ in 
other points besides the gift and -withdrawal of song. 

Odyssey, viii. 73 : 

Move* &p' dotSov dvrJKev dei$f(j.evai K\ea dvSpiav K.T.\. ' 

" Stirr'd by the Muse the bard extoll'd 
Jn song the deeds of warriors bold." 

A little further on, Ulysses says of Demodocus (Odyssey, viii, 479 ff.) : 

Tlaffi yap dvdptSnroKKv eirixOovioiaw doiSol 

e/jLfj.opol elffi Kal diSovs, 'dwelt' &$. ff<peas 
s Mot/o 1 ' e5i'5a|e, 

" All mortal men with awe regard, 

And honourably treat, the ba*J ; , 

. Because the Muse has taught him" lays, 

And dearly loves his tuneful race."* 

And again he addresses him thus (Odyssey, viii. 487) : 

Arifj.6doK, |<>xa 8?) ere PpOTiiiiv aivifa/j.' atrdvroov. 
'H <re 76 Moi/tr* e'8i8ae Albs irois, 7; tre y' Air6\\ui>.> yhp Kara K&fffuv 'Axatuv dirov aeiSeis, K.T.A. 

" Demodocus, beyond the rest 
Of mortals I esteem thee blest. 
For thee, the Muse, Jove's child, has taught, 
Or Phoebus in thee skill has wrought ; 
So perfectly thou dost relate 
The story of the Argives' fate." 32 

Phemius, the Ithacan minstrel, thus supplicates Ulysses to spare his 
life (Odyssey, xxii. 345 ff.): 

'ADT( TOI jueTjiricrfl' #x J fffffrai, fixer aoiSdv 
Tle<j>vr)s, 8s Te Oeoiffi Kal avOpdnroiaiv aeiSea. 
'AuTo8(8a/CTOS 8" ei/j.1, 6tbs Se /^oj ev <ppe(rli> fitfias 
HavToias evetpva^v. 

" Thou soon wilt grieve, if thou the bard shouldst slay, 
To gods as well as men who pours his lay. 
Self-taught I am ; and yet within my mind 
A god h'ath gendered strains of every kind." 

32 , " That is," says Mr. Grote, " Demodocus has eith,er Oeen inspired as a poet by 
the muse, or as a prophef by Apollo, for the Ho'ineric Apollo is not the god of song. 
Kalchas, the prophet, receives his inspiration from Apollo, who confers upon him the 
same knowledge, both of pasc and future, as the Muses give to Hesiod." But does 
not this passage (Odyssey viii. 488) rather show tkat the Homeric Apollo was the god 
of song, as well as the bestower of prophetic intuition ; and do we not learn the same 
from Iliad, i. 603 ? In any case, it is quite clear from Theog. 94, quoted above^that 
Hesiod regarded Apollo in this character. 



Jhe early Greeks believed that the gift of prophecy also, as well as 
that'of song, waa imparted by the gods to^mortals. This appears both 
frpm Hesiod, as already quoted, and from the following passage of Homer 
(Iliad, i. $y) : 

*Os -ffbri rd r'*(Wci rd r' fffffSpeva, irp6 T' I6vra,, 

KoJ vfifffff' fiy^ffar' 'AXPJW" "IXiov J<TW, 

*H^ Sio /j.a.VTOffvvriv, ri\v 61 Trope *o?/3os 'AwJAAwj/. 

" 0*f augers -wisest, Calchas Jmew 

Things ^resent, past, and future too. 
By force of that divining skill, * . 
Vouchsafed to him by Phoebus' will, 
The Grecian fleet he safely bore 

From Aulib" bay to Ilion's shore." 


It is thus argued by Mr. Grote that the early Greeks really believed 
in the inspiration of their bards by the Muses (History of Greece, 
i. 477 if.): 

" His [the early Greek's] faith is ready, literal and uninquiring, 
apart from all thought of discriminating fact from fiction, or of detect- 
ing hidden and symbolized meaning : it is enough that what he hears 
be intrinsically plausible and seductive, and that there be no special 
cause to provoke doubt. And if indeed there were, the poet overrules 
such doubts by the holy and all-sufficient authority of the Muse, whose 
omniscience is the warrant for his recital, as her inspiration is the cause 
of his success. The state of mind, and the relation of speaker to hearers, 
thus depicted, stand clearly marked in the terms and tenor of the an- 
cient epic, if we only put a plain meaning upon what we read. The 
poet like the prophet, whom he so much resembles sings under 
heavenly guidance, inspired by the goddess to whom he has prayed for 
her assisting impulse. She puts the words into his mouth and the in- 
cidents into his mind ; he is a privileged man, chosen as her organ, and 
speaking from her revelations. As the Muse grants the gift of song to 
whom she will, so she sometimes in her anger snatches it away, and 
the most consummate* human genius is then left silent and helpless. It 
is true that these expressions, of the Muse inspiring and the poet sing- 
ing a tale of past times, have passed from tshe ancient epic to compo- 
sitions produced under very 5 different circumstances, and have now de- 
generated into unmeaning forms of Speech ; but they gained currency 
originally in their genuine and literal acceptation. If poets had from 


the beginning written or recited, the predicate of singing would never 
have been ascribed to them ; nor would it ever have become customary 
to employ the name of the Muse as a die to be stamped on licensed 
fiction, unless the practice had begun when her agency WLS invoked 
and hailed in perfect good faith. Belief, the fruit of deliberate inquiry, 
and a rational scrutiny of evidence, is in such an age unknown ; the 
simple faith of the time slides in unconsciously, wh^n the imagination 
and feeling are exalted ; and inspired authority is r.t once understood, 
easily admitted, and implicitly confided in." 

If we extend our researches over the pages of Homer, we shall 
speedily discover numerous other instances of a belief in divine inter- 
ference in human affairs, not merely (1) in the general government of 
the world, in the distribution of good and evil, and the allotment of the 
diversified gifts, intellectual, moral, and physical, which constitute the 
innumerable varieties of human condition, but also (2) in the way of 
special suggestion, guidance, encouragement, and protection, afforded to 

Illustrations of the general control exercised by the gods over the 
fortunes of mankind may be found in the following passages of the 
Iliad, xiii. 730 ff., and of the Odyssey, i. 347 f.; iv. 236 f. ; vi. 
188 f. ; viii. 167-175; xvii. 218, 485 ff. 

The following are illustrations of the special interference of the gods 
on behalf of their favourites: Iliad, i. 194 ff., 218; iii. 380 ff.; v. 1 ff.; 
vii. 272; xiii. 60 f., 435; xvi. 788 ff. : Odyssey, i. 319 ff.; iii. 26 ff. ; 
xiv. 216 f., 227 ; xvi. 159 ff. 33 Of the latter class of passages, I quote 
two specimens. 

Odyssey, i. 319 ff.: 

'H &p &s elrrovff' aW/Srj yXavKtains 'AO^i/r;, 
"Opvis 8" &s avoiraia Sieir-raTO' "T(f 8' evl 6vfj.<f 
07JK6 fitvos Kal Odpcros, virf[j.i>r)(rfi> re e irarp6s 
Ma\\ov 'T' fy rb TrdpoiOev 6 8e (pptvlv yen vol]ffa.s 

Qdfji^rifftf Kara 6vfj.6i>, aurora jap Qfbv eivai. 

" As thus she spake, Athene flejv r ^ 

Aloft, uid soared heyor.d his view. 
His soul she filled- with force and fire, 
And stronger memory of his sire. 
Amazed, he felt the inward force, 
And deemed a god must be its source." 

33 Compare Prof. Bladders dissertation on the theology of Homer in the "Classical 
Museum," vol. vii. pp. 414 ff. 



JVhen Telemachus urges his youth and inexperience as a reason for 
diffidence in approaching Nestor, t Minerva snys to him (Odyssey, iii. 26) : 

TijA.e'yuax', &\\a avrbs eVl <j>pfffl fffjcri vo^fffis, 

"AXAa 5f Kal Sai/jicaf vTTo6i)<reTa.f ov yap ofw 

"Ou (re Octal? ae'/cijri yevfaQai re rpaQefiei/ re. 

"Some things thy mind itself shall reach, . 
And other things a god s Jail teach ; 
Foi born and bred thou ne'er hadst been 
Unices tfeey gods had will'd, I ween. 

These i passages, however, afford only one exemplification of the idea 
which runs through, and in fact created, the entire mythology of the 
Greeks, viz. that all the departments of life and of nature were ani- 
mated, controlled, and '.governed by particular deities, by whom they 
were represented, and in whom they were personified. 

The Indian mythology, as is evident to every reader of the Vedas, 
as well as (to some extent) to the student of the Puranas, is distin- 
guished by the same tendency as the Grecian. Indra, Agni, Yayu, 
Savitri, Surya, and many other gods are nothing else than personifica- 
tions of the elements, while Yach or Sarasvati and some other deities, 
represent either the divine reason by which the more gifted men were 
supposed to be inspired, or some mental function, or ceremonial ab- 

In the later religious history, however, of the two races, the Hellenic 
and the Indian, there is in one respect a remarkable divergence. 
Though the priestesses of the different oracles, and perhaps some other 
pretenders to prophetical intuition, were popularly regarded as speak- 
ing under a divine impulse, 31 the idea of inspiration as attaching to 
poems or other compositions of a religios, didactic, or philosophical 
character, very soon became extinct. The Greeks had no sacred Scrip- 
tures. Although a supernatural character was popularly ascribed to 
Pythagoras, Epimenides, and Empedocles, the Hellenic philosophers in 
general spoke and wrote in dependance on their own reason alone. 
They rarely yprofessed to, be guided by any supernatural assistance, or 

claimed any divine authority for their dogmas. 35 Nor (unless such 

* * 

34 See Nagelsbach's Nachhomerische Theologie, pp. 173 ff., and Dr. Karl Kohler's 
Prophetismus der Hebraer und die Mantik der Griechen in ihrem gegenseitigen Ver- 
haltniss, (Darmstadt, 1860), pp. 39 ff. 

35 J express myself cautiously here, as a learned friend profoundlyversed in the 
study of Plato is of opinion that there are traces in the*w?itings of that author of a 



may have teen the case at a very late period) was any infallibility 
claimed for any of them by tieir successors. <- 

In India, on the other hand, the indistinct, and perhaps hesitating, 
belief which some of the ancient rishis seem to have entertained in 
their own inspiration was not suffered to die out in the minds of later 
generations. On the^ontrary this belief grew up (as we Liave seen above, 
pp. 67-138, and 207 ff.) by degrees into a fixed persuasion that all the 
literary productions of those early sages had not oaly resulted from a 
supernatural impulse, but were infallible, divine, and even eternal. 
These works have become the sacred Scriptures of India. And in the 
popular opinion, if not in the estimation of the learned, most Indian 
works of any importance, of a religious, scientific, or philosophical 
kind, which were produced at a later period, have come to be regarded 
as inspired, as soon as the lapse of ages had removed the writers beyond 
familiar or traditional knowledge, and invested their names with a halo 
of reverence. 

To return from this digression to the inquiry which was being pur- 
sued regarding the opinions of the ancient Vedic rishis on the subject 
of their own inspiration : 

How, it will be asked, are we to reconcile this impression which 
the rishis manifest of being prompted by supernatural aid, with the 
circumstance, which seems to be no less distinctly proved by the cita- 
tions made in the preceding section (pp. 232 ff.), that they frequently 
speak of themselves as having made, fabricated, or generated the hymns, 
without apparently betraying any consciousness that in this process 
they were inspired or guided by any extraneous assistance? 

In reply to this I will only suggest ( J ) that possibly the idea of in- 
spiration may not have been held by the earliest rishis, but may have 
grown up among their, successors; or (2) that it may have been enter- 
tained by some rishis, and not by others ; or again (3), if both ideas 

claim to supernatural guidance, thgugh^by no means to infallibility. See also the 
mention made of the inspiration ascribed to Pythagoras, in Mr. Grote's Greece, iv. 
528, 530 ; and the notices of Epimenides and Empedocles given by the same author, 
vol. iii. 112 ff., vol. vii. p. 174, and vol. viii. 46J f. ; and compare on the same sub- 
jects Bp. Thirlwall's Hist, of Greece>.ii. 32ff., and 155 ff. ; and Plato, Legg. i. p. 642. 
See also Prof. Geddes's Phasdo, note P. p. 251, and the passages there referred to; 
and the Tract of Dr. Kohler, above cited, pp. 60 and 64. 


carv be traced to the same author, we may suppose that the one notion 
was uppermost in* his mind at one moment,' and the other at another ; 
or.(4) that he had no very clearly defined ideas of inspiration, and 
might conceive that the divine assistance of which he was conscious, or 
which at least he implored, did not render his hymn the less truly the 
production of his own mind ; that, iij short, the existence of a human, 
was not incompatible with that of a superhuman, element in its com- 
position. , ' 


The f\rst of these suppositions is, however, 'attended with this diffi- 
culty, that both conceptions, viz., that of independent unassisted com- 
position, and that of inspiration, appear to be discoverable in all parts 


of the Rig-veda. As regards the second supposition, it might not be 
easy (in the uncertainty attaching to the Vedic tradition contained in 
the Anukramam or Vedic index) to show that such and such hymns 
were written by such and su^h rishis, rather than by any others. It 
may, however, become possible by continued and careful comparison of 
the Vedic hymns, to arrive at some probable conclusions in regard to 
their authorship, so far at least as to determine that particular hymns 
should probably be assigned to particular eras, or families, rather than 
to others. I must, however, leave such investigations to be worked 
out, and the results applied to the present subject, by more competent 
scholars than myself. 

III. While in manjr passages of the Veda, an efficacy is ascribed to 
the hymns, which is perhaps nothing greater than natural religion 
teaches all men to attribute to their devotions, in other texts a mys- 
tical, magical, or supernatural power is represented as residing in the 
prayers and metres. (See Weber's VajasanSyi-Sanhitae specimen, p. 61 ; 
and Vol. I. of this work, p. 242V) Some of the following texts are of 
the latter kind. 

Thus in E.V. i. 67, 3, it is said : 

Ajo na Jcshdm dadhdra^prithivlm tastambha dydm mantrebhih &atyail\ \ 
" (Agni) who like tht? unborn, supported the bi;oad earth, and up- 
held the sky by true prayers." , t 

The following is part of Savanna's annotation on this verse : 
Mantrair divo djidranam Taittirlye samdmndtam \ " devdh vai ddit- 
yasya+svarga-lokasya pardcho 'tipdtdd alibhayuh \ tarn chhandplhir adri- 
han dhrityd " iti \ yadvd satyair mantraih stuyamdno 'c/nir dydm tas- 
tamlha iti \ 


" The supporting of the sky by mantras is thus recorded in ,rthe 
Taittinya: 'The gods feared lest the sun should Ml down from the 
heaven ; they propped it up by metres.' Or the verse may mean that 
Agni, being lauded by true mantras, upheld the sky." * 

See also B.V. i. 96, 2, quoted above, in p. 225, and Ait. Br. ii. 33, 
cited in the First Volume of thisrwork, p. 180. 

i. 164, 25. Jagatd sindhum divi astabfidyad rathantare suryam pari 
apasyat \ gdyatrasya samidhas tisrah dhm tato "maknd pro, r\ri\ihe ma- 
hitvd | , " < 

" By the Jagatl metre he fixed the waters in the sky ; he beheld the 
sun in the Rathantara (a portion of the Sama-veda) : there are said to 
be three divisions of the Gayatra ; hence it surpasses [all others] in 
power and grandeur." 

iii. 53, 12. Visvdmitrasya rakshati brahma idam Bharatam janam \ 

"The prayer of Visvamitra protects this tribe of the Bharatas." 
(See Yol. I. pp. 242 and 342.) 

v. 31, 4. Brahmdnah Indram mahayanto arkair avardhayan Ahaye 
hantavai u \ 

" The priests magnifying Indra by their praises, have fortified him 
for slaying Agni." 

Compare the following texts already quoted, iii. 32, 13, p. 226 ; vi. 
44, 13, p. 227; viii, 6, 11, p. 228; viii. 8, 8, p. 243; viii. 44, 12, 
p. 230; viii. 63, 8, p. 230; x. 67, 13, p. 244; .and also i. 10, 5; ii. 
11, 2; ii. 12, 14; iii. 34, 1, 2; v. 31, 10; viii. 6, 1, 21, 31, 35; viii. 
13, 16; viii. 14, 5, 11 ; viii. 82, 27; and viii. 87, 8, where a similar 
power of augmenting, or strengthening, the gods is attributed to the 

v. 40, 6 Gulham suryam tamaid apavratena turlyena Irahmand 

avindad Atrih \ 8 Atrih suryasya divi chakshur ddhdt svarbhdnor 

apa may ah aghulcshat { 9. Yam vai suryam svarlhanus tamasd avidhyad 
dsurah \ Atrayas tarn anvavindan na hi anye aspknuvan \ 

" Atri, by his fourth prayer, discovered the yun which Kad been con- 
cealed by the hostile darknes^. 8 Atri placed the eye of the sun 

in the sky, and dispelled the illusions of Svarbhanu. 9. The Atris 
discovered the sun, which Svarbhanu, of the Asura^ race, had pierced 
with darkness ; no other could [effect this]." (See Vol. I. of this work, 
pp. 242 and 469.) < ' 


t vi. 75, 19 ..... Devds tarn sarve dhurvantu brahma varma mamdn- 
taram \ ,, 

, " May all the gods destroy Mm ; the prayer is my protecting armour." 

vii. 19jll. Nu Indrct sura stavamdnah utl brahma-jutas tanvd vavri- 

dhasva ityddi \ 

" Heroic Inofra, lauded, and impelled by our parayers, grow in body 
through (our) aidJJDr longing.]," etc. (Compare viii. 13, 17, 25.) 

vii, -33, 3. . . .'. Ev^n hu ham ddsardjne Suddsam prdvad Indro brah- 
mand vq Vasishthdh | ft .... Vasishthasya styvatah Indrah asrod urum 
Tritsubhyah aJcrinod u lolcarn \ 

"Indra has delivered Sudas in the combat of the ten kings through 
'your prayer, o Yasishtfras. 5. Indra heard Yasishtha when he praised, 
and opened a wide place for the Tritsus." (See Yol. I. pp. 242 and 319.) 

viii. 49, 9. Pdhi nahAgne elcayd pdhi uta dvitlyayd \ pdhi girlhis tis- 
ribhir urjdmpate pahi chatasribhir vaso \ 

" Protect us, Agni, through the first, protect us through the second, 
protect us, lord of power, through three hymns, protect us through 
four, thou bright god." 

The following passage celebrates the numbers of the metres : 

x. 114, 8, 9. Sahasradhd panchadasdni uktha ydvad dydvd-prithivi 
tdvad it tat \ Sahasradhd mahimdnah sahasram ydvad Irahma vishthitam 
tdvati vdlc | 9. Kas chhandasdm yogam dveda dhirah Ico dhishnydm prati 
vdcham papdda \ Team ritmjdm ashtamam suram dhur harl Indrasya ni 
chikdya hah svit \ 

8. "There are a thousand times fifteen ukihas ; that extends as far 
as .heaven and earth. A thousand times a thousand are their glorious 
manifestations; speech is commensurate ,, with devotion. 9. What sage 
knows the [whole] series [or, application] of the metres ? "Who has 
attained devotional speech ? "Whom do they call the eighth hero among 
priests ? Who has perceived the two steeds of Indra ? " 

(The word dhishnya is said by Yaska, Nirukta, viii. 3, to be = to 
dhishanya, sind that aga,ia to bg = to dhishand-bhava, "springing" from 
dhishand, "speech," or " sacred spee'bh." 

I conclude the series of texts relating to the power of the mantras 
by quoting the whole of the 'l 30th hymn of the 10th Mandala.of the 
Rig^-veda : 

1. To yajno visvatas tantubhis tatah ekaiataffi deva-karm&hir dyatah \ 



ime vayanti pitaro ye dyayuh pra vaya apa vaya dsate tate \ 2. Pumfin 
enam tanute utkrinatti pumay vi tatne adhi ndke asmiw, \ ime maytikhdh 
upa shedur u sadah sdmdni chakrus tasardni otave \ 3. Kd dslt prarqd 
pratimd kim niddnam djyam kirn dslt paridhih 'kah dslt \ chl^ndah kim 
dslt prdugam kim uktham yad devdh devam ayajanta visve \ 4. Agner 
gdyatrl abliavat sayugvd uslinihayd Savitd sambabhuvb \ anushtubhd 
Somah ukthair mahasvdn Brihaspater bnihatl vdchayi dvat \ 5. Virdn 
Mitrdvarunayor abhisrlr Indrasyfl trishtub iha bhdgdh ahnah \ Visvtin 
devdn jagatl dvivesa tena<chdlclripre rishayo mariushydh \ 6. Chdklripre 
tena rishayo manushydh yajne jdte 'pitarah nah purdne \ pasyan manye 
manasd chakshasd tdn ye imam yajnam ayajanta purve \ 7. Saha-stomdh 
saha-chhandasah dvritah saha-pramdh rishayan sayfya daivydh \ purveshdni 
panthdm anudrisya dhlrdh anvdlebhire rathyo na rasmln \ 

"1. The [web of] sacrifice which is stretched on every side with 
threads, 36 which is extended with one hundred [threads], the work of 
the gods, these fathers who have arrived* weave it ; they sit where it 
is extended, [saying] ' weave forwards, weave backwards.' 2. The 
Man stretches it out and spins it, the Man has extended it over this 
sky. These rays approached the place of sacrifice; they made the 
Sama verses the shuttles for the woof. 3. "What was the measure [of 
the ceremonial], what the form, what the type, what the oblation, 
what the enclosing fuel, what the metre, what the prtiuga, and what 
the uktha, when all the gods sacrificed to the god ? 4. The gayatrl 
was associated with Agni; Savitri was conjoined with the ushniha; 
and Soma, gladdening (us) through hymns (ukthas}, with the anush- 
tubh; the brihati attached itself to the speech of Brihaspati. 5. The 
viraj adhered to Mitra and "Faruna ; the trishtubh, a portion of the 
day (?), [accompanied] Indra. The jag^ti entered into the Yisvedevas. 
By this means human rishis were successful. 6. By this means our 
human fathers the rishis were successful, when this ancient sacrifice 

36 In R.V. x. 57, 2, we find the same word tantu occurring : To yajnasya prasa- 
dharlas tantur deveshu dtatas tarn ahutam nasimahi \ v ]Jlay we obtair. him [Agni] 
who is offered, who is the fulfiller of sacrifice, who is the thread stretched to the 
gods." (Comp. the versions gjven by f Prof. Miiller in the Journ. R. A. S. for 1866, pp. 
449, and 457.) Prof. Eoth quotes under the word tantu the following text from the 
Taittiriya Brahmana, ii. 4, 2, 6 : A tantum Agmr divyam tatana \ tvani nas tantur 
uta setur Agne tvam panthah bhavafl deva-yanah \ "Agni has stretched the divine 
thread. Thou, Agni, art our thread and bridge ; thou art the path leading tf the 


celebrated. I believe that I behold with, my mind, [as] with an 
eye, those ancienfts who performed this sacrifice. 7. The seven wise 
and divine rishis, with hymns, with metres, [with] ritual forms, and 
according* to the prescribed t measures, contemplating the path of the 
ancients, have followed it, Jike charioteers seizing the reins." 

I shall not attempt to explain the meaning and purport of this ob- 
scure and mystical hymn, which has been translated by Mr. Colebrooke 
(Essays, i. 34, 35, r p. 18 of Williams and Norgate's ed.). My object 
in quoting the verses is" to show how the various metres are associated 
with the different deities, in this primeval and mysterious rite, and how 
a certain sanctity is thus imparted to them. In verse 7, it will be 
Observed, the rishis aie sooken of as seven in number, and as divine. 
The Atharva-veda (x. 7, 43, 44) gives the second verse somewhat dif- 
ferently from the Rig-veda, as follows : Pumdn enad vayati udgrinatti 
pumdn enad vi jabhdra adhi ndke \ ime mayukhdh upa tastabhur divam 
sdmdni chakrus tasardni vdtave \ "The Man weaves and spins this: 
the Man has spread this over the sky. These rays have propped up 
the sky ; they have made the Sama- verses shuttles for the woof." 

IV. But whatever may have been the nature or the source of the 
supernal illumination to which the rishis laid claim, it is quite clear 
that some among them at least made no pretensions to anything like a 
perfect knowledge of all subjects, human and divine, as they occasion- 
ally confess their ignorance of matters in which they felt a deep interest 
and curiosity. This is shown in the following texts : 

R..V. i. 164, 5. Pakah prichchhdmi manasd avijdnan devdndm end 
nihitd paddni \ vatse basMaye adhi sapta tantun vi tatnire kavayah 
otavai u \ 6. Achikitvdn chikitasas chid atra kavln prichchhdmi vidmane 
na vidvdn \ vi yas tastambha shal imd rajdmsi ajasya rupe kim api svid 
ekam \ 37. Na vi jdndmi yad iva idam asmi ninyah sannaddho manasd 
chardmi \ yadd md dgan prathamajdh ritasya d4 id vdchah asnuve bhd- 
gam asydh \ 

II 5. Ignorant, not >Knowig in my mind, I enquire after these 
hidden abodes of the gods ; the sages have stretched out seven threads 
for a woof over the yearling calf [or over the sun, the abode of all 
things]. 6. Not comprehending, I ask those sages who comprehend 
this matter ; unknowing, [I ask] that I may know ; what is the one 
thing, in the form of the uncreated one, whp has uph'eld these six 


worlds ? 37. I do not recognize if I am like this ; I go on perplexed 
and bound in mind. "When the first-born sons of sacrifice [or truth] 
come to me, then I enjoy a share of that word." 

I do not attempt to explain the proper sense of these O dark and 
mystical verses. It is sufficient for my purpose that they clearly ex- 
press ignorance on tfye part of the speaker. Prof. Wilson's translation 
of the passages may be compared. ' Prof. ^Miiller, Anc. Ind. Lit. p. 567, 
renders verse 37 as follows : " I know not what |his Is that I am like ; 
turned inward I walk, chained in my mind. "When the first-born of 
time comes near me, then I obtain the portion of this speech." 

x. 31, 7. J5"im svid vanam kah u sa vrikshah dsa yato dydvd-prithivl 
nishtatakshuh \ santasthdne a/are itautl ahdm putylr ushaso jaranta \ 

"What was the forest, what the tree, out of 'which they fashioned 
heaven and earth, which continue to exist undecaying, whilst days, 
and many dawns have passed away ? " 

Compare x. 81, 4, where the first of thes'e lines is repeated and is fol- 
lowed by the words : Manlshino manasd prichhata id u tad yad adhy- 
atishthad Ihuvandni dhdrayan \ "Ask in your minds, ye intelligent, 
what that was on which he took his stand when upholding the worlds; " 
and see verse 2 of the same hymn. 

i. 185, 1. JTatardpurvd katard apard ay oh kathdjdte kavayo ko vi veda \ 

" Which of these two (Heaven and Earth) is the first ? which is the 
last ? How were thejr produced ? Who, o sages, knows ? " 

x. 88, 18. Kati agnayah kati siirydsah kati mhasah Icati u svid dpah \ 
na upaspijam vah pitaro vaddmi prichchhdmi vah kavayo vidmane kam \ 

" How many fires are there ? how many suns ? how many dawns ? 
how many waters? I do not, f fathers, say this to you in jest ; I really 
ask you, sages, in order that I may know." 

Compare x. 114, 9, above, p. 227. 

x. 129, 5. Tiraschlno vitato rasmir eshdm adhah svid dsid upari svid 
dslt \ retodhdh dsan mahimdnah dsan svadhd avastat prayatih parastdt \ 
6. Eah addha veda kah iha pravochat kutah djdta ( kutah iyamtmrishtih \ 
arvug devdh asya visafjanena aiha TSo veda yatah dlalhuva \ 7. lyam vis- 
rishtir yatah dlabhuva yctdi vd fiadhe yadi vd na \ yah asya adhyakshah 
parame vyoman sa anga veda yadi vd na veda \ 

5. "Their ray [or cord], obliquely extended, was it below, or was it 
above ? Theve were generative sources, and there were great powers, 



sv^dha (a self-supporting principle) below, and effort above. 6. Who 
knows, who hath here declared, whence ..this creation was produced, 
whence [it came] ? The gods were subsequent to the creation of this 
universe ;*who then knofrs whence it sprang? 7. Whence this creation 
sprang, whether any one formed it or not, he who, in the highest 
heavens, is the Overseer of this universe, he indeod knows, or he does 
not know." , J 

See j the translation, of the whole hymn by Mr. Colebrooke in his 
Essays, ,i. 33, 34, or p.* 17 of Williams and iN"orgate's ed. See also 
Prof. Miiller's version and comment in pp. 559-564 of his History of 
Ancient Sanskrit Literature jand my own rendering in the article on 
the "progress of the Yediareligion towards abstract conceptions of the 
Deity," in the Journal' of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1865, pp. 345 f. 

We have seen (above, p. 62) that a claim is set up (by some un- 
specified writer quoted by Sayana) on behalf of the Veda that it can 
impart an understanding of all things, past and future, subtile, proxi- 
mate, and remote ; and that according to S'ankara Acharyya (on the 
Brahma-sutras, i. 1, 3) as cited above, p. 106, the knowledge which^it 
manifests, approaches to omniscience. All such proud pretensions are, 
however, plainly enough disavowed by the rishis who uttered the com- 
plaints of ignorance which I have just adduced. It is indeed urged by 
Sayana (see above, p. 64) in answer to the objection, that passages like 
R.Y. x. 129, 5, 6, can possess no authority as sources of knowledge, 
since they express doubt, that this is not their object, but that their 
intention is to intimate by a figure of speech the extreme profundity of 
the> divine essence, and the great difficulty which any persons not well 
versed in the sacred writings must experience in comprehending it. 
There can, however, be little doubt that the authors of the passages I 
have cited did feel their own ignorance, and intended to give utterance 
to this feeling. As, however, such confessions of ignorance on the part 
of the rishis, if admitted, would have been incompatible with the doc- 
trine that ttie Yeda was an infallible source of divine knowledge, it 
became necessary for the later theologians who held that doctrine to 
explain away the plain sense of those expressions. 

It should, however, be noticed that these confessions of ignorance and 
fallibility are by no means inconsistent with the supposition that the 
rishis may have conceived themselves to be ^njmated and directed in 


the composition of their hymns by a divine impulse. But althprgh 
the two rivals, Vasishtha und Yisvamitra, whether^ in the belief of 
their own superhuman insight, or to enhance their own importance, and 
recommend themselves to their royal pafrons', talk proudly^about the 
wide range of their knowledge (see abovo, pp. 246 ff.), it is not ne- 
cessary to imagine 'chat, either ip. their idea or in tliat of the other 
ancient Indian sages, inspiration and infallibility were convertible or 
co-extensive terms. The rishis may have believed that the supernatural 
aid which they had received enabled them to perform what thoy must 
otherwise have left unattempted, out that' after all it communicated 
only a partial illumination, and left thcn^ still liable to mistake and 

I must also remark that this belief in their own inspiration which I 
imagine some of the rishis to have held, falls very far short of the con- 
ceptions which most of the later writers, whether Vaiseshika, Himan- 
saka, or Vedantist, entertain in regard to the supernatural origin and 
authority of the Veda. The gods from whom the rishis supposed that 
th^y derived their illumination, at least Agni, Indra, Mitra, Varuna, 
Soma, Pushan, etc., would all fall under the category of productions, 
or divinities created in time. This is clearly shown by the comments of 
S'ankara on the Brahma Sutras, i. 3, 28, (above, pp. 101 ff.); and is other- 
wise notorious (see my " Contributions to a knowledge of the Vedic The- 
ogony and Mythology " in the Jl. E ; A. S. for 1864, p. 63). But if these 
gods were themselves created, and even (as we are told in the Rig-veda 
itself, x. 129, 6, cited in p. 280) produced subsequently to some other 
parts of the creation, the hymns with which they inspired the rishis, could 
not have been eternal. The 6nly one of the deities referred to in the 
Big-veda as sources of illumination, to* whom this remark would per- 
haps not apply, is Vach or Sarasvati, who is identified with the supreme 
Brahma in the passage of the Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad quoted 
above (p. 208, note 179) ; though this idea no. doubt originated sub- 
sequently to the era of the hymns. But it is" tot to created gods, like 
Agni, Indra, and others of the, same class, that the origin of the Veda 
is referred by the Vaiseshikas, Himansakas, or Vedantists. The Vai- 
seshikas represent the eternal, Isvara as the author of the Veda (see 
the passages which I have quoted in pp. 118ff. and 209). The Ml - 
mansakas and Vedantipts, as we have seen (pp. 70 ff., 99 ff. and 208), 



either affirm that it is uncreated, or derive it from the eternal Brah- 
ma. And even ' those writers who may attribute the composition of 
th,e Veda to the personal and created Brahma (see pp. 69, 105 f. and 
208), witli the Naiyayilias who merely describe it as the work of a 
competent author (see pp. J16f. and 209), and the Sankhyas (see pp. 
135 and 208), cbneur with the other, schools in affirming its absolute 
infallibility. The^r view, consequently (unless we admit an exception 
in reference to Vach), 'differs from that of the Vedic rishis themselves, 
who do .not seem to haVe had any idea, either of their hymns being 
uncreated, or derived from the eternal Brahma, or of their being in- 
fallible. _^ 

As regards the relation <* the rishis to deities like Indra, it is also 
deserving of notice that later mythologists represent the former, not 
only as quite independent of the latter, and as gifted with an inherent 
capacity of raising themselves by their own austerities to the enjoy- 
ment of various superhuman faculties, but even as possessing the power 
of rivalling the gods themselves, and taking possession of their thrones. 
See the stories of Nahusha and Visvamitra in the First Volume of this 
work, particularly pp. 310 ff. and 404. Compare also the passages from 
the Eig-veda, x. 154, 2, and x. 167, 1, quoted above, p. 250, where 
the rishis are said to have attained to heaven, and Indra to have con- 
quered it, by austere-fervour (tapas'}. 9 

SECT. V. Texts from the Upanishads, showing the opinions of the authors 
regarding their own inspiration, or that of their predecessors. 

I shall now adduce some passages from different Upanishads, to 
show what opinions their authors entertained either in regard to their 
own inspiration, or that of the earlier sages, from whom they assert 
that their doctrine was derived by tradition. -. 

I. S'vetasvatara TJp.^v. 2 (already quoted above, p. 184). To yonim 
yonim adhitishthaty ek$ vUvdm rupdni yonis cha sarvdh \ rishim pra 
sutam Kapilam yas tarn agrejndnair lilhartti jdyamdnam cha pasyet \ 

"He who alone presides over every place of production, over all 
forms, and all sources of birth, who formerly nourished with various 
knowledge that rishi Kapila, who had been born, a*d beheld him at 
his birth." 


II. S'vetasvatara Up. vi. 21. Tapah - pralhdvdd veda - prasdddch $ha 
Brahma ha S'vetdsvataro 'tka&tth&n \ atydsramibhyah paramam pavitram 
provdcha samyag rishi-sangha-jushtam \ 

" By the power of austere-fervour, and by' the grace of <ihe Veda, 
the wise S'vetasvatara declared perfectly to c the men in the highest of 
the four orders, the upreme and holy Brahma, who is Bought after by 
the company of rishis." (Dr. Doer's translation, ,,p. 68, follows the 
commentator in rendering the first words of th verse thus : "'By the 
power of his austerity, and the grace of God.' r This, however, is not 
the proper meaning of the words ieda-prasdddch cha, if the correctess 
of that reading, which is given both in l^ie text and commentary (Bibl. 
Ind. p. 372), be maintained. S'ankara intei^rets the words thus : 
" Veda-prasdddch cha " \ kaivalyam uddiiya tad-adhikdra-siddhaye bahu- 
janmasu samyag drddhita-paramesvarasya prasdddch cha \ "'By the 
grace of the Yeda : ' by the grace of the supreme God who had been 
perfectly adored by him during many births in order to acquire the 
prerogative of (studying) it (the Veda) in reference to kaivalya (isolation 
from mundane existence) ; " and thus appears to recognize this reading. 

In the 18th verse of the same section of this Upanishad the Vedas 
are said to have been given by the supreme God to Brahma : 

Yo Brahmdnam vidadhdti purvam yo vai veddms cha praJiinoti tasmai \ 
tarn ha devam alma-luddhi-prakdsam mumukshur vai saranam aham pra- 
padye \ 

" Seeking after final liberation, I take refuge with that God, the 
manifester of the knowledge of himself, who at first created Brahma 
and gave him the Vedas." 

III. Mundaka Up. i. 1 ff. ..(quoted above, p. 30, more at length). 
Brahma devdnum prathamah sambalhu$a visvasya karttd bhuvanasya 
goptd | Sa brahma-vidydm sarva-vidyd-pratishthdm Atharvdya jyeshtha- 
putrdya prdha \ 

"Brahma was born the first of the gods, he who is the maker of the 
universe and the supporter of the world. He f /ieclared the science of 
Brahma, the foundation of all the sciences, to Atharva, his eldest son." 

IV. The Chhandogya Up. viii. 15, 1, p. 625 fF. concludes as follows : 
Tad ha etad Brahmd Prajdpataye uvdcha Prajdpatir Manave Manuh 

prajdbhyah \ dchutryya-kuldd vedam adhltya yathd mdhdnaffi guroh kar- 
mdtiseshena 'abhisamdvrfttya kutumle suchau dese svddhydyam adhlydno 


dhirmikun vidadhad dtmani sarvendriydni sampratishthdpya ahiffisan 
sarva-bhutdni anyatra tlrthebhyah sa ltha!v evam varttayan yavad-dyu- 
sham Brahma-lokam abhisampadyate na cha punar avarttate na cha puna/r 
avarttate \ , 

" This [doctrine] Brahmfi declared to Prajapati, Prajapati declared 
it to Manu, and Manu to his descendants. Having received instruc- 


tion in the Veda fvom the family of his religious teacher in the pre- 
scribed manner, and in the time wh'ch remains after performing his 
duty to, his preceptor ;' and when he has ceased from this, continuing 
his Vedic studies at home, in his faihily, in a pure spot, communicating 
a knowledge of duty [to hispupils], withdrawing all his senses into 
himself, doing injury 3to-?* living creature, away from holy places, 
thus passing all his days, a man attains to the world of Brahma, and 
does not return again, and does not return again [_i.e. is not subjected 
to any future births]." 

I quote the commencement of S'ankara's comment on this passage : 

Tad ha etad dtma-jndnam sopakaranam om ity etad aksharam ity-ddyaih 
saha ^tpdsana^s tad-vdchakena granthena ashtadhyaya-lakshanena saJia 
Brahma Hiranyagarlhah Paramesvaro vd tad-dvdrena Prajdpataye Kas- 
yapdya uvdcha \ asdv api Manave sva-putrdya \ Manuh prajdlhyah \ ity 
evam sruty-artha-sampraddya-paramparayd dgatam upanishad-vijndnam 
adydpi vidvatsv av agamy ate \ 

" This knowledge of soul, with its instruments, with the sacred mo- 
nosyllable Om and other formulae of devotion, and with the book dis- 
tinguished as containing eight chapters, which sets forth all these 
topics, [viz. the Chhandogya TJpanishad itself] was declared by Brahma 
Hiranyagarbha, or by Paramesvara (the supreme God), through his 
agency, to the Prajapati Kasyapa. The latter in his turn declared it 
to his son Manu, and Manu to his descendants. In this manner the 
sacred knowledge contained in the Upanishad?, having been received 
through successive transmission of the sense of the Veda from genera- 
tion to generation, is to this day understood among learned men." 

In an earlier passage of the same Upanishad iii. 11, 3 f. (partly 
quoted in the First Volume of this work, p. 195), we find a similar 
statement in reference to a particular branch of sacred knowledge (the 
madku-jndna) : 

3. Na ha vai asmai udeti na nimlochati safa:id ( divd ha 'eva asmai lha- 


vati yah etdm evam brahmopanishadam veda \ 4. Tad ha etad 
Prajdpataye uvdcha Prajdpatir Manage Manuh prajd'bhyah \ tad etad 
Udddlakdya Arunaye jyeshthdya puttrdya pita brahma uvdcha \ -5. 
Idam vdva taj-jyeshthdya puttrdya pita brahmd prdbrHydt prundyydya 
vd antavdsine (6) no, anyasmai kasmaichana \ yadyapy asmai imam 
adbhih parigrihltdm dhanasya purndm dadydt etad eva ^ato bhuyah ity 
etad eva tato bhuyah iti \ 

"3. For Mm who thus knows, this sacred mystery, the sun neither 
rises nor sets, but one day perpetually lasts. 4. This (Madhu-jndtia') was 
declared by Brahma to Prajapati, by Prajapati to Manu, and by Manu 
to his descendants. This sacred knowledge was further declared to 
Uddalaka Aruni by his father. 5. Let a fatbor Expound it to his eldest 
son, or to a capable pupil, but to no one else. 6. If any one were to 
give him this entire earth, which is surrounded by water, full of 
wealth, this sacred knowledge would be more than that, yes, would be 
more than that." 

Compare Manu, xi. 243, where that Code is said to have been created 
by Prajapati (First Volume of this work, p. 394); and Bhagavad Gita 
iv. 1, where the doctrine of that treatise is said to have been declared 
by Krishna to Vivasvat (the Sun), by Vivasvat to Manu, by him to 
Ikshvaku, and then handed down by tradition from one royal rishi 
to another (Vol. I. p. 508). 




Page 4, line 5. 

I have omitted her%J &e verse from the Atharva-veda, xi. 7, 24 
(quoted by Professor Groldstitaker in his Panini, p. 70) : Richah sdmuni 
chhanddmsi purdnam yajushd saJia \ uchchhishtdj jajnire sarve divi devdh 
divisritah \ " From the leavings of the sacrifice sprang the Rich- and 
Saman-verses, the metres, the Parana with the Yajush, and all the 
gods who dwell in the sky." 

Professor Aufrecht has favoured me with the following amendments 
in my translations in pp. 7 and 8 : 

Page 7, line 13. 

For "the text called sdvitrl [or gayatrl]" he Trould substitute "the 
verse dedicated to Savitri." 

Page 7, line 16. 

For "the mouth of Brahma" he proposes "the beginning of the 
Veda." (Sir "W. Jones translates "the mouth, or principal part of the 

Page 8, line 8. 

For " from Vach (speech) as their world" he., proposes " out of the 

sphere (or compass) of speech." 

O ' * 

* J Palje , line 8. ^ 

For " Vach was his : she was created " he ppposes "For in creating 
the Vedas, he had also created Vach." 

Page 8, line 13. 
For " He gave it an impulse" he proposes '/He touched it." 



Page 8, line 16. <- 

For " Moreover it was sacred knowledge, which was created, from 
that Male in front" he proposes "For even from that Male (not only 
from the waters) Brahma was created first." 


Page $, line ( 16. 

This passage of the Brihad t Aranyaka TJpauisb.a'd corresponds to 
S'atapatha Brahmana x. f>, 5, 5. f1 

Page 10, line 2. 

"May the brilliant deity," etc., ProfesSR. Aij/recht would prefer to 
translate the second line of the verse, begir^iing tudevah (p. 9, 1. 6 from 
the foot), " Goodness (the good god) only knows where they put the 
earth which was thrown up (nirvapana)." 

Page 20, line 17. 
See Asvalayanas Grihya Sutras, pp. 155, and 157 ff. 

Page 22, line 13, note 25. 

I quote two verses from Manu, of which the second confirms the cor- 
rectness of the rendering I have given of the words a ha eva sa nakhd- 
grebhyas tapyate, and the first illustrates the text of the Taittiriya 
Aranyaka cited in the note : Manu ii. 166. Vedam eva sadd 'bhyasyet ta- 
pas tapsyan dvijottamah \ veddbhydso hi viprasya, tapah param ihochyate \ 
167. "Ahaivasa nakhdgrebhyah " paranam "tapyate" tapah \ yah sra- 
gvy api dvijo 'dhlte svadhyuyam saktito 'nvaham \ " Let a good Brahman 
who desires to perform tapas constantly study the Veda ; for such study is 
a Brahman's highest tapas. 167. That twice-born man who daily studies 
the Veda to the utmost of his power, even though (luxuriously) wearing 
a garland of flowers (really) performs the highest tapas to the very ex- 
tremities of his nails." This verse, it will be observed, quotes verbatim 
one'of the phrases of the Brahmana, f and gives definiteness' to i^sense 
by adding the words paramam tapah. Verses 165 fi. of the same book of 
Manu prescribe the abstemious mode of life which the student (Irah- 
machariri) is to follow whilst living in his teacher's house. The Maha- 
bharata, Udyoga-parvan, 1537, thus states the conditions of successful 
study in general ; Sukhfirthinah kuto vidyd ndsti vidydrthinah sukham \ 


sukhdrthl vd tyajed vidydm vidydrthl vd tyajet sukham \ " How can one 
who seeks ease acquire science,? Ease does not belong to him who 
pursues science. Either let the seeker of ease abandon science, or the 
seeker of %cience abandon ease." 

Page 30, line 17. , 

Compare the lines quoted by the Commentator on S'andilya'sBhakti- 
sutra, .83, p. 60, from. the <Mahabharat,a, Santiparvan, Moksha-dharma, 
verses 13,551 if. : Sahopanishado veddn ye viprdh samyag dsthitdh \ pa- 
{hanti vidhim dsthdya ye chdpi yatb-dharminah \ tato visishtdm jdndmi 
gatim efcdntindm nrindm | "I regard the destination of Ekantins (persons 
devoted to the One as,-.4iveir end) as superior to that of Brahmans who 
perfectly study the Ve'das, ifoluding the Upanishads, according to rule, 
as well as to that of those who follow the practices of ascetics (yatis)? 

Rage 34, line 1. 

Perhaps this was scarcely a suitable passage to be quoted as depre- 
ciatory of the Veda, as in such a stage of transcendental absorption as 
is here described all the ordinary standards of estimation have ceased 
to be recognized. 

Page 43, line 10. 

With the expression hrid-akdsa, " the aether o the heart," compare 
the passage quoted from the Veda in S'ankara's commentary on Brahma 
Sutra iii. 2, 35 (p. 873) : "Yo 'yam vahirdha purmhdd d/cdso yo ''yam 
antah-purushe dkdso yo 'yam antar-hridaye dktisah \ " This aether which 
is external to a man, this aether which is within a man, and this aether 
which is within the heart." See also the Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad 
ii. 5, 10 and iii. 7, 12. t 

Page 44, line 1. 

See the Yoga aphorisms i. 2 ff. as cited and explained by Dr. Ballan- 
tyne. 1 The second aphorism defines yoga to be "a stoppage of ;the 
functions of Ihe mind " ffiogas 9hitla-iyitti-nirodha$}. " The mind then 
abides in the state of the spectator, i.e. ihe So.l " (tadd drashtuh sva- 
rupe'vasthdnam 3). " At other times i takes the form of the 


1 Two fasciculi only, containing two Piidas and 106 Sutras, were published at Alla- 
habacf in 1852 and 1853 ; but a continuation of Dr. B.'s work has btn commenced 
in the "Pandit" for Sept. 1868. ' * 



functions" (vritti-sarupyam itaratra Aph. 4). These functions, or 
modifications (as Dr. Ballantyne translates) are fivefold, and either 
painful, or devoid of pain, viz. proof, or right notion (pramdna), mis- 
take (yiparyyaya), groundless imagination (vikal/pa), sleep (nidra), 
recollection (smriti] Aphorisms 5-11. See also Dr. Ballantyne' s 
Sankhya Aphorisms, iii. 31 ff. 

Page 57, note 61. 

With the subject of this note compare the remarks in p. 108, and 
the quotations from Dr. Roer anc" Professor Miiller in pp. 173, 175, 
and 193. 

Page 62, note^KC,. * 

Professor Co well does not think that th*7 text 'is corrupt. He would 
translate it, " the other pramdnas, beside sabda, (scil. perception and 
inference), cannot be even supposed in a case like this " (which refers 
to sujch a transcendental object as the existence of an eternal Veda). 
Sayana, in his reply to the objector, recapitulates the applicable proofs 
as sruti, smriti, and loka-prasiddhi, all three only different kinds of 
testimony, sabda. 

Page 63, lines llf., and note 68. ^ 

Compare pp. 322 f., 329 f., 334 f., and 337 of my article "On the 
Interpretation of the Yeda," in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic So- 
ciety for 1866. 

Page 84, note 89, and page 180, line 7. 

I have been favoured by Professor Cowell with the following note 
on kdldtyaydpadisJita : 

"My Calcutta Pandit considered this fallacy to be the same as that 
more usually called ladha (cf. too Bfrashaparichchheda, si. 70, 77," 
and the Bengali translation, p. 65). Its definition is pahhe sddhyd- 
bhdvah. The Tarka-^angraha defines a hetu as Iddhita, ' when the 
absence of what it seeks to prove is established for certain by 
another proof,' as in .the argument 1 vahnir anushno dravyatvdt. The 
essence of this fallacy is that you deny the major, and therefore it 
does not matter whether you accept the middle term in itself or 
not. It is involved in the overthrow of the major term. I should 
translate it the 'precluded argument,' it might have been .plau- 
sible if it had not been put out of court by something which settles 


t APPENDIX. 291 

thfj point, it is advanced too late (the pre in precluded' expresses the 
kdldtlta of the old name). This corresponds to the account in the 
Nyaya-sutra- vritti : Kdlasya sddhana-kdlasydtyaye 'bhdve J padishtah 
prayukto 'fietur \ etena sddh/dbhdvapramdlakshandrtha iti suchitam \ 
sudhydbhdvanirnaye sddhanusambhavdt \ Ay am eva bddhitasddhyaka iti 
giyate. The Y?itti goes on to say that you need ndt prove vyabhichdra 
(i.e. that your opponent's hetu 6r middle terra goes too far, as imparvato 
dhuma^dn^ vahneh wfoe/e vahni is a sitvyabhichdro hetuh} in order to 
establish, the bddha. I should therefore prefer* t<j translate the passage 
from the Yedartha-prakasa, p. 84, ' your alleged middle-term vdkyatva> 
the possessing the properties .of a common sentence, is liable to two 
objections, (1) it is opc/os^d by the fact that no author was ever per- 
ceived, and (2) it also is precluded by weighty evidence (which proves 
that your proposed major term is irrelevant).' Sayana then adds his 
reasons for each objection, fjpr the first, in the words from yathd Vydsa 
down to upalabdhah] for the second, in the fact that smriti and iruti 
agree in the eternity of the Yeda (the purvam I suppose refers to p. 3 
of the Calcutta printed text), and that even if the Supreme Spirit be 
the author he is not purmhah in the sense in which the objector uses 
the term. Either way, the major term of the objector's syllogism pau- 
rusheya is precluded, bddhita; or, in the technical language of the 
Nyaya, Sayana establishes an absence from the mijior term (paksha} of 
the alleged major term (sddhya] ; and hence no conclusion can be 
drawn from the proposed syllogism. I may add that I have also 
looked into Vatsyayana, but his explanation seems to me an instance 
of what my Pandit used so often to impress on me, that the modern 
logic (which such a late medieval writer as Sayana follows) is not always 
that of the Nyayabhashya. Hft makes the error lie in the example, 
i.e. in the induction ; and it is therefore, as Professor Goldstiicker says* 
a ' vicious generalization.' " 

f Page 9 88 lt note 95. 

Professor Cowell disagrees with the explanation I have hazarded of 
the object of the sentence in the text to which this note refers. He 
thinks that its purport, as shewn by the word vyabhichdrdt, is to. in- 
timate, that the former of the two alternative suppositions would prove 
too much, as it would also apply to such detached stanzas as the one 


referred to, of which the author, although unknown to some perstms, 

was not necessarily unknown to all, as his contemporaries no doubt 
knew who wrote it, and his descendants, as well as others, might per- 
haps still be aware of the fact. In this case, therefore, we have an in- 
stance of a composition of which some persons did not know the origin, 
but which nevertheless was not superhuman (apaurmheya). This is 
no doubt the correct explanation. 

- Page 99, line 1. 

The argument in proof of the incompetence of the S'udras for the 
acquisition of the highest divine know^^e is contained in Brahma 
Sutras i. 3, 34-38. As the subject may possess an interest for any 
educated persons of this class into whose hands this book may fall in 
India, I extract the entire discussion of the question : 

34. " S'ug asya tad-anddara-sravandt tad-ddravandt suchyate hi " ] 
yathd manushyddhikdra-niyamam apodya devddlndm api vldydsv adhi- 
kdrah uktas tathaiva dvijdty-adhikdra-niyamdpavddena sudrasya apy 
adhikdrah sydd ity etdm dsankdm nivarttayitum idam adhikaranam dra- 
bhyate \ tattra sudrasya apy adhikdrah sydd iti tdvat prdptam arthitva- 
sdmarthyayoh sambhavdt \ tasmdch " chhudro yajne 'navaklriptah " iti- 
vach chhudro vidydydm anavalclriptah iti nishedhdsravandt \ yach cha 
karmasv anadhilcdra-?:dranam sudrasya anagnitvam na tad vidydsv adhi- 
kdrasya apavddakam \ na Jiy dhavamyddi-rahitena mdyd veditum na 
idkyate \ lhavati cha lingam sudrddhikdrasya upodlalaham \ samvarga- 
vidydydm hi Jdnasrutim Pautrdyanam susrushum sudra-saldena pard- 
mrisati "aha hare tvd sudra tava eva saha gobhir astv" iti \ Vidura- 
prabhritayas cha*sudra-yoni-pral>havdh api visishta-vijndna-sampanndh 
smaryyante \ tasmdd adhikriyate sudro v\dydsu \ ity evam prdpte brumah \ 
na sudrasya adhikdro vedddhyayandbhdvdt \ adhlta-vedo hi vidita-vedartho 
vedartheshv adhikriyate \ na cha sudrasya vedddhyayanam asty upanayana- 
pvrvakatvddvedddhyayanasya upanayanasya chct-varna-traya-vishayatvdt \ 
yat tv arthitvam na tad asati sfrnarihye 'dhik&ra-kdranam' bhavati \ sd- 
marthyam api na lait^kam J :eralam adhikdra-kdranam bhavati sdstriye 
'rthe sdstnyasya sdmarthyasya apekshitatvdt sdstriyasya cha sdmarthya- 
sya adhyayana-nirdkaranena '.lirdkritatvdt \ yach cha idam sudro yajne 
'navaklriptch iti tad nydya-purvakatvdd vidydydm apy anavaklripfytvam 
dyotayati nydyasya sdUhdranatvdt \ yat punah sarnvarga-vidydydm sudra- 


sabda-sravanam lingam manyase na tal lingam nydydbhdvdt \ nydyokter 
hi l$nga-darsanaif>t dyotakam bhavati na cha t attra nydyo 'sti \ kdmam cha 
ayam iudra-sabdah samvarga-vidydydm eva ekasydm sudram adhikuryydt 
tad-vishayytvdd na sarvdiu vidydsu \ arthavdda-sthatvdt na tu kvachid apy 
ayam sudram adhikarttum utsahate [ Sakyate cha ayam sudra-sabdo 'dhi- 
krita-vishaye ycyayitum \ katham iti \ uchyate. \ " ' fyam u are enam etat 
santam sayugvdnam iva Rainham dtthtt' (Chandogya TJpanishad, iv. 1, 3.) 
ity asntdd hamsa-vd^ydd dtmano 'nddaram srutavato Jdnasruteh Pautrd- 
yanasya *ug utpede tdm+rishl Rainkah sudra-sabdena anena suchaydmba- 
Ihuva dtmanah paroksha-jndnasya ktydpandya iti gamyate jdti-sudrasya 
anadhikdrdt I katham punah sudra-sabdena sug utpanna suchyate iti \ 
uchyate \ tad-ddravandt $,ncjittm abhidudrdva suchd vd 'bhidudruve suchd 
vd Rainkam abhidudr&va iti\ sudrdvayavdrtha-sambhavdd rudhdrthasya 
cha asambhavdt \ drisyate cha ayam artho 'sydm dkhydyikdydm \ 

35. "Kshattriyatva-gatei cha uttarattra Chaitrarathena lingdt n \ lias 
cha na jdti-sudro Jdnasrutir* yat-kdranam prakarana-nirupanena kshat- 
triyatvam asya uttarattra Chaitrarathena Abhipratdrind hhattriyena 
samabhwydhdrdl lingdd gamyate \ uttarattra hi samvarga-vidyd-vdkya- 
seshe Chaitrarathir Abhipratdri kshattriyah sankirttyate \ " atha ha 
S'aunakam cha Kdpeyam Abhipratdrinam cha Kdkshasenim sudena pari- 
miyamdnau brahmachdrl bibhikshe" (Chh. Tip. iv. 3, 5) iti \ Chaitra- 
rathitvam cha Abhipratdrinah Kdpeya-yogdd avagantavyam \ Kdpeya- 
yogo hi Chaitrarathasya avagatah \ " etena vai CRaitraratham Kdpeydh 
aydjayann" iti samdndnvaya-ydjindm cha prdyena samdndnvaydh ydja- 
kdh bhavanti \ tasmdch (l Chaitrarathir ndma ekah kshattra-patir ajdyata" 
iti cha kshattra-jdtitvdvagamdt kshattriyatvam asya avagantavyam \ tena 
kshattriyena Abhipratdrind saha samdndyam vidydydm sanklrttanam 
Jdnasruter api kshattriyatvam suchayati \ samdndndm eva hi prdyena 
samabhivydhdrdh bhavanti \ kshattri-preshanddy-aisvaryya-yogdch cha 
Jdnasruteh kshattriyatvdvagatih \ ato na iudrasya adhikdrah \ 

36. " Samskdra-pardmarsdt tad-abhdvdbhildpdch cha " | itas cha na 
sudrasyd adjiikdro yaa vidyd-pradeseshu upanayanddayah samskctrdh 
par dmrisy ante " tarn ha upaninye" | '" ' adhlhi bhngavah' iti ha upasa- 
sdda n | <f brahma-pardh brahma-ni&hthdft pararfa Brahma anveshamdndh 
' esha ha vai tat sarvam vaksltyati ' iti te ha somit-pdnayo bhagavantam 
Pippalddam upasanndh" iti cha " tdn na anupanlya eva'l ity api pra- 
darsitd eva upanayana-prdptir bhavati \ sudrasya cha s&mskdrdbhdvo 


^bhilapyate "sudras chaturtho varnah elcajatir" ity ekajdtitva-smaranena 
"no* sudre pdtakam kinchid ra cha samskdram arhati"<ity-ddilhis cha \ 

37. " Tad-alhdva-nirdhdrane cha pravritteh " | Itas cha na sudrasya 
adhikdro yat satya-vachanena sudratvdbhave nirdhdrite Jdbdlim Gauta- 
mah upanetum anusdsitum cha pravavrite " na etad alrdhmano vivaktum 
arhati \ samidham scmya dhara upa tvd neshye na satyCd agdh " (Chh. 
Up. iv. 4, 5) iti sruti-lingat \ 

38. " S'ravanadhyayanartha-pratishedhat smrrtes cha " | Itas cha na 
Sudrasya adhikdro yad asya smriteh sravanddhyayanartha-pratishedho bha- 
vati | veda-sravana-pratishedho iifdddhayana-pratishedhas tad-artha-jna- 
ndnushthdnayos cha pratishedhah sudrasya smaryyate \ sravana-pratishe- 
dhas tdvad atha asya "vedam upasrinvatas trc^-jatubhydm srotra-prati- 
puranam " iti " padyu ha vai etat smasdnam yat sudras tasmdt sudra- 
sarnlpe na adhyetavyam " iti cha \ atah eva adhy ay ana- pratishedhah \ 
yasya hi sarmpe ''pi na adhyetavyam bhavati sa katham srutim adhlyiyata \ 
lhavati cha uchchdrane jihvd-chhedo dhdrane sarira-lhedah iti \ atah eva 
cha arthdd artha-jndndnushthdnayoh pratishedho lhavati \ " na sudrdya 
matim dadydd" iti " dvijdtindm adhyayanam ijya ddnam" iti cha \ 
yeshdm punah purva-krita-samskdra-vasdd Vidura-dharma-vyddha-pra- 
bhritmdm jndnotpattis teshdm na sakyate phala-prdptih pratiladdhum 
jndnasya ekdntika-phalatvdt \ " srdvayech chaturo varndn " iti cha iti- 

hdsa-purdnddhigame chdturvarnyddhikdra-smarandt \ veda-purvakas tu 


nasty adhikdrah iudrdndm iti sthitam \ 

34. "In the word 'S'udra' reference is made to his vexation on 
hearing that disrespectful expression, and to his running up." 

" This section is commenced to silence the doubt whether in the same 
way as it had been denied (above) that the prerogative of acquiring 
divine knowledge is restricted to men, f and affirmed that it extends to 
the gods, etc., also, the limitation of the same prerogative to twice- 
born men may not also be questioned, and its extension to S'udras 
maintained. The grounds alleged in favour of the S'udra having this 
prerogative are that he may reasonably be supposed to have both () 
the desire and (J) the power of acquiring knowledge, and that accord- 
ingly (c] the Yeda contains no text affirming his incapacity for know- 
ledge, as it confessedly has texts directing his exclusion from sacrifice : 
and further (J) that the fact of the S'udra's not keeping up any sacred 
fire, which is the cause of his incapacity for sacrifice, affords no reason 


for denying to him the prerogative of gaining knowledge ; since it can- 
not* be maintained that it is impossible or a man who is destitute of 
the ahavanlya and other fires to acquire knowledge. There is also (e) 
in a Vedyj text a sign which confirms the S'udra' s prerogative. For in 
the passage which treats of the knowledge of the Samvarga (Chhan- 
dogya Upanishfld, chapter iv. section 1-3) a speaker designates Jana- 
sruti, descendant of Janasruta, in th5 third generation, who was desirous 
of performing ser^ic'e, by the term S'udra : ' Keep to thyself, o S'udra, 
thy necklace and chariot 2 with thy cattle.' (Chh. Up. iv. 2, 2.) And 
further (/) Yidura and others are ipoken of in*the Smriti as possessed 
of distinguished knowledge, although they -were of S'udra descent. 
Consequently the S'u<?^ % efcjoys the prerogative of. acquiring various 
sorts of divine knowtege. ^To this we reply : The S'udra has no such 
prerogative, because he cannot study the Yeda. For it is the man that 
studies the Veda, and obtains a knowledge of its contents, who enjoys 
the prerogative of [access *fco] those contents. But a S'udra does not 
study the Veda, for such study must be preceded by initiation, which 
again is confined to the three upper castes. As regards (a) the desire 
of knowledge, that, in the absence of power, confers no prerogative. 
And (5) mere secular power. does not suffice for the purpose; since 
scriptural power is necessary' in a matter connected with Scripture ; 
and such scriptural power is debarred by the debarring of study. And 
(c) the passage which declares that a ' S'udra is'incapacitated for sacri- 
fice,' demonstrates his incapacity for knowledge also ; since that follows 

2 Such is the sense given to haretva by the Commentators, who make it out to he 
a 'compound of the words hara, "necklace," and itva, "a chariot;" but although 
itva might be the nominative of itvan, "going," no such word appears in the lexicons 
with the sense of "chariot." Befides, the compound seems a very awkward one. 
Perhaps the word should be separated into ha are tva ; but then there would be no 
nominative to astu, and it would be difficult to construe tva, " thee." Since the 
above was written, I have been favoured with a note ^on the passage by Professor 
Goldstucker. He conjectures that the words should be divided as follows : ahaha are 
tva S'udra tava eva saha fiofchir astu; that tva may be the nominative singular femi- 
nine of the Vedic pronoun* tva, mea*nin| "f>pme one," and then the sense might be as 
follows : " 0, friend, some woman belongs to thee, S'udra ! Let her be (i.. come) 
along with the cows." And Janas'ruti would appear tb have understood the word tva 
in this sense here supposed, for w find that on hearing the reply of Raikva, he took 
his daughter to the latter, along with four hundred additional cows and the other 
gitys ; apd that on seeing the damsel, Raikva expressed his satisfaction and acceded 
to the request of her father. The author of these puzzling words, ?t seems, intended 
a pun ; and S'ankara perhaps gave only one solution*o* it. 


from the rule, which is of general application. As regards the circum- 
stance that in the Vedic text regarding the knowledge of the Sdm- 
varga, the word S'udra occurs, which you regard as a sign in favour of 
your view ; it is (d} no sign ; because in that passage no rule is laid 
down. For the discovery of a sign indicates that a rule has been 
laid down; but in the passage in question there is,, no such rule. 
And although it were conceded *nat [if it were found in a precept 
regarding the Samvarga] the word S'udra would confer on a man of 
that caste a prerogative in regard to that particular knowledge alone, 
(from its being intended for him), Although not to all sorts of know- 
ledge, yet as the word occurs [not in precept, but] in an illustrative 
narrative (arthavada) it cannot confer on^briin^a, prerogative in regard 
to any knowledge whatever. And in fa^t this word S'udra can be 
applied to a person [of a higher caste] who possessed the prerogative. 
How ? I explain : Vexation (suk] arose in the mind of Janasruti when 
he heard himself disrespectfully spoken of in these words of the swan : 
1 Who is this that thou speakest of as if he were Rainka yoked to the 
chariot ? ' 3 (Chh. Up. iv. 1, 3). And since a S'udra does not possess 
the prerogative of acquiring knowledge, we conclude that it is to this 
vexation (suK] that the rishi Rainka referred, for the purpose of shew- 
ing his own knowledge of things imperceptible by sense, when he made 
use of this word S'udra (Chh. Up. iv. 2, 2, see above). But again, how 
is it indicated by the word S'udra that vexation (6uk) arose in his mind ? 
We reply: by 'the running to it [or him]" (tad-ddravanuf); i.e. either 
'he ran to vexation,' or ' he was assailed by vexation,' or 'in his vexa- 
tion he resorted to Rainka.' We conclude thus because the sense 
afforded by the component parts of the word S'udra is the probable 

one, 4 whilst the conventional sense of the word S'udra is here inap- 

plicable. And this is seen to be the meaning in this story. 

3 This appears to allude to the person referred to being found sitting under a 
chariot (Chh. Up. iv. 1, 8). See p. 67 of Babu Eajendralal Mittra's translation. This 
story is alluded to by Professor Weber in his Ind. Stud, ixf 45, note, where he treats 
Sayugvan as a proper name, and remarks " Tire Vrdanta Sutras (i. 3, Sij^So), indeed, 
try to explain away this" (the circumstance of Janas'ruti being called a S'udra) and 
of course S'ankara in his commentary on them does the same, as well in his explana- 
tion of the Chhandogya Upanishad." I am not, however, by any means certain that 
the epithet " S'udra," applied to Janas'ruti by Rainka, is not merely meant as a term 
of abuse. f 

4 The meaning of this is that the word S'udra is derived from such, "vexation," 


Sutra 35. "And that Janasruti was a Kshattriya is afterwards indi- 
cated by what is ^aid of Abhipratarin of the race of Chaitraratha." 

" That Janasruti was not a S'udra appears also from this, that by 
examining the context Jie is afterwards found to be a Kshattriya by 
the sign that he is mentioned along with Abhipratarin of the family 
of Chaitraratha^ For in *the sequel of the passage regarding the 
knowledge of the Samvarga mentioS is made in these words of Abhi- 
prataryi Chaitrara'^h?, a Kshattriya: 'JSTow a Brahmacharin asked 
alms of 13'aunaka of th^e race of Kapi, and Abhipratarin the son of 
Kakshasena who were being servfjl at a meal' (Chh. Up. iv. 3, 5). 
And that Abhipratarin belonged to the family of ChaiWaratha is to be 
gathered from his connection with the Kapeyas ; for the connection of 
Chaitraratha with the? latte^ has been ascertained by the text : ' The 
Kapeyas performed sacrifice for Chaitraratha." Priests of the same 
family in general officiate for worshippers belonging to the same family. 
From this, as well as fron? the text : ' From him a lord of Kshat- 

and dru, " to run." (See the First Volume of this work, p. 97, note 192.) Even the 
great S'ankara, it seems, was unable to perceive the absurdity of such etymologies. 
In his commentary on the Chhandogya Upanishad the same writer tells us that 
various explanations had been given of the employment of the word S'udra in this 
passage : Nanu raja 'sau kshattri-sambandhat \ "Sa ha kshattaram uvacha" (iv. 1, 5) 
ity uktam \ vidya-grahanaya cha brahmana-samlpopagamat \ sudrasya cha anadhi- 
karat \ katham idarn ananurupam Raikvena uchyate " sudra" iti \ tattra ahur acha- 
ryyah \ hamsa-vachana-sravanat sug enam avivesa \ tena *asau sucha srutva Raik- 
vasya mahimanam va dravati iti \ rishir atmanah parokshajnatam darsayan " sudra" 
ity aha, \ sudra-vad badhanena eva enam vidya-grahanaya upajagama na susrushaya\ 
na tu jatya eva sudrah iti \ apare punar ahur alpam dhanam ahritam iti rusha eva 
enam uktavan " sudra " iti \ " But is not Janas'ruti shewn to have been a king, () 
from his name being connected with a charioteer in the passage ' He said to his 
charioteer,' (4) from his resorting to a Brahman to obtain knowledge, and (c) from a 
S'udra possessing no such prerogative ? How then did Eaikva address to him an 
appellation inconsistent with this in i!h.e words ' o S'udra P ' Learned teachers reply : 
' Vexation (suk) took possession of him on hearing the words of the swan : in con- 
sequence of which, or of hearing (srutva) of the greatness of Raikva, he ran up 
[S'udra is here derived either from s'ucha + dravati, or from srutva -f dravati] ; and the 
rishi, to shew his knowledge of things beyond the reach of the senses, called him 
S'udra. He h3d approached^ obtain knowledge from the rishi by annoying him like a 
S'udra, and not by rendering him service ; while yet he was not by birth a S'udra. 
Others again say that the rishi angrily called him a S'iflra because he had brought 
him so little property." This passage is also translated by Babu Eajendralal (Chh. 
Up. p. 68, note), who renders badhanena (which I have taken to mean "annoying ") 
by " paying " for instruction ; but I cannot find any authority for ^his sense of the 


triyas named Chaitrarathi was descended,' which proves that his 
family were Kshattriyas, we may gather that Abhipratarin belonged 
to this class. And the circumstance" that Janasruti is mentioned in 
connection with the same branch of knowledge as Abhiprptarin, the 
Kshattriya, shews that the former also was a Kshattriya. For it is in 
general men of the pame class who are mentioned together. And from 
the fact of Janasruti sending a charioteer (Chh. Up. iv. 1, 5-7), and his 
other acts of sovereignty also, we learn that he was a Kshattriya. 
Hence (we conclude that) a S'iidra does not -possess the prerogative 
of divine knowledge. f- 

Sutra 36. "From reference being made to initiation, and from a 
S'udra being declared to be excluded from it.iL-. 

"And that a S'udra does not possess he prerogative- of acquiring 
divine knowledge, may be further inferred from the fact that investi- 
ture with the sacred cord and other rites are referred to in passages 
where science is the subject in question. 'For the fact that the seekers 
after such knowledge obtained initiation, is shewn by such passages as 
the following : ' He invested him ; ' c He came to him, saying, teach 
me, Sir' (Chh. Tip. vii. 1, 1 ?) ; 'Devoted to Brahma, resting in Brah- 
ma, seeking after the highest Brahma, they approached the venerable 
Pippalada with firewood in their hands, (saying) ' he will declare all 
this' (Prasna Tip. i. 1); and 'having invested them,' etc. And that 
a S'udra receives no ^initiation is shewn by the text of the Smriti 
which pronounces him to be but once-born, viz. 'the S'udra is the 
fourth class, and once-born ; ' and by such other passages as this : 
' There is no sin in a S'udra, and he is not entitled to initiation.' " 5 

Sutra 37. " And because he acted after ascertaining that it was not 
a S'udra [who had come to him]." , 

"That a S'udra does not possess the prerogative of acquiring know- 
ledge appears also from this that [according to the Chhandogya Upani- 
shad] Gautama proceeded to invest and instruct Jabala after ascertain- 
ing by his truth- speaking that he O was not <a S'udra : ' None but a 
Brahman could distinctly declare' this : bring, o fair youth, a piece of 
fuel ; I will invest thee^ thou^hast not departed from the truth ' (Chh. 
Up^iv.4, 5). 

This last veise has been already quoted in Vol. I. p. 138, note 244. 
* I shall quoce in full the earlier part of the passage from which these words are 




.Sutra 38. "And because, according to the Smriti, a S'udra is for- 
bidden to near, Ar read, or learn flie senso." 

. "And that a S'udra does not possess the prerogative of acquiring 
divine knowledge, appe*ars f^rom this that, according to the Smriti, he 
is forbidden to hear it, or r,ead it, or learn its sense : i.e. it is declared 
in the Smriti that he is forbidden either to hear the Veda, or read the 
Veda, or to learn j.t contents,or to p*ractise its injunctions. Hearing is 
forbidde^n to him in these texts : ' If, he listens to the reading of the 
Veda, his ears are to be filled with [melted} lead and lac ; ' and ' The 
S'udra is a walking cemetery ; thlrefore no one must read in his vi- 
cinity.' And consequently thp reading of it is prohibited to him : for 


taken, both for the sake f explaining the allusion, and for the illustration which it 
affords of ancient Indian manners': Chh. Up. iv. 4, 1. Satyakdmo ha Jabalo Jabdldm 
mdtaram dmantraydnchakre "brahmacharyyam bhavati vivatsydmi kim~gotro nv aham 
asmi" iti \ 2. Sd ha enam uvdcha " na aham etad veda fata yad-gotras tvam asi \ bahv 
aham charantl parichdrinl yam^me tvam alabhe \ sd 'ham etad na veda yad-gottras 
tvam asi \ Jabdld tu ndma aham asmi Satyakamo ndma tvam asi \ sa SatyaJcdmah eva 
Jabalo 'bravlthdh" iti \ " Satyakama, the son of Jabala, addressed his mother Jabiilfi, 
saying, ' I wish, mother, to enter on the life of a religious student. To what family 
(gottra : see Muller's Anc. Sansk. Lit. pp. 378 if.) do I belong ? ' 2. She answered, 
' I do not know, my son, to what family thou belongest. Much consorting [with 
lovers] and roving (or serving), in my youth, I got thee. I know not of what family 
thou art. But my name is Jabala, and thine Satyakama. Say, ' I am Satyakama 
son of Jabala.' " He accordingly goes to Haridrumata of the race of Gotama, and 
asks to be received as a student. The teacher enquires to what family he belongs 
and the youth repeats verbatim the answer he had received from his mother, and says 
he is Satyakama the son of Jaba.15.. The teacher replies in the words quoted by 
S'ankara "No one other than a Brahman could distinctly declare this," etc. The 
interpretation of paragraph 2, above given, seems to convey its correct sense. Jabala 
apparently means to confess that her son was nuttius filius : and that he must be 
content to call himself her son, as she did not know who his father was. The explan- 
ation of the words bahv aham charanfi parichdrinl yauvane tvam alabhe given by the 
Commentators and followed by BaVi Rajendralal Mittra, that she was so much occu- 
pied with attending to guests in her husband's house, and so modest that she never 
thought of enquiring about her son's gottra, and that her husband died early, is founded 
mainly on the word paricharim, and would not account <for Jabala' s ignorance of her 
husband's name (which she does not mention) or even of her husband's lineage. In 
regard to th$ sense of charcyiti see the passage from the S'atapatha Brahman*, ii. 5, 
2, 20, quoted in the First Volume oT this wwk, p. 136, not 242. S'ankara was either 
ignorant of the laxity of ancient morals, or wished to throw a veil over the spurious 
origin of a sage like Satyakama who had attained divine knowledge and become a 
teacher of it (see Chh. Up. iv. 1G>, 1). In his preface, however, p. 30, as I observe, 
Babu Rajendralal speaks of Satyakama as a natural son in these words : "Although 
a natural born son whose father was unknown, and recognized b^ the contemptuous 
soubriquet of Jabala from the designation of his mother Jabala," e&. 


how can he, in whose neighbourhood even the Veda is forbidden to be 
read, read it himself? And if he iftters it, his tongue is to be cut ; 
and if he retains it in his memory, his body is to be slit. And it 
results from the meaning of the terms that he is prohibited fr/am learn- 
ing its contents, or practising its injunctions, according to the texts, 
' Let no one impart intelligence to a S'udra ; ' and ' reeding, sacrifice, 
and liberality are the duties of twice-born men.' As regards (/) Vi- 
dura, Dharma, Vyadha, and others in whom knowledge was produced 
in consequence of their f recollection of acts performed in a former 
birth, their enjoyment of its results cannot be prevented, from the 
transcendent character of the effects of knowledge ; and because in the 
text ' Let the four castes be made to hear thfiEi,' the Smriti declares 
that the four castes possess the prerogative of learning the Itihasas 
and Puranas [by means of which S'udras may attain perfection]. But 
it has been established that S'udras do not possess the prerogative of 
acquiring divine knowledge derived [directly] from [the study of] the 

the Bhagavad Glta affirms a different doctrine in the following 
verses, x. 32 f., where Krishna says : 

Mum hi Pdrtha vyapdsritya ye 'pi syuh papa-yonayah \ striyo vaisyas 
tathd sudras te 'pi ydnti pardm gatim \ 33. Kim punar brdhmandh pun- 
ydfi bhalctdh rdjarshayas tathd \ 

" Those who have faith in me, even though they be of base origin, 
women, Vaisyas, and S'udras, attain to the most transcendent state. 
How much more pure Brahmans and devout royal rishis." 

S'ankara could scarcely have been ignorant that his principle was not 
in harmony with this text j but he has thought proper to ignore this 
discrepance of views, as he probably shrank from directly contradicting 
a work held in such high estimation. 

See also the account of the views entertained on the same subject by 
S'andilya which I have stated above, p. 178. 

f . Page 105, fine 24. 

The following quotation continues the discussion of this subject; 
and will also serve to illustrate pp. 6 and 16, above, as well as p. 60 
of the First Volume : 

Brahma SuCra i. 3, 30. (< Samdna-ndma-rupatvdch cha dvrittdv apy 


avi^odho darsandt smrites cha" ' athdpi sydt \ yadi pasv-ddi-vad deva- 
vyaktayo ''pi santatyd eva utpadyeran nintdhyerams cha tato 'bhidhdnd- 
bhidheydbhidhdtri - vyavahdrdvichheddt sambandha - nityatvena virodMh 
sabde parthriyeta \ yadd tu 1chalu sakalam trailokyam parityakta-ndma- 
rupam nirlepam praliyate prabhavati cha abhinavam iti sruti-smriti-vdddh 
vadanti tadd ftatham avirodhah iti ^tattra idam tibhidhlyate " samdna- 
ndma-riipatvdd " iti^\ tadd 'pt samsdrasya andditvam tdvad abhyupagan- 
tavyam | pratipddhyisJiyati cha, dchdryyah samsdrasya andditvam " upa- 
padyatt cha apy upalaokyate cha" iti (Brahma ^utra ii. 1, 36) | anddau 
cha samsdre yathd svdpa-prabodhayohpralaya-pralhava-sravane 'pi purva- 
pralodha-vad uttara-pralodhe 'jpt vyavahdrdd na kaschid virodhah \ evam 
kalpdntara-pralhava-jyraVayayor api iti drashtavyam \ svdpa-prabodhayos 
cha pralaya-prabJiavau sruyete \ "yadd suptah svapnam na Tcanchana 
pasyaty atha asmin prdnah eva ekadhd bhavati tadd enam vdk sarvair 
ndmabhih saha apyeti chaktfiuh sarvaih rupaih saha apyeti frotram sar- 
vaih sabdaih saha apyeti manah sarvair dhydnaih saha apyeti \ sa yadd 
pratibudhyate yathd 'gner jvalatah sarvdh diso visphulingdh vipratish- 
therann evam eva etasmdd dtmanah sarve prdnah yathdyatanam vipratish- 
thante prdnebhyo devdh devebhyo lokdh (Kaush. Br. Utt. A. 3, 3) iti \ sydd 
etat | svdpe purushdntara-vyavahdrdvichheddt svayam cha sushupta-pra- 
buddhasya purva-prabodha-vyavahdrdnusandhdna-sambhavdd aviruddham \ 
mahdpralaye tu sarva-vyavahdrochheddj janmdnfara-vyavahdra-vach cha 
Tcalpdntara-vyavahdrasya anusandhdtum asakyatvdd vaishamyam iti \ na 
esha doshah \ saty api sarva-vyavahdrochhedini mahdpralaye Paramesva- 
rdnugrahdd isvardndm Hiranyagarbhddlndm kalpdntara-vyavahdrdnu- 
sandhdnopapatteh \ yadyapi prdkritdh prdnino na janmdntara-vyava- 
hdram anusandhdndh drisyante iti na tat prdkrita-vad Isvardndm bhavi- 
tavyam \ yathd hi prdnitvdrisesJie 'pi manushyddi-stamba-paryyanteshu 
jndnaisvaryyddi-pratibandhah parena parena bhuydn bhavan drisyate 
tathd manushyddishv eva Hiranyagarbha-parymteshu jndnaisvaryyddy- 
abhivyalctir api parena parena bhuyasl bhavati ity etat sruti-smriti- 
vddeshv asalcrid eva anukalpd<sl,au' > prdflurbhavatdm pdramaisvaryyam &ru- 
yamdnam na sakyaih ndsti iti vaditum \^ tatas fha atlta - kalpdnushthita- 
prakrishta-jndna-karmandm Isvardndm Hiranyagarbhddlndm varttamdna- 
kalpddau prddurbhavatdm Paramesvardnugrihitdndm supta-pratibuddha- 
vai kalpdntara-vyavahdrdnusandhdnopapattih \ tathd\ha srutir t( yo 
Brahmdnam vidadhdti purvam yo vai vedam* sha prahinoti tasmg,i \ tarn 


ha devam dtma-buddhi-prakdsam mumukshur vai saranam aham prapadyt" 
(S'vetasvatara Upanishad, via 18) iti \ smaranti cha Saunakddayo Mia- 
dJwchhandah-prabhritibhir ddsatathyo drishtdh iti \ prativedam cha evam 
eva kdndarshy - ddayah smaryyante \ Srutif apy rishi-jndna-purvakam 
eva mantrena anushthdnam darsayati " yo ha vai aviditdrsheya-chhando- . 
daivata-lrdhmanena nantrena ydjayati vd adhydpayati b(l sthdnum cha, 
richhati garttam vd prapadyate" ity upakramya " tasmdd etdni mantre 
vidydd" iti \ prdnindm cha sulcha-prdptaye dhar-mwidhlyate duhkha- 
parihdrdya adharmah pra&ishidhyate \ drishtdntisravika-duhkha-sukha- 
vishayau cha rdga-dveshau bhavato nk vilakshana-vishaydv ity ato dhar- 
mddharma-phala-lhutottarottard srishtir *iishpadyamdnd purva-srishti- 
sadrisy eva nishpadyate \ smritis cha bhavati "*toskdm ye ydni karmdni 
prdk-srisht ydm pratipedire \ tdny eva te prapadyante srijyamdndh punah 
punah | hirnsrdhimsre mridu-krure dharmddharmdv ritdnrite \ tad-bhd- 
vitdh prapadyante tasmdt tat tasya radiate" \ iti \ prallyamdnam api cha 
idamjagat sakty-avasesham eva pr ally ate sakti-mulam eva cha pralhavati 
itarathd dkasmikatva-prasangdt \ na cha anekdkdrdh saktayah sakydh 
kalpayitum \ tatas cha vichhidya vichhidya apy udbhavatdm bhur-ddi- 
loka-pravuhdndrn deva - tiryan - manushya - lakshandndm cha prdni-ni- 
kdya-pravdhdndm varndsrama-dharma-phala-vyavasthdndm cha anddau 
samsdre niyatatvam indraya-vishaya-sambandha-niyatatva-vat pratyeta- 
vyam \ na hi indriya-visliaya-sambandhdder vyavahdrasya prati sargam 
anyathdtvaih shashthendriya-vishaya-kalpam sakyam utprekshitum \ atas 
cha sarva-kalpdndiii tulya-vyavahdratvdt kalpdntara-vyavahdrdmisan- 
dhuna-kshamatvdch cha Isvardndm samdna-ndma-rupdh eva pratisargam 
viseshdh prddurlhavanti samdna-ndma-rupatvdch cha dvrittdv api maha- 
sarga-mahdpralaya-lakshandydm jagato 'bhyupagamyamdndydm na kas- 
chich chhabda-prdmdnyddi-virodhah \ sanlna-ndma-rupatdm cha-sruti- 
smritl darsayatah " suryd-chandramasau dhdtd yathd-purvam akalpayat \ 
divam cha prithivlm chdntarlksham atho svah " | iti \ yathd purvasmin 
kalpe suryd-chandramah-prabhriti jagat klriptam tathd 'sminn api kalpe 
Paramesvaro 'kalpayad ity arthah \ tafhd J; ( Agnir vai akdmcyata f an- 
nddo devdndm sydm ' iti sa evam agnaye krittikdbhyah puroddsam ashta- 
kapdlam niravapad" iti ndkshattreshti-vidhau yo 'gnir niravapad yasmai 
vd 'gnaye niravapat tayoh* samdna-ndma-rupatdm darsayati ity-evam- 
jdtlyakd srutir fiddharttavyd \ smritir api " rishlndm ndmadheydni yds 
cha vedeshu dr&htayah \ sarvaryy-ante prasutdndm tdny evaibhyo daddty 



ajaji | yathartdv ritu-lingdni ndnd-rupdni paryyaye \ drisyante tdni tdny 
eva tathd Ihdvdh J/uffddishu \ yathd'bhimdwno'titdstulyds te sdmpratair 
iha | devdh devair atltair hi rupair ndmabhir eva cha " ity evam-jatlyakk 
drashtavyS, \ \ 

. "Brahma Sutra, i. 3, 30.,' And though there be a recurrence of crea- 
tion, yet as (tlfb new creation) has^the same name and form 7 (as the 
old) there will be no contradiction in regard to the words of the Veda ; 
since this is proved both by the intuition of rishis and by the Smriti.' 
And further, let it be" so that if a series of individual gods, as of 
animals, etc., is born and disappears in unbroken continuity, the al- 
leged contradiction in regard Jo the words of the Veda (viz. that as 
they are connected witir* objects which are not eternal, they cannot 
themselves be. eternal) will be removed by the perpetuity of connection 
arising from the continuity of practice regarding the designation of 
things, the things to be designated, and the designator. But when, as 
texts of the S'ruti and Smriti inform us, the entire three worlds, losing 
name and form, 8 are utterly annihilated and afterwards produced anew, 
how can the contradiction be 'avoided ? [The meaning of this is : How 
can there be an eternal connection between the words of the Veda and 
objects which how long soever they may have existed, must yet have 
come into being at the new creation following after the total (not 
merely the partial) destruction of the universe ? and if such a connection 
does not exist, how can the words of the Veda be eternal, when before 
this new creation they represented nothing existent? see above, p. 
102.] A reply to this is given in the words, 'Yet as (the new 
creation) ha"s the same name and form as the old,' etc. Even then 
the world must be admitted to have been without a beginning. This 
eternity of the world will be declared by our teacher in the words (of 

7 Professor Goldstiicker is of opinion that here, as elsewhere, these words (nama- 
rupa) should be rendered " substance and form." See thettote on the subject furnished 
by him in M. Burnouf's Introduction a 1'histoire du Buddhisme Indien, p. 502. 

8 Govind?Ananda remarks on the Si^tra before us, and S'ankara's comment : "Nanu 
maha-pralayejater apy asattvat sabdartha-sHmbandhanityafvam ity asankya aha"sa- 
mana" iti \ sutramnirasya asankamaha "athapj" id | 'gyakti-santatyajatlnamavan- 
tara-pralaye sativat sambandhas tishthati vyavaharamchhedaj jnayeta cha iti vedasya 
anapelcshntvena pramanye na kasthid virodhah syat \ liirlepa-pralaye tu sambandha- 
nasat punah srishtau Jcenachit pumsa sanketah Ttarttavyah iti pwaisha-buddhi-sape- 
kshntvena vedasya apramanyam adhyapakasya asrayasya nasad asiitasya anityatvath 
cha praptam ity arthah \ mahapralaye 'pi nirlepa-layp \siddhffh sat-karyya-vaddt \ 


Brahma Sutra, ii. 1, 36), 'It is agreeable to reason, and it is ascertained.' 
And the world being eternal^ although the Veda declares that its disso- 
lution and reproduction take place during the sleep, and at the waking 
(of the creator), still as the practice continues the same in the later, as 
in the previous, waking condition, there is no contradiction (of the sort 
pretended). And itois to be considered that the same must be the case 
in regard to the dissolutions and creations of another. Kalpa (see Yol. I. 
p. 43 f.). Now dissolutions and .creations are said m the Yeda to take 
place during (the creator's) sleep, and at his' waking. ' When the 
sleeper does not see any vision, and when his breath is concentrated 
in him, then the voice with all names^enters into him, the eye with 
all forms enters into him, the ear with all 'sounds enters into him, 
the mind with all thoughts enters into hkn. When he wakes, just as 
sparks shoot out in all directions from blazing fire, so do all breaths 
according to their several seats issue from this Soul ; from the breaths 
spring deities; and from the deities worlds' (Kaushitaki Brahmana, 
latter part, 3, 3). But be it so, that [in the circumstances referred 
to] there is no contradiction of the kind alleged, because during the 

tatha cha samskaratmana sabdartha-tat-sambandhanam satam eva punah srishtav 
abhivyakter na anityatvam \ abhivyaktanaih purva-kalpiya-nama-rupa-samanatvad 
na sanketah kenachit karyyah \ vishama-sruhtau hi sanketapeksha na tulya~srishtav 
iti pariharati" tattra idam" ity-adina \ " But since in a great dissolution even species 
cease to exist, will it not result that the connection of words with the objects they 
denote is not eternal? In reference to this douht the aphorist says, ' as the name and 
form are the same,' etc. "Waving the authority of the Sutra, the Commentator ex- 
presses a doubt in the words ' And further,' etc. It is true that the connection sub- 
sists in consequence of the continuity of individuals owing to the existence of species 
during the intermediate dissolutions, and this connection will be known because the 
previous practice continues uninterrupted. And so from the independence of the 
Veda, there will be no contradiction in regard to its authority. But since in a total 
dissolution all such connection is lost, and some intimation (of what had existed before) 
must be given by some person at the new creation, the Veda will be dependent on 
the understanding of such person, and consequently its unauthoritativeness, as 
well as the non-eternity of the dependent object, owing to the extinction of the in- 
structor on whom it depended, will result. But even in a great dissolution an absolute 
annihilation is unproved, according to the doctrine that, effects exist in, their causes. 
And so, as words, the objects which they denote, and the connection between both, 
(all of which things previously existed), are manifested at the new creation as re- 
miniscences of a previous exis'tence, they are not non-eternal. As the objects thus 
manifested have the same na.nes and forms as in the previous Kalpa, there is no 
necessity for any intimation (of what Lad existed before) being given by any person. 
For such an intimation would, indeed, be required in a dissimilar creation, but not 
in one which is similar f It ,js thus that the commentator removes the objection in 
the words ' a reply to this is given,' etc." 

J / 


sleep (of one person) the practice of others continues uninterruptedly, 
and* even the person who has been in a deep sleep can ascertain the 
action which took place in his former waking state. * But this is i>i- 
applicabl* to a great 3isso]ution, because then there is an absolute 
^ annihilation of all practice^ and because the practice which prevailed in 
another Kalpa,* like that of another birth, cannot he ascertained. This 
objection, however, does not hold ; for although all practice is annihi- 
lated by a great dissolution, still it is, proved that through the favour 
of the supreme Lord, 1 the lords Hiranyagavbha (Brahma), etc., can 
ascertain the practice of the preceding Kalpa. Although ordinary 
creatures are not observed to ? evince the power of discovering the 
practice of a former tyyth, the limitation which is true of them will 
not attach to ^he great lords in question. For just as in the series of 
beings commencing with men, and ending with posts, although all the 
creatures included in it without distinction possess the attribute of life, 
yet, as we descend the scale, the obstructions to knowledge and to power 
are perceived to go on gradually increasing ; so too, in the series be- 
ginning with men and culminating in Hiranyagarbha, there is an ever 
greater and^greater manifestation of knowledge and of power, etc. ; and 
thus the transcendent faculties which are declared in texts of the S'ruti 
and Smriti to belong to the beings who again and again come into existence 
at the beginning of the successive Kalpas cannot be denied to be real. 
And consequently it is established that the lords Hiranyagarbha and 
others who during the past Kalpa had manifested distinguished know- 
ledge and powers of action, and who again came into existence at the 
beginning of the present Kalpa, and enjoyed the favour of the supreme 
Lord, were able, like a person who has been asleep and awakes again, 
to ascertain the practice of tiie previous Kalpa. And accordingly 
the S'ruti says : ' Seeking final liberation, I take refuge with that 
God, shining by the light of his own intellect, .who in the beginning 
creates Brahma and reveals to him the Vedas' (S'vetasv. Upan. vi. 18). 
And S'aunaka and other^record in-their Smritis that the hymns in Ihe 
ten Mandalas of the Eig-veda were seen by Madhuchhandas and other 
rishis. In the same way the Kandarshis, etc*., of each of the Vedas 
are specified in the Smritis. The S'ruti, too, in the passage commenc- 
ing ' Any priest who in sacrificing for another person, or^i teaching a 
pupil, employs a text of which he does not know,the rjshi, metre, deity, 



and proper application, is turned into a post, or falls into a pit,' and end- 
ing, 'Wherefore let him ascertain all these points regarding every text; ' 
-Declares that a knowledge of the rishi by whom it was seen should 
precede the ceremonial use of every Further, righteousness is 
prescribed and unrighteousness is forbidden, with a view to promote the 
happiness and obviat'6 the misery of living beings : and love and dislike 
have for their objects nothing but the happiness and^misery which are 
perceptible by sense or are scripturally revealed. 'Consequently each 
succeeding creation which is effected, forming, ' as it does, the, recom- 
pense of righteousness and unrighteousness, is constituted perfectly 
similar to each of those which preceded^ it. And the Smriti, too, de- 
clares : ' These creatures, as they are reproduced time after time, per- 
form, respectively, the very same actions as they had performed in the 
previous creation. 10 They so act under the influence of (their previous 
tendencies) whether noxious or innoxious, mild or cruel, righteous or 
unrighteous, to truth or to falsehood; and it is from this cause that 
they are disposed to one or another course of conduct.' Besides, even 
when this world is destroyed, a residuum of its force (saldi] continues, 
and it is reproduced only because it has this force for its basis : for 
any other supposition would involve the difficulty of the world having 
no cause. And as we cannot conceive that there are many forms of 
force (saJcti\ we must believe that, as the relations between the senses 
and their objects are invariable, so too, in a world which had no com- 
mencement, the successions of earths and other worlds, and of different 
classes of living beings distinguished as gods, animals, and men, (al- 
though separated from each other in the period of their production,) as 
well as the ordinations of castes, orders, duties, and recompences are 
invariable. For we cannot imagine that such conditions as the re- 

9 The object of these remarks of S'ankara regarding the rishis is thus explained 
by Govinda Ananda : Kincfya mantranam rishy-adi-jnanavasyaJcatva-jnapika srutir 
mantra-drig-rish~inamjnanalisayamdarsayati ity aha | . . . . tatha cha jnanadhikaih 
kalpfintaritam vedam smritva vyavaharasya pravarttitatiiid vedasyaanaditvamanape- 
kshatvam cha aviruddham iti bhavah \ "In the'e words 'S'ankara intimates that the 
S'ruti which declares the necessity of knowing the rishis, etc., thereby manifests 

the transcendent knowledge o'i the rishis who saw the mantras And so from 

the fact that these rishis, distinguished by eminent knowledge, recollected the Veda 
which had existed in a different Kalpa, and [again] gave currency to the [ancient] 
practice [of its .-ecepts], it is shewn that the eternity and independence of the Veda 
is not in contradiction [to any fact] such is the purport." 

10 See the First Volume of this work, p. 60. ^ 


between the senses and their objects, etc., should vary in every 
creation, in such a way, for example, as t*hat there shpuld exist objects 
Ibr a sixth sense. Hence, as all Kalpas exist under the same conditions, 
and as the lords (Hiranyagar*bha, etc.) are able to ascertain the conditions 
which existed in another *Kalpa, varieties (of beings) having the same 
name and form are produced in ever^creation; and in consequence of this 
sameness of namerand form, even though a revolution of the world in the 
form of. a great creatfbn and a great dissolution is admitted, no contra- 
dictionarises affecting the authority of the words of the Veda, etc. Both 
S'ruti and Smriti shew us this sameness of name and fcmn. Here such 
( texts of the S'ruti as these ma/ be adduced : ' The creator formed as be- 
fore the sun and mootf, 'tne sky and the earth, the air and the heaven.' 
This means tnat in this Kalpa the supreme Lord fashioned the sun, the 
moon, and the rest of the world in the same way as they had been 
fashioned in the former Kfipa.' Again : Agni desired, ' May I be the 
food-eater of the gods." He offered to Agni [as the deity presiding over] 
the Krittikas 11 (the Pleiades) a cake in eight platters/ In this passage 
the S'ruti shews that the two Agnis, he who in the ceremony of sacri- 
fice to the*constellation offered the oblation, and he to whom it was 
offered, had the same name and form. And such Smritis, too, as the 
following should be examined : ' The Unborn Being gives to those born 
at the end of the night (i.e. of the dissolution 12 )tthe names of the rishis 
and their intuitions into the Yedas. 13 Just as on the recurrence of each 
of the seasons of the year its various characteristics are perceived to be 
the very same (as they had been before), so too are the things produced 
at the beginning of the yugas ; u and the past gods presiding over dif- 
ferent objects resemble those who exist at present, and the present 
(resemble the) past in their names and forms.' >: 

I shall quote a part of S'ankara's remarks on the Brahma Sutra, 
ii. 1, 36, referred to in the earlier part of the preceding quotation, in 
which the eternity of the world is affirmed : 

? , 

II Erittika-naltshattrabhimani-devaya Agnaye Govinda Ananda. 
12 S'arvaryy-ante pralayante Govinda Ananfla. * 

_ ls The sense of the last words, which I translate literally, is not very clear. Govinda 
Ananda says that in the word vedeshu the locative case denotes the object (vedeshv iti 
vishaya-saptamT). Compare the passages quoted above in p. 16 fi$*n the Vishnu P. 
and TM. Bh. which partially correspond with this verse. 

, " Already quoted from the Vishuu P. in the First Volume 'of this work, p60. 


ii. 1, 36. " Upapadyate cha upalalhyate cha" \ " upapadyate chy. " 
samsarasya anddityam \ ddim^ttve hi samsdrasya alcasm'dd udbhuter muk- 
tbsidm api punah samsdrodlhuti-prasangah \ akritdbhydgama-prasangqs 
cha sukha-duhkhddi-vaishamyasya nirnimitt^tvdt \ na cha Isvaro vaisha- 
mya-hetur iiy uktam \ na cha avidyd kevald jvaishamyasya kdranam eka- . 
rupatvdt \ rdgddi-kleta-vdsandkshipfai-lcarmdpekshd tv avidyd vaishamya- 
karl sydt \ na cha karma antarena sarlram sambhavaii na cha sariram 
antarena karma sambhavati iti itaretardsraya-doshi-pfasangah \ andditve 
tu vljdnkura-nydyena uqoapatter na kaschid dosho bhavati \ 

" ' It is agreeable to reason, and it is ascertained.' The eternity of 
the world is agreeable to reason. For ^n the supposition that it had 
a beginning, as it came into existence withoat a cause, the difficulty 
would arise (1) that those who had obtained liberation from mundane 
existence might become again involved in it ; 15 and (2) that men would 
enjoy or suifer the recompense of what they had never done, as the 
inequalities occasioned by happiness and misery, etc., would be cause- 
less. But God is not the cause of this inequality, as we have said 
(see the comment on Sutra ii. 1, 34). Nor can ignorance alone be its 
cause, since ignorance is uniform (whilst conditions are varied). But 
ignorance, when connected with works induced by the surviving me- 
mory of desire and other sources of disquiet, may be the cause of in- 
equality. Further, qorporeal existence does not originate without 
works, nor works without bodily existence : so that (this hypothesis 
of the world having had a beginning) involves the fallacy of making 
each of two things depend upon the other. But on the supposition 
that the world had no beginning, there is no difficulty, as the two 
things in question may be conceived to have succeeded each other like 
seed and sprout from all eternity." (See Ballantyne's Aphorisms of 
the Sankhya, Book i. pp. 60 and 126.) 

Page 111, line 2 from the foot ; and Page 113, line 11. 

In the first edition, p. 78, I had \,ranolated r the word sa/nayddhyu- 
shite " in the morning twilight." When revising the translation for 

the new edition I became uncertain about the sense, and did not advert 

<j i 

15 i.e. as Profytor Cowell suggests, if there is no cause for the production of the 
world, it comes into existence at hap-hazard, and by some chance the liberated raay 
be bornragain as well a? the vnliberated. 



to the fact that the term is explained in Professor Wilson's Dictionary 
as denoting " a* time at which neither^ stars nor sun are visible.'' 
Professor Cowell has since pointed out that the wor*d occurs in tj^e 
second of the following* verces of Manu, where a rule is given for the 
.interpretation of the Veda in cases such as that referred to by the com- 
mentator on tbe Nyaya Sutras: ii. 14 : S'ruti-dvvidhani tu yattra sydt 
tattra dharmdv ulhau smritau*\ ubhab api hi tau dharmau samyag uktau 
manuhibhih \ 15. U<L\ie 'nudite chaiva t samayddhyushite tathd \ sarvathd 
varttate yajnah itiyam^vaidikl srutih \ " 14. In cases where there is a 
twofold Vedic prescription, both the 1 rites are declared in the Smriti to 
be binding ; since they havebe,e,n distinctly pronounced by sages to be of 
'equal authority. 15. Tha Vedic rule is that sacrifice may be performed 
in all the thre ( e ways ['indicated in a particular text], viz. when the sun 
has risen, when it has not risen, and when neither stars nor sun appear, 
i.e. in the morning twilight." Kulluka says : Surya-naJcshatra-varji- 
tah Icdlah samayddhyushita-sabdena uchyate \ " a time devoid of sun and 
stars is denoted by the word samayddhyushita. 

Page 142, lines 14 and 16. 

The firstf of these quotations is from the Brihad Aranyaka TJpanishad, 
i. 4, 10; and the second from the Chhandogya Upanishad, viii. 7, 2. 

Page 149, line 6. 

For saldudlkshiter read sabddd ikshiter. 

Page 154, note 140. 

Professor Cowell observes on the close of this note that the Sankhya 
opponent maintains that the metaphor is in every case a real one. 

Page 157, line 18. 

Professor Cowell remarks that the meaning of the phrase salda-pra- 
mdnake 'rthe is not correctly rendered by the translation here given, viz. 
" where the (proper sense) is established by the words." The author 
is laying dwn the genaral rule that in cases where there is nothing in 
the purport of any passage in which a particular word occurs to lead 
the reader to suppose that it is figuratively used, and where conse- 
quently the word itself is the only index Jo the sense, it must be 
understood in its primary signification. 'The proper rending, therefore, 

is : " "Where the sense can only be determined by the woiM itself." 

* ,' i 


Page 160, line 18. 

For punar-utppttir read punar-anutpcttir. 


Page 181, fo'wes 7 and II fgom the foot. 

I learn from Professors Cowell and Goldstiicker that vimatd smritih 
should be rendered jnot "the variously understood Smuti " but "the 
Smriti which is here the subject of dispute." 

Page 183, note 160, line l.~ " 
With R.V. i. 179, 2, cdmpare R.V. vii. 76, 4, quoted in p. 2 15. 

Page 201, line 21. 

The commentator thus explains this verse of the Yishnu Purana 
(I am indebted to Dr. Hall for a collation of the best MSS. in the 
India Office Library): Ete cha dvesJiopasama-prakdrdh madhyamddhi- 
kdrindm eva uktdh na tu uttamddhikdrindm ity aha "ete" \ " bhinna- 
drisd" Iheda-drishtyd \ " bhinna-drisdm " iii vd pdthah \ tattra IJiinna- 
darsane " alhyupagamam " angllcdram kritvd dveshopasamopdya-lheddh 
Icathitdh \ uktdndm updydndm paramdrtha-sankshepo mama mattah sruya- 
tdm | "In the words 'these notions,' etc.' he tells us that the methods 
of repressing hatred which have been hitherto declared are those which 
are followed by the persons who have attained only to the secondary, not 
to the highest, stage of knowledge. Bhinna-drisd is the same as Iheda- 
drishtyd, l with *a vie'vr which distinguishes [the Deity from them- 
selves],' or the reading is Ihinna-drisdm, 'of persons who look [on 
Him] as distinct.' ' Accepting ' (abJiyupagamam kritvd\ i.e. admitting, 
this opinion regarding a distinctness, 'I (the speaker in the V.P.) have 
declared these methods of repressing hatred. Now hear from me a 
summary ' of the highest truth in regard to these methods." 

Page 225, line 21. 

There is a verse in ,the Yajasaneyi Samhita, xiii. 45, in which also 
Agni is connected with the creation : To Agnir Agner adhi ajdyata 
sokdt prithivydh uta vd divas pari J yeria ^ajdh^isvakarmd^'ajdna tarn 
Agne hedah pari te vrinaktu \ "Agni, may thy wrath avoid that Agni 
who sprang from Agni, from the flame of the earth or from that of the 
sky, by whom Yisvakarman generated living creatures." This verse is 
quoted and afo: its fashion explained in the S'atapatha Brahmana, jVii. 
5, 2, 2^1 : Atha dakqhinafo^jam \ " Yo Agnir Agner adhi ajdyata " ity 



Agnir vai esha \ Agner adhyajdyata \ " sokdt prithivydh uta vd divas 
pcfiri " iti yad vzi Prajdpateh sokdd ajdyafa tad divas cha prithivyai cha 
sokdd ajdyata \ "Yena prajdh Visvakarmd jajdna" iti vug vai ajo vdcho 
vai prajyh VisvakarmCj Jaffna ityddi \ " Then [he places] a goat (of a) 
on the southern side, (saying) : ' That Agni who sprang from Agni : 
this goat is .Agni and sprang from Agni. ' From the flame of the earth 
or from that of the sky : ' jthat' wViich sprang from the flame of Pra- 
japati sprang from, the flame of the earth and of the sky. ' By whom 
Visvak'arman generated living creatures : ' The goat, [or the Unborn], 
is Vach (Speech) : VisVakarman generated living creatures from Vach," 
etc. Compare R.V. i. 67, 5, quoted above in p. 275. ' 

;. % Page 235, line 9. 

Add after this the following texts, in which the verbs taksh and jan 
are applied to the composition of the hymns : 

E.V. i. 67, 4. Vindantfam attra naro dhiyam-dhdh hridd yat tashtdn 
mantrdn asamsan \ " Meditative men find him (Agni) here, when they 
have uttered hymns of praise fashioned by the heart." 

i. 109, 1. Vi hy akhyam manasd vasyah ichhann Indrdgrii jndsah uta 
vd sajdtdn \ ndnyd yuvat pramatir asti mahyam sa vdm dhiyam vdja- 
yanfim ataksham \ 2. Asravam he Ihuri-ddvattard vdm vijdmatur uta vd 
sydldt \ atha somasya prayatl yuvabhydm Indrdgrii stomam janaydmi 
navy am \ "1. Seeking that which is desirable, I beheld [in you], o 
Indra and Agni, relations or kinsmen. I have no other counsellor 
than you, I who have fabricated for you a hymn supplicating food. 
2. For I have heard that you are more bountiful than an ineligible 
son-in-law (who has to purchase his bride), or than a bride's brother : 
so now, while presenting a libation of Soma, I generate for you a new 

Page 253, line 15. 

Insert after this the following verse': R.Y. x. 66, 5. Sarasvdn dhilhir 
Varuno dhrita-vrata\ Pushd V\shnur mahimd Vdyur Asvind \ brahma- 

* .-^ 

krito amritdh visva-vedasah sarma no yaifrsanttrivarutham amhasah \ 
'' May Sarasvat with thoughts, may "VarunaVhose laws are fixed, may 
Pushan, Vishnu the mighty, Vayu, the Aswns, may these makers of 
prayers, immortal, possessing all resources, afford us xtriple-cased pro- 
tection from calamity." > 


Supplementary Note on Kdlatyaydpadishta. See pag3 84, note 89, 
f and page 290. 

I am indebted to Professor Goldstiicker ibr tne following additional 
remarks on this expression : 

The Tarkasangrahti, quoted by Professor Cowell in h"is interesting 
note which you kindly communicated to nte, differs materially from the 
Bhashaparichchheda in its interpretation of the fallacy called by them 
Iddha ; and I might add 'that the Tarkasangraha-dipikaprakasac offers 
even a third explanation of the same Vaiseshika term. But I do not 
think that the Iddha of the Vaiseshikas : s the same as the kdlatlta of 
the Naiyayikas. For when we find that the* Ehashaparichchheda in 
its enumeration at v. 70 applies to the fifth hetvdbhdsa the epithet 
Icdldtyayopadishta (probably the same as the kdldtyaydpadishta of the 
iNyaya-sutra i. 50) yet in its explanation, of v. 77 does not call it 
Mldtlta, as the Nyaya does, but Iddha, such a variation in terms 
seems pointed ; and when we find moreover that its interpretation of 
bddha differs from Vatsyayana's interpretation of Mldtlta, there seems 
to be a still greater probability that the Nyaya and Vaiseshika disagree 
on the question of the fifth hetvdlhdsa. 

For that there is no real difference between the Nyayabhashya and 
the Nyayavritti is still my opinion. Both commentaries, I hold, agree 
in stating that the fallacy Mldtlta arises when a reason assigned ex- 
ceeds its proper sphere (sddhanakdla], and neither, I think, can have 
taken kdla in its literal sense of " time." This might have been the 
case if, as Professor Cowell seems to suggest, "plausibility" of an 
argument were the subject of the Sutra; but as, in my opinion, the 
hetu is always intended to be a valid and good hetu, I do not see how 
such a hetu can become a bad one simply by being advanced too late. 
It would, however, become bad by being applied to a time, i.e. to a 
case to which it properly does not belong. 

Tne circumstance that the Vr-ttr and Bhasaaparichchheda are 
probably works of the same author, does not invalidate my opinion ; it 
would seem on the contrary to confirm it, since the object of both these 
works is a different one : the former being intended as an exposition of 
the Nyaya, and the latter as one of the Vaiseshika. 


Abhipratarin, 297 

Abhyupagama-vada, 201 

Accentuation, 31 

Acharyya, 92 

Achyuta, 14, 45 

Aditi, 225, 252, 258 

A'dityas, 102, 234 

Adhararani, 47 

Adhokshaja, 43, 47 

Adhvaryu, 5, 53, 54 f. 

Adhvaryava (Yajur) Veda, 

Adrishta, 132, 135 

JEther, whether eternal or 
not, 70, 106, 164 

Agastya, 247 

Agni, 5f., 46 f., 219 and 

Agni a source of inspira- 
tion, 258 f. 

Agni Savitra, 17 

Agnishtoma, 11 

Ahankara, 195 

Aila (Pururavas), 47 

Aitareya Brahmana, 5, 225 

Aitareya TJpanishad. i. 1. 

Aja, 166 

Akshapada (Gotama), 199 

Akshara, 164 

Alcinous, 269 

Ananda Giri, 117 

Anga, 53 

Angis, 31 

Angiras, 31, 34, 219 f. 

Angirases, 246 

AnukramanT, 85, 275 

Anushtubh, 11, 278 

Anuvyakhyanas, 205 

Apah (voters), 8 

Ajpantaratamas, 40 
' Apastamba, 62, 179 

Apolb, 267, 270 

Apsaras, 247 

Apia, 114 ff., 124, 128 

Aptofyaman, 11 

Aranyakas, 1, 26 

superior to rest of 
Veda, 31 

Argives, 270 

Arka, 224 

Arthavadas, 64 

Aryaman, 266 

As'maka, 53 

Asridh, 225 

Astronomy, 31 

Asura, the, 258 

Asuras, 49 

Asuri, 192 

As'valayana, 179 

As'valayana' s Grihya Su- 
tras, 288 

As'vattha, 46 

As'vins, 228, 236 

Atiratra, 11 

Atharvai?, priest, 55 

Atharvan, sage, 31, 220, 
259, 284 

Atharvan (the Veda), 11 

Atharvangirases, 3, 9, 21, 

42, 205 
^Atharva^Pareishta, 54 f. 

Atharvanas, 54 

Atharva-veda, quote^ 
ii. 1, 2, 260 
iv,35, 6,- 4 
vii. 54, 1 
x. 7, 14, 20, 3 

Atharva-jyeda continued 
x. 7, 43, 44, 279 
xi. 7, 24, 287 
xiii. 4, 38, 4 
xix. 54, 3, 4 
59, 1, 2, 260 
Athene, 272 
Atri, 34, 220, 276 
Atris, 243 
Auddalaki, 77 
Aufrecht, Prof., Cat. of 
30, 39 

aid from him ac- 
knowledged, 9, 15, 20, 
64, 219, 221, 287 f. 
Aupamanyava, 213 
Avyakta, 161, 173 
Ayasya, 240 
4yatayama, 51 
Ayu, 222, 225 
Ayur-veda, 114 f., 116 f., 
132, 135 


Babara Pravahini, 77 ff. 

Bacchus, 264 

Badarayana, 64, 69, 141, 
and passim 

controverts opin- 
ions of Jaimini, 141 ff. 

of the Sankhyas, 

150 ff. 

Bidari, 145 
Bahvrichas, 54 
Ballantyne's Aphorisms of 
the Mimansa, 70 ff. 

Aphorisms of the 

Nyaya,^|0ff., 201 



Ballantyne's Aphorisms of 
the Sankhya, 133, 168 

Aphorisms of the 

Vedanta, 107 

Aphorisms of the 

Yoga, 201, 289 

Christianity con- 

trasted with Hindu Phi- 
losophy, 104, 214 

Mahabhashya, 104 


vali, 133 

Synopsis of 

Science, 203 
Banerjea, Rev. Prof. K.M., 

his Dialogues on 

Hindu Philosophy, 31, 
93 f., 115, 118, 133 

Bauddhas, 181 
Baudhayana, 179 
Benfey, Prof., his Sama- 
veda, 103, 221,231,238, 

Bhadrasena, 156, 170 
Bhaga, 225 
Bhagavad-glta, quoted 

ii. 42ff., 37 

i. 32, 300 

iv. 15, 97 

referred to, 193 

Bhagavata Purana, equal 

to the Veda, 30 

why composed, 42 

quoted r 

i. 3, 10, 192 

4, 14 ff., 41 

7, 6 ff. - 42 
ii. 8, 28, 30 

iii. 12, 34,and37ff. 11 

39, 207 

iv. ?9, 42 ff., 34 

ix. 8, 12 f., 192 

ix. 14, 43 ff., 46 

xii. 6, 37 ff., 43 
Bhagavatas, doctrine of 

the, 177 
Bhakta, or figurative sense 1 

of words, 108 
Bhakti Sutras, 177 
Bharadvaja, 17, 31 
Bharadvajas, 221 
Bharatas, 276 
Bharati, 255, 257 
Bhargava, 55 
Bhasha-parichcheda, 133, 

150, 290 <J? 

Bhoja-raja, 201 
Bhuh, 5, 7, 14, 104 
Bhuvah, 5, 7, 14, 104 
Bhrigu, 34, 219 ' 
Bhrigus, 233, 237 
Bird, the, 258 
Blackie, on the Theology 

of Homer, 272 
Boehtlingk and Roth, Sans- 
krit Dictionary, 20, 15. , 

201, 236, 240 f., "263 
Brahma, 8, 21, 24, 33, 43, 

and passim 
"Brahma, 3, 10, 12 f., 28, 

31, 34, 4, and passim 
Brahma composed of the 

Rig-veda, 27 & 
Brahma-kanda, 60 
Brahma-mimansa, its olf- 

ject, 139 (see Vedgnta) 
Brahman (prayer) 224 
Brahmanaspati, 234, 249, 

260 f. 

Brahmarata, 50, 52 fc 
Brahma Sutras, 69, 93, 

and passim 
Brahma-vadis, 195 
Brahma-veda, 55 

i. 48, quoted, 30 
corrector of Veda, 

Brihad Aranyaka TJpani- 

shad, quoted 
i. 2, 4, 104 

2, 5, 9 

4, 10, 142 

5, 5, 9 
ii. 2, 3, 166 

4, 10, 8, 204 
iii. 8, 11, 164 
iv. 1, 2, 208 

3, 22, 33 
v. 8, 254 c 

Brihaspati, 221, 2~56, 260 
Brihati, 15, 278 
Buddha, 202 

ButM (Bp.), his sermons 
on the love of God, 107 

Calchas, 271 

Caste, originally frit one, 

47 f.. 
Chaitra, 92 

Chaitraratha and Chaitra - 

ratjhi, 297 
Chandala, 34, 178 
Chhandoga Brahmana,103 
Charana, 53 
Charanavyuht, 56 
Charakas, 52 ff. 
Charakacharyya, 53 
CharakCdhvaryus, 51 
Charvakas, 202 
Chhandas, 206 
i Cbhandogas, 54 . 
Chhandogya B.-ahmana, 

Chhandogya Upanishad, 

iv. 1, 3, 294 

2, 2, 293 

3, 5, 296 
- 17, 1- 5 

vi. 2, 1, 3 f., 151, 154 

- 3, 2, 155 

4, 1, 167 

- 8, 6f., 155, 176 

- 14, 6, 156 

- 16, 2, 157 

vii. 1,1-5, 32,143,207. 

25, 2, 178 
viii. 7, 2, 142 

15, 1, 284 
Colebrooke, Miscellaneous 

Essays, 6, 57, 74, and 

Commentary, 31 

Commentators on the Ve- 
da, their proofs of its 
authority, 57 ff. 

Cowell, Prof. E. B., his 
translation of the Kusu- 
manjali, 128 

his aid acknow- 
ledged, 201, 290 f., 308 


Dadhyanch, 220 
Daityas, 201 
Daksha, 34, 225 
Danti, 264 
Dasagva, 246 
Demodocus, 269 f. 
Dharma, 300 
Dhi, 224 
Dhishana, 202 
Dhishana, 255 



Dhiti, 224 
Dhrtiva, 20 , 

Dionysus, 264 
Dissolution of the Uni- 
' verse, 96, 303 
Dvaipayana, see Krishna 
'Dvapara age, 37, 41, 45, 

48 f. 

Dyaus, 246, 266 

E > , 

Egyptians, 183 f. 
EkantinS, 289 
Ekavifhs'a, 11. 
Empedocles, 273 
Epimenides, 273 
'Euripides, 264 f. 

F ' 

Freedom of Speculation in 
India in early times, 57 


Gatha, 23 
Ganambika, 264 
Gandharva, 258, 260 f. 
Gandharvas, 46 ff. 
Ganes'a, 264 
Gargl, 164 
Gaudapada, 265 
Gauua, or figurative sense 

of words, 108 
Gauri, 264 
Gaya, 244 
Gayatra, 11, 276 
Gayatrl, 7, 11, 13f., 263 

varieties of, 263 

; mother of the Ve- 

das, 12 
Giris'a, 34 
Gir, 224 
Gods, capable of acquiring 

divine knowledge, 99. 

Goldstiicker, Prof., his 

Dictionary referred to, 


tra quoted, 95 ff. 

his aid acknow- 
ledged, 84, 93, 97, 295, 
303, etc. 

Gotama, author of Nyaya 
Sutras, 111, 113 

Gotama, rishi, 235 

Inspiration, its nature, 1 25 

Gotamas, 232, 238, 2,41 

Intuition of rishis, 125ff., 

Grammar, 31 


Gritsamadas, 233, 235 

Is a, 45 # 

,, Grote's History of Greece, 
2o8, 270 ff. 
Gunas, 12, 32, 44, 150, 

Isaiah referred to, 224 
Itihasas, 2, 9, and passim, 
see Smriti 

165, 195 

Guru, 91, 18^0 

* T 

Govinda Antftida quoted, 


103, 155, 157, 164, 190, 
and passim , 

Jabala, 299 
Jabala, 298 f. 


JagatI metre, 11, 276, 278 

Jaimini,39, 40, 42, 45,93, 

Hall, Dr., aid from him 
ackrowledged, 12, 52 
,. Sankhya Sara, 

98, 141 

ions of Badarayaua, 
141 ff. 

185, 193 
Hanta, 254 
Haridasa Bhattacharyya, 

1 no 

Jalada, 55 
Jan (to generate), 232, 237 
Janaka, 56 


Haridrumata, 299 
Harivainsa quoted 

A *7 1 O 

Janamejaya, 53 
Janas'ruta, 295 
Janas'ruti, 295 ff. 

47, 12 

Jarad^ava, 80 

11,516, 12 
11,665 ff., 13 
12,425 ff., 14 
Haug, Prof., on the signi- 
fication of the word 
brahma, 233 f. 
Hellenic race, its differ- 
ence from the Indian, 


Jatavedas, 237, 241 
Jayanarayana Tarkapan- 
chanana, 120, 175 
John (St.). his First 
Epistle, S&9 

V,,'c, fno-i! OQQ 

Journal of the Eoyal Asia- 
tic Society referred to, 


2, 57, 118, 264 290 

Herodotus quoted, 183, 

' Juh'u, 20 

Hesiod quoted, 183, 268 

Hiranyagarbha, 13, 136, 


163, 285, 305 

Homer, 269 ff. 

Kaiyyata, 95 ff. 

Hotra, 255 

Kakshasena, 297 

Hymns, distinguished as 
new and old, 224 ff., see 

Kalanja, 68 
Kalapa, 91, 132 
Kalapas, 96 

Kalapa, 91 


Kalapaka, 79, 132 

Kalatyayapadishta, 84, 

Ignorance, 164 

290, 312 

Ikshvaku, 286 

Kalchas, 270 f. 

Inferior science, 31, 206 
' Jla, V55 

Kali-yuga, 49 , 
Kalidasa, 69 f., 83 f., 89 

Indra, 4, 99, 103, 1-62, 

Kalpa sutras; 180, 206 

220, and passim' , * 

Kanada, 106 and passim 

<-. n f-.-n 4- 1 n n 1 *3 rt-i-il-.*.-. 

Kandarshis 304 

regarding Indra, 254 ' 

Kanva, 220 

Kanvas > 229 

tion, 261 f. 



Kapi, 297 

Kapila, 37, and passim 

how treated by 

S'ankara, 184ff. * 
Ka-pinjala, 241 
Karmakanda, 64 
Karma-mlmansa, see Pur- 

Karmasiddhi, 264 
Karttikeya, 264 
Kas"yapa, 285 
Katha (sage), 77, 83, 91, 


Kathas, 96 
Katha Upanishad quoted, 

' i. 3, 3, and 10162 
3, 11, 161 
ii. 23, 36 

iii. 3, 10f., 158ff. 
Kathaka, 76 f., 79,83,91, 


Katyayana, 179 
Katyayana' s S'rauta Su- 
tras, 47 

Kaurma-purana, 200 
Kausika, 249" 
Kaushitaki Br., 5, 304 
Kaushitakins, 56 
Kauthuma, 76 f., 83 
Kavi, 218 
Kes'ava, 28 
Kikatas, 79, 215 
Kohler, Prophetismus der 

Hebrceer, 173 f. 
Kratu, 34 
Kri, (to make), 232 
Krishna, 29, 42, 286 
Krishna Dvaipayana, 38 f. 
Krita-yuga, 37, 40, 47 ff. 
Krittikas, 307 
Kulluka on Manu, 6, 14, 

23, 26, 180 
Kumarila, 95 
Kumvya, 23 
Kus'ikas, 233, 247 
Kusumanjali quoted,128fF. 
Kusurubinda, 77 
Kuthumi, 77, 83 
Kutsa, 213 

Lassen, In. Ant., 38 
Laukayatikas, 199 
Linga-purana, 263 
Lokayata, 95 ^ 
Lomaharshana, e 


Madhava, author of Nya- 
ya-mala-vistara, 82 

author of the'3ar- 


author of the Ye- 

dartha-prakasa, onT.S., 
quoted, 6jfj ff. (^ 

Madhuchhandas, 30\5 
Madhuvidya, 141, 286 
Madhusiiuana Sarasvati, 
t 194 

Madras, 81 , 

Mahabharata, origin of 
the name, 29 

is a Veda Velating 

to Krishna, 29 

equal to the Veda, 


composed by Na- 

rayana, 39 

why compose^ 42 


258, 31 
261, 264 f., 29 
645, 29 
2298, 29 
2314, 29 
2417, 38 
4236, 38 

13432, 12 

1537, 288 

3019, 14 
7660, 85, 101 
8505, 49 
8533 ff., 16, 69 
12920, 14 f 
13088 ff., 48 . 
13432, 12 

12551, 289 

13678, 40 

200 ff., 29' 
Mahabhashya, 95 
MahasVUa S'aunaka, 31 
!ftlahasena (Karttikeya), 
< 264 <". 

Mahat, 754, 172f. 
Mahesvara, 16 

Mahidhara on the Vaj. 

San-, quoted, 39 
Maitreya, 37 
Maitrl Upanishad 

vi. 22, -176 
MalatI Madhal.'a, 90 
Mana (Agastya), 247 
Manas, 233 
Manava 10 dharma - Bastra 

, * i. 21 ff., 6 
f 85 f., 48 
ii. 10 ff., '24 


97, 25 

166 f., 288 
iv. 123 f., 25 
vi. 82 ff., 24 
xi. 243, 85 
iii. 91, 190 

94 ff., 23 

106, 24, 181 
Mandhatri, 229 
Manava-kalpa-sutra, 95 
Manisha, 224 
Manman, 224 
Mantras, 1, 33, 62 ff., 115, 

magical power 

ascribed to, 275 ff. 
Manu, 181 f., 190, 220, 


Manvantaras, 38 
Marichi, 34 
Markandeya Purana, 102, 

lff.,"quoted, 11 
Maruts, 102, 226, 263 
Mati, 224 
Matsya Purana, iii. 2ff. 

quoted, 28 
Mauda, 55 
Maya, 164, 195, 202 
Medhatithi, 6 
Mcdhavi, 218 
Meru, 50, 52 
Mitra, 225, 227 
Mimansa, see Purva-mi- 

mansa, 28 
Mlraansakas, their alleged 

atheism, 94 f. 
" Mlmansa-varttika, 95 
Minerva, 273 
Moksha-dharma quoted, 


Mudakas, 96 
Mukhya, or proper senes 

of words, 107 



Miiller, M., Profr. aid re- 
ived from 237 , 

Nyaya Sutras quoted, 
108 ff. 
Nyaya-njala-Yistara, quot- 
'ed, 82, 179, 181 
, Nyava-sutra-vritti, 108 


Qdana oblation, 4 
Jdyssey, 269V 272 f. 
Omkara, 44 
Oracles, 273 

> P 

Padma-purana quoted, 27 
Paila, 3J), 41~fc, 45 
Paingins, 56 
"Paippalada, 55 
Panchadas'a-stoma, 11 
Pancnajanah, 168 
Panini, 56, 91 
Pankta, 15 
PaiXs'ara, 38, 40 f., 45, 
Paras'ara Upapurana, 199 
Parjanya, 252 
Paruchbepa, a risbi, 212 
Pas'upata system, 202 
Pas'upatas, 195 
Patanjalas, 195 
Patanjali, Mababbasbya, 
56, 95 f. 
. Vncrn 1 OS 

Pramaganda, 79 
Praskanva, 220 
Pras'na Upanisbad, Comm. 
i 1 97 ^ 

Lit., 1, 2, 36, 53, 56 f., 
'175, 280 f. 
- Ch'ps etc 18 

Prastbana-bbeda, 194 ff. 
Praudbi-vada, 201 
Praiiga, 278 
Britbivi, 266 
Priyamedha, 220 
Prosody, 31 
Psalms, 224 
Pulastya, 34 
Pulaba, 34 
* Pundarikaksba, 89 
Puranas,2, 27, and passim, 
see Smriti 

. Tnnr T? A R 

230, 236, 255 

Soc., 20, 104, 127, 183 
Mundaka Upanishad-r- . 
i. i,, 1-5, 30, 204,^84, 
ii. 1, 4,*and 6, 30 
iii. !,;,! 76 
Muni, 219 
Muses, 267 ff.' 


Nabhaka, 230 ' 
Nabhaka, 229 
Nabhan, 246 
Nagelsbach's Nachhomer- 
ische Tbeologie, 273 
Nagojibhatta, 95 ff. 
Nahusha, 283 
Naichas'akha, 79 
Naka Maudgalya, 22 
Name and Form, 152, 155, 
163, 167, 302, etc. 
Nasatvas (As'vins), 240 
Narad'a, 32, 34 
Narayana, 47. 
Narayaua-tlrtha, 128 
Naras'ansis,. 215 
Navagva, 221, 246 
Nestor, 273 
Nigada, 45 
Nigama, 180 
Nirukta, quoted 
' i. 20, 118, 213 
iii. 11, 213 
iv. 6, 212 
vii. 1, 3, 211 
- 16, 219 
viii. 3, 277 
x. 32, 213 
42, 212 

Vedas, 27 f. 

form witb tbe Iti- 
basas a fiftb Veda, 33, 
Pururavas, 45 ff., 205 
Purusba, 3, 4, and passim 
Purusha-medba, 35 
Purusba-sukta (R. V. x. 
90, 1, 9), 3, 61, 69, 89 
Purva - mimansa Sutras 
quoted, 70 ff. 
Purva-mimansa, its object, 
Pusban, 226, 263 
Pytbagoras, 273 


Ragbunandana, 68 
Raghuvans-a, 77 
Rahugauas, 241 
Raikva and Rainka, 296 f. 
Rajas, 12, 32, 48, 150 
Rajasuya sacrifice, 184 
Rajendra lal Mittra, his 
translation of the Upa- 
nishad, 167, 296 f., 299 
' Rakshases, 55 
Ramanujas, 195 
Ramayana, i. 1, 94 quoted 
equal to the Veda, 
Rathantara, 276 
Rationalistic treatises, 24 
Ri (to move, send forth), 
240 A 

Paulkasa, 34 
Paurusbeya, 9, 90, 134 
Paurusheyatva, 90 
Pavaua, 5 
Pertsch, alphabetical list 
of initial words, of rich- 
verses, 103 
Pbemius, 270 
Pbseacians, 269 
Pbiloso.pbical systems, 
tbeir mutual relations, 
194 ff. 
Pippalada, 298 
Pippaladakas, 96 > 
Pitamaba, 28 
" Plati, 244 
'Plato ^uoteH, 13 

206, 247 "* 
Nitha, 224 
Nivid, 224 
Nodhas, 235 
Nrimedha, a rishi, 213 
Nyaya, whether theistic or 
not, 133 

spiration, 273 - -, 
Polypbemus, 265 
Prabliakara, 91, 180 > 
Pradhana, 150, etp. 
Prakriti, 164, 166 



Ribhus, 237, 261 

Rig-veda continued 

Rig-veda continued 

Rich, 224 

Fi, r st Mandala 

Six-*;h Mandala l 

Rich-verses, 11, 12,^15 

184, 5, 233 

14, 2, 251 

Ric-veda, quotations from, 

185, 1, 280 

16, 47, 236 

First Mandala 

Second Mandala R 

17, 13, 227 

1, 2, 219 

3, 8, 255 

18, 15, ^261 

3, 11, 12, 254 

17, 1, 225 

19, 4, 221 

12, 11, 224 

18, 3, 225 

21, 5, 221 

18, 6, 7, 258 

19, 8, -,5 35 

Si, 221 

20, 1, 232 

23, 2, 260 4 ' 

22, 2, 221 

22, 10, 255 

24, 1, 226 

- ' 7, 227 

27, 4, 225 

35, ", 235 

26, 3, 261 

31, 1, 2, 251 

39, 8, 233 

32, 1, 236 

11, 255 
18, 232 
32, 1, 212" 

Third Mardala 
1, 20, 226 

34, 1, 227,261 
38, 3, 243 
44, 13, 227 

37, 4, 252 

2, 1, 37 

47, 3, 264 

40, 5, 6, 260 

18, 3, 255 

10, 261 

45, 3, 4, 220 
47, 2, 232 
48, 14, 220 
60, 3, 225 
5, 242 
61, 2, 241 

21, 3, 251 
29, 15, 248 
30, 20, 233 
32, 13, 226 
39, 1, 2, 226 
43, 5, 248 ( 

48, 11, 227 
49, 1, 227 
50, 6, 227 
15, 221 
52, 2, 233 
62, 4, 228 

4, 241 

53, 9, 248 

, 69, 2, 262 

16, 232 

12, 276 

75, 19, 277 

62, 13, 235 

14, 215 

Seventh Mandala 

66, 2, 251 

54, 17, 261 

7, 6, 236 

67, 3, 275 

58, 3, 220 

15, 4, 237 

4, 311 

62, 7, 226 

18, 1, 222 

77, 5, 242 
78, 5, 242 

_ 10, 263 
Fourth Mandala 

19, 11, 277 
22, 9, 237 

80, 16, 220 

3, 16, 242 

26, 1,- 238 

89, 3, 225 

5, 3, 259 

29, 4, 222 

91, 11, 242 

6, 259 

31, 11, 238 

94, 1, 241 

6, 1, 259 

33, 3, 277 

96, 2, 225 

_ 11, 233 

7-13, 246 

102, 1, 242 

11, 3, 259 

34, 1, 255 

109, 1, 2, 4, 311 

16, 20, 21, 233 

9, 255 

116, 1, 240 

20, 5, 220 

35, 14, 234 

117, 25, 233 

32, 12,-242 

37, 4, 234 

118, 3, 220 

43, 1,2, 255 

53, 1, 222 

130, 6, 235 

50, 1, 221 

2, 228 

10, 225 

Fifth Mandala-^ 

56, 23, 228 

131, 6, 220 

2, 11,- 235 

69, 4, 228 

139, 9, 220 

11, 5, 242 

61, 2, 240 

143, 1, 225 

22, 4, 243 

6, 228 

152, 5, 253 

2#, 1, 251 

64, 4, 236 

164, 5, 6, 279 

29, 15, 235 

66, 11, 266 

- 20, 176 

31, 4, 276 

67, 5,- 243 

25, 276 

40, 6, '5-276 

76, 4, 222 

- 37, 279 

a 42, 6, 220 

85, 1, 243 

169, 3, 59 

*', _?13, 226 

87, 4, 248 

171, 2, 235 

44, 8, 59 

88, 4, 248 

175, 6, 220 

45, 4, 243 

91, 1, 222 

179, 2, 18?. 245 

55, "3, 227 

93, 1, 228 

183, 6, loS 

73, 10, 236 

94, 1, 2, 238 



Ri'j-veda continued 

Eig-veda continued 

Eig-veda continued 

Seventh Mandala- 

Ninth Mandala . 

Tenth Mandala 

97, 3, 5,-261 

42, -2, 231 

- r 14, 240 

. 9, 234 

62, 1, 103 

95, 14, 212 v 

104, 15, 212 

.,73, 2, 239 

96, 5, 223 

Eighth Mandala 

76, 4, 265 

11, 231 

3, 3, 249 

87, 3, 249 

98, 9, 223 

5, 18, 243 

* 91,5, 231 

101, 2, 234 

5, 24, 228 ' 

-, 92, 3,-267 

' 106, 6, 59 

6, 10, 250 

J P,5, 1, 939 

107, 6, 244 

11, 228 ' 

2, 265 

109, 4, 250 

33, 236 > . 

96, 5-7, ^,66 

110, 8, 257 

4i, 251 

11, 222 

111, 1, 244 

43, 229 

18, 251 

112, 9, 252, 262 

8, 8, 243 

99, 4,-^231 

114. 8, 9, 277 

12, 10, 229 

107, 7, 251 

115; 5, 252 

14, -258 

119, 7, 223 

116, 9, 240 

31, 240 

114, 2, 234 

117, 6, 212 

13, 7, 262 

Tenth Mandala 

125, 3-5, 257 

26, 24,0 

.4, 5, 259 

129, 2, 212 

16, 7, 251 

4, 6, 231 

5, 59 

19, 5, 6, 3 

7, 2, 239 

5-7, 280 

20, 19, 229 

X 14, 15, 223 

6, 60 

23, 14, 229 

1 20, 10, 253 

130, 1-7, 277 f. 

25, 24, 229 

21, 5, 259 

139, 5, 260 

27, 11, 243 

23, 5-7, 239 

154, 2, 5, 250 

13, 256 

26, 4, 263 

160, 5, 231 

36, 7, 222 

27, 22, 252 

167, 1, 250 

39, 6, 229 

31, 7, 280 

176, 2, 258 

40, 4, 5, 230 

34, 13, 212 

177, 1, 258 

12, 229 

36, 5, 260 

190, 1, 250 

41, 2, 229 

39, 14, 236, 267 

Eishis, nature of their in- 

5, 6, 266 

42, ], 244 

spiration, 125, 183 

43, 2, 238 

54, 3, 221 

i "seers" of the 

44, 12, 230 
48, 3, 265 
49, 9, 277 
51, 4, 234 

6, 234 
57, 2, 278 
3, 229 
61, 7, 253 

hymns, 211 

new and old, 218ff. 

52, 4, 262 

62, 1, 3, 246 

55, 11, 230 
, 63, 7, 8, 230 

4, 5, 246 
63, 17, 244 

selves as authors of 
hymns, 232 ff. 

f*l /I yiQ Ofi*T 

** K Q1 1 

65, 5, 6, 12, 230 

DO, u, oil 

66, 14, 223 

racter ascribed to, 245 ff. 

77 4 238 

6 1 ^39 

nf\-r\ ft' r\ n f A ' ' 

78, 3, 263 

71, 1-6, 256 

inspiration, 252 ff. 

6, 7, 262 

71, 3 105 

,1 , 

79, 3, 234 

72, 1, 2, 24g 

views how reconcil- 

84, 4, 5, 238 

80, 7, 237 

able, 274 f. 

88, 4, 253 

81, 4, 280 

thr' f ""' f 

89, 3, 4^-254 

K8, 8,-> 25,3 

ignorance, 279 ff. 

10, 11, 253 

18, 280 

90, 16, 256 
Ninth Mandala 
9, 8, 231 

89, 3, 231 ., 
_ 5, 59 
.90, 1, 61 -, 

spiration different from 
that of later writers, 

981 f 

12, 7, 267 

9, 3, 61, 89 

ZO 1 1. 

25, 5, 265 

91, 8, 259" 

- 33, 5, 256 

13, 231 

Eitual, 3\ 



Roer, Dr. E., his transla- 
tions and introductions 
to the Upanishads, 36, 
185, 193, 254, 291 

^ his Bhasha-pari- 

chheda, 133 

his German trans- 
lation of the Vais'eshika 
aphorisms, 118, 120 , 
his remarks on the 

doctrine of the Upani- 
shads, 173 

his remarks on the 

Sankhya, 193 
Romaharshana, 39 
Roth, Illustration.^ of Ni- 

rukta, 47, 230, 246 f. 
Rudra, 64, 234 
composed of the 

Sama-veda, 27 
Rudras, 102. 234 


S'abara, Svamin, 70, 80 
Sacrifices, the five great, 20 
Sacrifice eternal, 6 
Sadasaspati, 258 
Sadhyas, 6, 12 
Sagara, sons of, 190, 192 
S'akhas of the Veda, 37, 

42, 56 

S'akti, 164, 173, 306 
Sama-rathantara, 11 
Sama-veda, impurity of its 

sound, 26 f. 

i. 299 quoted, 252 

Saman, 224 
Saman-verses, 11 
S'ami wood, 46 
Samidhenis, 213 
S'amsa, 224 
Samvarga-vidya, 295 S. 
Sanaka, 34 
Sanatkumara, 32 f. 
S'andilya, an ancient sage, 

. author of the 

Bhakti Sutras quoted, 

S'ankara Acharya's com-, 

mentary on the Brahma 

Sutras quoted, 62, 98ff., 

106, 108, 140 S., 177, 

182, 185 ff., 203, 289, 

29 Iff. , 

S'ankara Acharya's com. 

^Sayana, hisVedartha-pra- 

mentary on the Br. ~Ar. 
Up', quoted, 34* 204 

kas'a, or commenta-} on 
R.V. quoted, 58 ff., 76, 
78, 80, 105, 206, 215, 

Chhandogya Up., 296 c 

219 296 

Pras'na Up. quoted, 191 

Siddhanta-muktavali, 133 

on the Taitt. Up. 

S'iksha, 206 

quoted, 191 

Skambk>., 3 

S'ankara Mf^ra comm. o| 

Skanda, 264 

Vais'eshika, 120, V25 

S'hxkas, 9, 205 

Sankhya aphorisms, 133, 

, Snu-iti, 24, 181, and passim 

168 * 
Sankhya-karika, 138, 166 

Smritis, extent* and con- 
ditions of their autho- 


rity, 181 ff. 

shya, 196 ff. 
S'antanu, 45 
Saptadasa-stoma, 11 

Sobhari, 229 
Soma, god, 8, 223 

SarasvatI, goddess, 14, '"' 

1 tion 264 ff. 

254 f., 257, 282 

mother of the 

Somas'araian, 92 

Vedas, 14 

Soul, unity of, 190, 203 

Souls, diversity of, 169, 

S'ariraka - mimansa - H aa- 
shya, 98 See S'ankara 


Sound, eternitv of, affirm- 

_ J ' 


ed, 7 Iff., 90 ff. 

S 'ariraka sutras, 98 

Sarva-dars'ana- sangraha- 
86 ff. 

Species or Genera eternal, 

S'atapatha Brahmana, 

Sphota, 44, 104f., 136 f. 
S'ramana, 34 

iii. 4, 1, 22, 47 

S'ruti, 24 

iv. 1, 2, 19, 53 

Sruva, 20 

vi. 1, 1, 8, 7 

Stoma, 224 

1, 2, 19, 5 

Stuti, 224 

vii. 5, 2, 52, 9 

Sudas, 277 

ix. 4, 4, 4, 223 
x. 3, 5, 12, 31 
4 ( 2, 21, 14 

S'udras, unfit for study of 
Veda, 42, 68, 99, 292 ff. 

6, o, 4, 104 
xi. 5, 1, 1, 48 

highest bliss, 178 

5, 6, 1-7, 10, 18 
5, 8, 1, 4 

S'uka, 43 
Sumati, 224 

xiv. 4, 3, 12,-<9 

Sumantu, 39, 40, 42, 45 

5, 4, 10, 8 

Superior science, 31, 206 

7, 1, 22, 33 

Sushtuti, 224 

, Sattva guna, 12, 32, 150 

Surya, 5 f., 266 
Suta, 39, 43 

Satvata-samhita (the Bha- 

Svadha, 20, 254 

gavata Pur.) 42 

Svaha, 254 

Satyakama, 29S 1 < 

.Svar, 5, 7, 1*4 

Sa,tyavaha, 31 

Svarbhanu, 276 

Ratyav^tT, 45 
Cf aunaka, 297, 305 

Svayambbuva manvan- 

A rt OO f 

^'aunakas 55 

tara, ov t. 

Savitri, 263 

S'vetaketu, 155 

Savitrl, f, 14 

S'vetasVatara, sage, 284 



S'oretas'vatara Upanishad 


iv. 5, 165 
, 10, 164 

v. 2, I?*, 188 ff., 283 

vi. 6, 176 
, 11, 171 

18, 304 

- 21, 284 ' 
S'yavas'va, 222 

Taittirlyas, 61 
Taittirlya Aranyaka, vii. 
8, 22 

Taittirlya Brahmana [?],' 


ii. 3, 10, 1, 8 

4, 2, 6, 278 

8, 8, 5, 10, 234 
iii. 3, 9,1, 10 

10, 11, 3, 16 

12, 9, 1, 15 
Taittirlya Samhita quoted, 

i. 2, 1, 1, 69 f. 
ii. 5, 8, 3,-212 
vii. 3, 1, 4, 17 

Taittirlya Upanishad, 65 
comm. on, 191 

Tamas, 12, 32, 150, 202 

Tamasa works, 202 

Tapas, 250 

Tarka-sangraha, 127, 133, 

Taksh (to fabricate), 232, 

Telemachus, 273 

Thamyris, 269 

Thirl wall, Bp.,his history 
of Greece, 274 

TikshnaS'ringa, 264 


Tiras'chI, 238 

Tittiri, 77, 83 

Treta-yuga, 3"% 45, 47 

Triple science, 8 

Trisarvi, 53 

Trishtubh, 278 

Trita, 212 

Tritsus, 277 

Trivrit, 11 

Tvashjri, 252 


Udayana Acharyya, 128 
Uddllaka Aruni, 286 
' Uktla, 224, 278 
Ukthya, 11 
TJ^sses, 270 
Unborn Female, 165, 171 
Inborn Mille^ 165 
<Upabnrit, 20 
Upanishads, 1, 2. 138, and 

Varutri, 255 
Vasavya, 41 
Vash*t, 254 
Vashatkara, 14, 21 9 
Vasishtha, 34, 246 ff. 
Vasishthas, 223, 246 
Vastoshpati, 253 
Vasus, 102, 226, 234 
Vatsa, 243 
Vatsyayana quoted, 115 
Vayu, 5 f., 222 
Vavu Purana, 27 f., 39, 
Vedantas, 1, see Upani- 
Vedilnta Sutras, 98 ff. 
Vedartha-prakas'a on R.V. 
quoted, 58 ff., 80 

rvn T *! ft^i ff 

parts of th^ Veda, 31 

form According to S'an- 
kara, out really various, 
" 108, 175 

Upapuranas, 30 
Urvasi, 4~5 ff., 205, 247 
Us'anas, 249 
Usr-as, 243 
Uslpias, 44 
Ushnih metre, 11, 278 
Uttararani, 47 


Vach, 8, 10, 104 f., 253 f., 
256 f., 282 
Vachas, 224 
Vajasaneyins, 53 
Vajasaneyi ritual, 53 

Vedas, general account of, 

tra and Brahmana, 1,62 

fice of Purusha, 3 
from Skambha 3 

t r v 'A 

oblation, 4 

and supplication, 4 

Vayu, and Surya, 4 f 6 1 

iii. 53, 229 
v. 2, 46 
xiii. 53, 9 
xvi. 53, 60 
xviii. 52, 223 
xxx. 18, 53 
Vajins, 51 f. 
Vairupa, 11 
Vais'ampayana, 39, 40, 42, 
45, 50 ff. 
Vais'eshika, 106, 175 
Vaishnavas, 195 
Vaisvanara (Agni), 237 
-)Vaivasvata Manvantara, 
, 31f.,45 - , 
VSlakhilya xi. 6, 2,62 
A r almiki, 77 
Varuna, 227, 243, 247 f., 

firmed, 6, 18, 71, 76, 78, 
105, 803 

nied, 109, 117, 119, 130 

character (apaurusheya- 
tva), 6 

names, forms, and func- 
tions of creatures, 6, 16, 
, 104 

pati and from the waters, 
8, 14 
i the breathing of 
the great Being, 8, 135, 

of speech and soul, 9 

tion, 262, 266 

mind, and breath, 9 




Vedas dug from the mind- 
ocean, 10 

Vedas voice of Brahma, 

jCpati's beard, 1 

the inferior science, 31 

Vach, 10 

s'astras, 31, 33 

from Brahma's mouths, 
10 f. 

part decried in the Bha- 
gavadGita^ Chhandogyr 
Upanisha, "and B i haga\ 
vata Purana, 32 ff. 

verally by the different 
gunas, 12 

found sleep are no Ve- 
" das, 34 


mother, 12 f. 

through them, 36 

ferent parts of Brahma's 
body, 13 

37 ff., 47*7 

ta, 14 

tent, 38, 40 

ther, 14 

division, 40 f. 

prehended in them, 15 

by women, S'udras, etc., 
42, 299 

tively of form, motion, 
and heat, 15 

of their division, 47 

hes'vara, 16 

Asuras but recovered by 
Brahma, 49 


Brahma, 49 

of them, 18, 27 

appearance, 49 

fice, 20 

adherents of different 
Vedas, 49 ff. 

fits, 21 

dyof, 2 Iff. 

herents of Yajur-veda, 
and its separation into 
white and black, 50 ff. 

praved, 25 

repeating them removes 
sin, 25 

against objections, and 
defence of their autho- 
rity, by their commen- 
tators, 57 ff. 

body of Vishnu, and 
severally the substance 
of Brahma, Vishnu, and 
Rudra, 27 

Mimansakas in favour 
of their eternity and au- 
thority; 70 ff. ' ' 
' "seen" by ^he 
ristis, 85, 212 . 

Puranas, 27 

the Itihasas and the Pu- 
ranas, 29 

Vedantists on their eter- 
nity and authority, 98ff. 

ma-vaivartt?.' Purana, 

ma, 106 

Vedas, how interpreted ,hy 
theologians, 107 

arguments of the 
adherents of the Nyaya, 
Vaiseshika, and San- 
khya in support of their" 
authority, but against 
their eternity, lOSff. 

'texts of, inter- 
preted variously by 

different philosophers, 

distinguished from 

all other S'Sftras by 
being independent and 
infallible, 179 ff. 

recapitulation of 

arguments in support of. 
their authority, with re- 
marks, 207 ff. 

ideas of the rishis 

regarding the origin of 
their hymns, 2l7ff. 
hymns of, distin- 

guished as old and new, 
224 ff. 

hymns of, made, 

fabricated, or generated, 
by the rishis, 232 ff. 

hymns of, ascribed 

to the inspiration of the 
gods, 252 ff. 

hymns of, a magi- 

cal power attributed to, 
275 ff. 

sprang from the 

leavings of the sacrifice, 


Vedhas, 219 
Verbal brahma, 35 
Videha, 56 
Vidhi, 64 
Vidura, 295, 300 
Yidvan - moda - tarangim, 

Vijnana Bhikshu, 133, 

172, 196, and passim 
Vidya, 205 
Vimada, 239 f., 253 
Vimadas, 239 
Vipas'chit, 219 
Vipra, 218 
Viraj metre, 11, 278 
Virochana, 142 
Virupa, 69, 75, 220, 246, 

Vishnu, 37, 40, 53, 244, 

262, 266 

Vishnu, composed of the 

feda, 18, 127 - 
Vishnu Purana quoted 
i. 2, 13," 4 

5, 48 ff., 10 

5, -58, 16 

17, 54, 201 
ii. 11, 5ff., 26 
iii. 2, 12, 49 

2, 18 ff., 37 

3, 4 ff., 37 - > 

3, 19ff., 1S\ , 

4, Iff., 38 

o, 2 ff., 49 

6, 22 f., 18 

18, 22, 128 
iv. 6, 47 

- Vis vamitra, 247 f., 276, 

Vis'vanatha Bhattachary- 

ya, 108, 217 
Vis'vavasu, 260 
Visvedevas, 102 
Vivasvat, 286 
Viyukla, 126 


Vrihaduktha, 234 
Vrihat-sama, 11 
Vrihaspati, heretical 

'teacher, 202 
Vrijiaspati, author of 

smriti, 181 
Vrish'a, 264 
Vrittra, 228 
iV'yaliritis, 44 

Vyakhyanas, 205 
Vyasa, 37, 77, 89 

Webe^ Prof., Ind. Eit., 
, 53 

Ind. Stud., 22,47, 

53 ff., 193 f, 296, and 

- Vaj. San. Spec., 

^fcitney, Prof., his opin- 
ion referred to, 258 


Wilson, Prof. H. H., 2 

translation of Vish- 

nv,Purana, 11, 62, 193, 
and passim ^ 

translation of Kig- 

yeda, 2 

Sankhyakarika, 44 

Women unfit for the study 
' of the Veda, 42, 68 

Yajnadatta, 102 
Yajna-paribhasha, 62 
Yainavalkya, 50 ff. 
Yajush, 224 
Yajush- verses, 11 
Yama (Agni ?), 247 
Yama, 245, 250 
Yaska, see Nirukta 
Yoga aphorisms, 184, 201 
Yogas, 137 
Yogins, 126 
Yukta, 126 




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productions, and forming a prope;! estimate of the ingenuity and skill of thSse who first 
practised the ''Noble Art of Printing." 

This reproduction of the first v'ljprk printed by Caxtou at Westminster, containing 23 wood- 
cuts, is intended, in some measure, to supply this deficiency, and bring the present age into 
somewhat greater intimacy with me Father of English Printers. 

The type has been <^,refully imitated, and the cuts traced from the copy in the British 
Museum. The paper has also been made expressly, as near as possible like the original. 

By J. Cazeaux. Translated by W. R. Bullock. 4th edition, royal 8vo. Pp. 988. 
1866. Cloth. 24s. 

Beige. Small 4to., pp. 508. 1868. 30s. 

Chalmers, THE ORIGIN OF THE CHINESE. An Attempt to trace the 
connection of the Chinese with Western Nations in their Religion, Superstitions, 
Arts, Language, and Traditions. By John Chalmers, A.M. Fcap. 8vo., pp. 80, 
cloth. 1868. 2s. 6d. 

KALITY OF " THE OLD PHILOSOPHER " LAU-TSZE. Translated from the Chinese, 
with an Introduction by John Chalmers, M.A. Fcp. Svo. cloth, pp. xx. and 
62. 1868. 4s. Qd. 

Channing. SELF-CULTURE. By William E. Channing. Post Svo. 
Cloth. Pp. 56. 1844. Is. 

OF GERMANY. Edited with an Introduction and Notes, by Karl Elze, Ph. D., 
Hon. IVf.R.S.L. 12ro. sewod, p. \52 % 1867. 3s. 6d. 

Chapman, THE COTTON AND COMMERCE OF INDIA, considered in 
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16 Publications of Trubner fy Co. 

Chapman, BARODA AND BOMBAY ; their Political Morality. A 
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Eemoval of Lieut.-Col. Outram, C.B., from the Office of Resident at the Court 
of the Gaekwar. With Explanatory Notes, and Eemarks on the Letter G? 
L. R. Eeid, Esq., to the Editor of the Daily News. By J. 'Chapman. 8vo. 
sewed, pp. iv. and 1C4. 1853. 3s. 

Chapman, INDIAN POLITICAL KEFORM. Being Brief Hiiits, to- 

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pp. 36. 1853. Is. 

TION IN INDIA. By John Chapman. 8vo. sewed, pp.' z0. r 1?>54. Is. 

and Use during Childbed. 2y John Chapman, M.E^. 8vo. sowed, p, 52. 
1859. Is. f . 

HISTORY. By John Chapman, M.D. 8vo. sewed, pp. 53. 1860. Is. 

Chapman, FUNCTIONAL DISEASES OF WOMEN. "Gases illustrative 
of a New Method of Treating them through the Agency of the Nervous System, 

by means of Cold and Heat. With Appendix, containing Cases illustrating a 
New Method of Treating Epilepsy, Infantile \jonvulsions, Paralysis, and 
Diabetes. By John Chapman, M.D. 8vo. sewed!" pp. xviii. and 74. 1863. 

9* P.J 


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Chapman, M.D., M.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. 2nd edition. Enlarged. 8vo." cloth, 
pp. xix. and 248. 1866. 7s. 6d. 

Chamock. YERBA NOMINALIA : or "Words derived from Proper 
Names. By Richard Stephen Charnock, Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., etc. 8vo. 
cloth, pp. iv. and 357. London. 1866. 14s. 

Charnock, LUDUS PATRONYMICUS ; or, The Etymology of Curious 
Surnames. By Richard Stephen Charnock, Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. Crown 
8vo. cloth, pp. 182. 1868. 7s. 6^. 


embracing the general problems of Spherical Astronomy, the special applications 
to Nautical Astronomy, and the theory and use of fixed and portable Astro- 
nomical Instruments. With an Appendix on tl.e method of least squares. By 
William Chauvenet, Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy. Library 
edition, revised and corrected. 2 vols. 8vo., pp. 708 and 632. With fourteen 
plates. Cloth. 1864. 2 1 6s. Qd. 

Chess. ONE HUNDRED CHESS GAMES, played between Mr. J. 

F; Emmett and Mr. Vivian Fenton, during, the Winter of 1864. Small 4to. 
sewed, pp. 60. Boulogne and London. <t865. 2&: ' " 

Chess-Strategy. A Collection , of the Most Beautiful Chess 
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chief Chess Periodicals during ,theAast fifteen year.s. Illustrated by Diagrams, 
and accompanied by Solutions. Post 8vo. cloth, pp. 118. 1865. 5s. 

Publications of Trubyer Co. ' J 7 

.Cftess "World (THE). Volumes 1, 2, and 3, each 12s. 18C5, 

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Rev. G? F. Childe, M.A., Mathematical Professor in the South African College, 
Cape of Good Hope. 8vo. , Boards. Pp.140. 18,57. 7s. 

TABARI. Traduite par Monsieur Iltjmann Zotenberg. Volume I., 8vo., pp. 
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ALLY CONSIDERED. Imprinted by permission from the Westminster Review, for 
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^ ' 

Ciay4on' and Blllwer CONVENTION, OF THE 19 r r.H APRIL, 1850, BE- 


' AMERICA. 8vo. Pp.^64| sewed. 1856. Is. 

Illustrated by Engravings fom Working Drawings, with General Estimates, 
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cloth. 1868. 21*. 

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS. A Paper read at the Social Science Congress, 
London, 1862. By Frances Power Cobbe. Third Edition. 18mo. sewed, 
pp. 20. 1862. Id. 


Account of the Preventive Mission at Bristol. From a Paper read at the Social 
Science Congress in Dublin, 1861. By Frances Power Cobbe. fourth Thou- 
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Cobbe. 18mo. sewed, pp. 16. 1862. 'Id. 


Preface to the Collected Works of Theodore Parker. By Frances Power Cobbe. 
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Cobbe. THANKSGIVING. A Chapter of Religious Duty. By Frances 
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Cobbe. THE CITIES or THE PAST. By Frances Power Cobbe. 

12mo. cloth, pp. 216. 1864. 3s. 6d. 

Cobbe. AN ESSAY ON INTUITIVE MORALS.* Being an attempt to 
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Cobbe. ITALICS : Brief Notes on Polities, People, and Places in 
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pp. vi. and 332. 1864. 7*. 6tf. 


18 Publications of Trilbner fy Co. 

Cobbe. BROKEN LIGHTS. A Survey of the Religious Controver- 
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Bv Frances Power Cobbe. Post 8vo. cloth, pp-,446. 1865. 10s. 6d. 

CONTENTS. I. Christian Ethics and the Ethics of Christ. 1 II. Self- Abnegation and Self- 
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of the Poor Laws. VI. The Rights of Man and the Claims of Brutes. VII. The Morals of 
Literature VIII. The Hierarchy of Art. 

Cobbe. HOURS OB WORK AND PLAY. By Frances Power 
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V . i; 

Cobden. RICHARD COBDEN, ROI DES BELGES ; pr.r un ex-Colonel 
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Coleccion DE DOCTTMENTOS ineditos relatives al Descubrimiento y a la 
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Colenso. FIRST STEPS IN ZULU- KAFIR : 'An Abridgement of the 
Elementary Grammar of the Zulu-Kafir Language. By the Eight Rev. John W. 
Colenso, Bishop of Xatal. 8vo., pp. 86, cloth. Ekukanyeni, 1859. 4s. 6d. 

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1861. 15s. 

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Xatal. Is. 

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ZULUS. "With Explanatory Xotes and a Literal Translation, and a Glossary of 
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Colenso. Two SERMONS Preached by the Lord Bishop of Natal, 
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Xovember 26, 1865. 8vo., sewed, pp'! 12. 18b6. 6d.'- 
i ,. 

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by request. SAP., sewed, pp. xlvi. ?nd pp. 305 to 320. 1865. 1.?. 

t Publications of TrubJter <5f Co. 19 


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Coleridge. A GLOSSA^IAL INDEX to the Printed English Literature 
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Comte, THE CATECHISM <jp POSITIVE EELIGION. Translated from 
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MODERN GREEK. By N. Contopoulos. First Part Modern Greek- English, 
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Cotta, Yon. G-EOLOGY AND HISTORY. A popular Exposition of all 
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Saxony. 12mo., pp. iv. and 84, cloth. 1865. Is. 

Cotton. THE FAMINE IN INDIA. Lecture by Major-General Sir 
Arthur Cotton, R.E., KG. S.I. (late Chief Engineer, Madras). Read at the 
Social Science Congress, at Manchester, October 12, 1866, and printed at the 
request of a Special Committee by the Cotton Supply Association. Svo. 
sewed. Pp. 46. 1866, Is. 

Coupland. SHALL WE NOT Go FORWARD ? A Discourse delivered 
in the Unitarian Chapel, Bridgewater. By William Chattertpn Coupland, B.A., 
B.Sc. 8vo. sewed, pp. 20. 1865. Is. 

Coupland. INCENTIVES TO A HIGHER LIFE. Discourses by William 
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2s. 6d. 

Courtenay. RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION^ Report of the Prosecution 
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John Kelley Courtenay. Svo. sewed, pp. 12. 1867. Id. 

Cousin. ELEMENTS OF PSYCHOLOGY : included in a Critical Exami- 
nation of Locke's Essay on the Human Understanding, and in additional pieces. 
Translated from the French of Victor Cousin, with an Introduction and Notes. 
By Caleb S. Henry, D.D. Fourth im'prove^ Editicn, revised according to the 
Author's last corrections. Crown 8vo., cloth, pp. 568. 1864. 7s. 

Cousin. THE PHILOSOPHY, ex? KANT. Lectures by Victor Cousin. 

Translated from the French. ' To which is added a Biographical and Critical 
Sketch of Kant's Life and Waitings. By A.'-'G. Henderson. Large post Svo., 
cloth, pp. xciV. and 194. 1864. "9s. 

Publications of Trubner fy Co. ) 21 

'Cowan. Crown Svo., ft. 396. Cloth. 1865. 7*. Bel. 

Cotoell. PRAKRITA-PRAKASA ; or, the Prakrit Grammar of Vara- 
ruchi, with the Commentary (M^norama) of Bhamaha ; the first complete 
Edition of the Original Text, with various Readings from -A collection of Six 
"MSS. in the Bodleian Library ht Oxford, and the Libraries of the Royal Asiatic 
Society and the East India House ; with Copious Notes, an English Translation, 
and Index of Prakrit Words, to which is prefixed an Easy Introduction to 

Prakrit Grammar. By EdwJrd Byles Cowell, of Magdalen Hall, Oxford. Pro- 
fessor of San~jirit at Cambridge. Cloth. New Editjpn, with New Preface, 
Additions, and Corrections. Second jfeue. 8vo., pp. xxxi. and 204. Cloth. 
1868. 14*. i ,, j ' 

Cowp&r, POPERY''-ANP COMMON SENSE. A Poem. By William 
Cowpe*r.- Post-8vo., sewed, pp. 8. 1866. 6d. 

f Cox, M.D. Univ. Edin., F.R.C.S. Edin., Corresponding Member of the 
Zoological Society of London, Correspondent of f ise Acattemy of Natural Sciences 

t of Philadelphia, Member of, Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh, Royal and 
Entomological SocietieiN of New South Wales. 8vo. pp. v. and 112. Illustrated 
by 18 plates, sewed. 1^68. 2 2s. 

Cracroft, M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. Reprinted from various sources. 
Two Volumes. Crown 8vo., jp. xvi. and 322, pp. xvi. and 320, cloth. 21s. 


The Session of I860. 

The State of Affairs in January, 1867. 
Analysis of the House of Commons in 18G7. 
The Session of 1867. 


The Jews of Western Europe. 
Arabian Nights. 
Greek Anthology. 
Ovid as a Satirist. 

Translation at Cambridge. 
On a Translation of Tacitus. 
Professor Conir^ton's Horace. 
Professor Coniugtou's jEneid. 
Hiawatha translated into Latin. 
Sir Kingston James' Tasso., 
M. Karcher's Rienzi, 
The Etchin Club. 





The Talent of looking like a Pool with 


Intellectual Playfulness. 
Englishmen's Arguments. 

,Private Theatricals. 
County Balls. 

Landladies and Laundresses. 
Man and Bee. 

Cranbrook, CREDIBILIA ; or, Discourses on Questions of Christian 
FAITH. By the Rev. James Cranbrook, Edinburgh. Reissue. Post 8vo., pp. 
iv. and 190, cloth. 1868. 3s. 6d. 

Cranbrook, THE FOUNDERS OF CHRISTIANITY* ; or, Discourses upon 
the Origin of the Christian Religion. By the Rev. James Cranbrook, Edin- 
burgh. P<jst 8vo., pp. xji. and 324. ,1868. 6s. , 

delivered by John Crawfurd, Esq., F.R.S., President of the Ethnological Society 
at Martin's Hall, January 13th, 1867, withi Explanatory Notes. Also the 
Inaugural Address of J. Baxter ^Langley, Esq., Jjt.R^C.S., F.L.S. 8vo., sewed, 
pp. 12. 1867. Id. ' ^ 

The Etching C 


Professor Tyndall on Heat. . 

Professor Tyndall on Sound. 

Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy. 


Mr. Forsyth's Life of Cicero. 

The worldly Wisdom of Bacon. 

Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

Mr. Robert Leslie Ellis. 

Madame de Tracy. 

Madame de Sevigne'. 

22 < Publications of Tr'dlner Sf Co. 

Crosskeyi A DEFENCE OF RELIGION. By Henry W. CrossLey. 
Pp. 48. 12mo. sewed. 1854. 1*. <r 

Current (The) Gold and Silver Coins of all Countries, their Weight 

and Fineness, and their Intrinsic Value ip English Money, with Facsimiles of 
the Coins. By Leopold C. Martin, of He:; Majesty's Stationery Office, and 
'Charles Triibner. In one volume, medium 8vc,, 14 1 Plates, printed in Gold and 
Silver, and representing about 1,000 Coins, with 160 pages of Text, handsomely 
bound in embossed cloth, richly gilt, with Emblematical Designs on the Cover, 
and gilt edges. 1863. '2 2s. 

This work, which the P&blishers have mud pleasure in offering to the Public, contains a 
series of the Gold and Silver Coins of the whCle worM current during the present century. 
The collection amounts, numerically, to nearly a thousand speciaen&l, comprising, with their 
reverses, twice that number ; and the Publishers feel confident MiaA it is as nearly complete 
as it was possible to make it. 

It seems almost superfluous to allude to the utility of the w irk. It is evidenf that it must 
become a highly valuable Handbook to the Bullion-dealer and the Monej'-changeT ; and to 
the Merchant apd Banker it will prove a SUP and safe work of reference, from the extreme 
accuracy of its details and computations. 

The elegance and spleud ,ur of the work admirably adapt it as a choice and instructive 
ornament to the drawing >;oom table ; the amusement to be found in the comparison of 
the taste of different countries as exemplified in their Coirjs, may chase away many a half- 
hour's ennui. ' * 

In the valuation of the substantial Coins, and the notation of their relative worth in 
English money, the minutest accuracy has been obser 'ed, as also in the statements of their 
relative purity, which are given according to tbe legal (Mint regulations of each country. In 
exceptional cases only, where official information Was \>Tt to be obtained of the weight and 
fineness of the Coins, assays as found at different places; ,Sre reported. 

The exact weight of the Coins is expressed both in -English troy grains and in French 
grammes, and the fineness by the Engish technical tei* is as well as in French millie'mes ; 
the general tendency of our time towards the decimal metrical system makiug su< p h a nota- 
tion almost indispensable, tor easier reference, tables of British reports for niillie'mes of 
gold and silver have been affixed. 

Da Costa. MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS : with Special References to Prac- 
* tical Medicine. By J. M. Da Costa, M.D. 2nd edition revised. 8vo. cloth, 
pp. 784. 1866. 24s. 

Dadabhai, THE EUROPEAN AND ASIATIC RACES. Observations on 
Mr. Cra\vfurd's Paper read before the Ethnological Society. By Dadabhai 
Navroji. 8vo. sewed, pp. 32. 1866. Is. 

Students and Practitioners of Medicine. By John C. Dalton, Jun., M.D. Third 
Edition, revised and enlarged. 8vo. cloth, pp. 706. 1866. 21*. 

Dana. A TEXT-BOOK OF GEOLOGY, designed for Schools and 
Academies. By J. D. Dana, LL.D. Illustrated by -375 Woodcuts. Crown 
8vo., cloth, pp. vi. and 354. 1864. 7s. Qd. 

Dana. MANUAL OF GEOLOGY ; treating of the Principles of the 
Science, with Special Reference to American Geological History. For the Use 
of Colleges, Academies, and Schools of Science. By James D. Dana, M.A., 
LL.D. Illustrated by a Chart of the World, and over One Thousand Figures, 
mostly from American Sources. 8vo. cloth, pp. 798. 1866. 21s. 

Dana. MANUAL OF MINERALOGY ; including Observations" on Mines, 
Rocks, Reduction of Ores, and the Applications of the Science to the Arts ; 
designed for the Use of Schools -'and Colleges. By James D. Dana.-. New edi- 
tion, revised and enlarged. >Vith 260 Illustrations. 12mo., pp. xii. and 456. 
1867. 7s. 6d. * f < 

Publications of Trubner fy Co. j 23 

comprising the most '^cent Discoveries. By James Dwight Dana and George 
t Jarvis Brush. Fiftl/edition. 1 vol. 8vo., pp 874. 1868. 1 16s. 


Darby, EUGGIERO VIVALDI and other Lays of Ita^y. By Eleanor 
... Darby. 8vo. cloth, pp. viii.,Jhd 208. 1865. 5s. 

f ' * *" 

Day, THE LAND OF THE. PERMAULS, or Cochin, its Past and its 

, Present. By Francis Day,*Esq., F.L.S. 8vo. cloth, pp. 577. 1863. 25s. 

Deichmaim. NEW TAI*LES to facilitate the"** Practice of Great 
Circle Sailing, together with an Application of the Theory of the great Circle 
or, the Globe to *Ve* sailing, and an Appendix, containing some mathematical 
demonstrations. Accompanied by a seal* of great circles on a blank chart, to 
determine without calculation the great circle which passes through two given 
places, and"* to show the places at ;which the spkerical courses expressed in 

v jour tbjsofi the point, take place on the great circle's arc between the two given 
pla-ses. By A. H. Deichmann. 8vo. boards, rip. viii. and 88. 1857. 5s. 

' Delepierre, HISTOIIVE f EITTERAIRE DBS Fous. Par Octave Dele- 

pierre. 184. 1860. ' 5s. 


KIKLON DE LONDRES. Par (fcctave Delepierre. Small 4to., pp. yiii. and 134, 
bound in the Roxburghe stile. 1862. 10s. d. 

" It is probably not generally known, that among the numerous learned associations of the 
British metropolis there exists on'e called the Philobiblon Society. This somewhat exclusive 
union of bibliographic philosophers was established in 1863, under the auspices of the late 
Prince Consort, and after the model of the French Academy it being one of the fundamental 
rules of f he Society never to depass in number the immortal Forty. . . . The statutes of the 
Philobiblon provided for the annual issue of a volume of historical, biographical, critical, and 
other essays, contributed by any of the forty members, and printed in a very limited edition 
not a siugle book to be disposed of for money. To enhance the value of the works thus 
published, it was arranged that every member should receive only two copies of each volume, 
to be signed by the president and secretary of the society, and with the name of the 
possessor on the title-page. . . . The contents of this half-a dozen semi-mysterious and rare 
works have just been revi-aled in a curious little book published by Messrs. Tnibner and Co., 
and got up in exact imitation of the products of Caxton's press. The work is dedicated by 
M. Octave Delepierre, the author, to the Duke D'Aumale, the'patron of the Philobiblon since 
the decease of Prince Albert, and one of the leading members from the beginning." 

such catalogues as these are to istorical and literary enqairers can only be estimated by those 
who have experienced the want of them. . . The gentlemen whose works we have named at 
the head of this paper, have done, in their way and degree, a service to literature which may 
be compared with those rendered by the compilers of the Calendars of the State Papers." 

Satunluii Jii'i'/fir. I 

" M. Delepierre, the secretary, is also a very important contributor. By way of tantalizing 
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Publications of Tr'dbner fy Co. !> 25 


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Eger and Grime, AN EARLY ENGLISH ROMANCE. Edited from 
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Everett. THE QTJESTIOK^ OF THE DAY. An Address. By Edward 
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Observations on various Subjects connected with the Mechanic Arts : including 
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Publications of Triibner fy Co. 33 

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Greek Ligitures. 

Greek (Archaic), 1 - 

Gujerati (or Guzerattee) 




Het.-ew (Archaic). 

Iy.sbrew (Rabbinical). 

Hebrew (Judaeo-German). 

Hebrew (current hand). 

Hungahran. ^ 



Italian (Old). 





Median Cuneiform. 

Modern Greek (or Romaic). 


Afghan (or Pushto). 




Arabic Ligatures. 


Archaic Characters. 


Assyrian Cuneiform. 


Bohemian (Czechian). 


Burmese. '' 

Canarese (or Carnataca). 





Cyrillic (or Old Slavonic). 

Czechian (or Bohemian). 








Old Slavonic (or Cyrillic). 



Persian Cunei.orm. 



Pushtu (i. Afghan). 

Roiraic (or Modern Greek). 






Slavonic (Old). 

Snrbian (or Wendish). ' 








Wendish (or Serbian) . 


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